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Programmed to Kill 

Programmed to Kill 

The Politics of Serial Murder 

David McGowan 

iUniverse, Inc. 

New York Lincoln Shanghai 

Programmed to Kill 

The Politics of Serial Murder 

All Rights Reserved © 2004 by David McGowan 

No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, 
graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or by 
any information storage retrieval system, without the written permission of the 


iUniverse, Inc. 

For information address: 
iUniverse, Inc. 

2021 Pine Lake Road, Suite 100 
Lincoln, NE 68512 

ISBN: 0-595-77446-6 

Printed in the United States of America 

This book is for all the survivors. 

“This man, from the moment of conception, was programmed 
for murder. ” 

— Attorney Ellis Rubin, speaking on behalf of 
serial killer Bobby Joe Long 


Introduction: Mind Control 101 xi 


Chapter 1 From Brussels 3 

Chapter 2 .. .to Washington 23 

Chapter 3 Uncle Sam Wants Your Children 39 

Chapter 4 McMolestation 46 

Chapter 5 It Couldn’t Happen Here 54 

Chapter 6 Finders Keepers 59 


Chapter 7 Sympathy for the Devil 71 

Chapter 8 Henry: Portrait of an MK-ULTRA Assassin? 77 

Chapter 9 Rancho Diablo 88 

Chapter 10 The Myth of the Serial Killer 99 

Chapter 11 Lone Nuts? 107 

Chapter 12 Satan’s Family Tree 121 

Chapter 13 The Spawning Ground 131 

Chapter 14 Superstars 163 

Chapter 15 The Next Generation 204 

Chapter 16 The Collectors 239 

Chapter 17 Patsies and Assassins 271 


• Programmed to Kill 

Chapter 18 The Profiler and the Patsy 297 

Chapter 19 Conclusions 306 


Chapter 20 Boulder 315 

Chapter 21 Adanta 329 

Chapter 22 Role Models 340 

Epilogue 353 

References 357 


Mind Control 101 

“[T]he experimenters will be particularly interested in dissocia- 
tive states, from the abaissement de niveau mental to multiple 
personality in so-called mediums, and an attempt will be made 
to induce a number of states of this kind, using hypnosis. ” 

— From a declassified MK-ULTRA 1 document 

It is probably safe to say that this is not your typical true crime’ book. It is, 
instead, a journey into an even darker, more disturbing world — one that exists in 
the shadows of the world depicted in the hundreds of formulaic serial killer biog- 
raphies that line the shelves of Americas bookstores. For many readers, much of 
the information contained within these pages will be unfamiliar, and some of the 
theories and ideas that are discussed may seem rather bizarre. 

Perhaps the most controversial theory that readers will find themselves con- 
fronted with concerns a phenomenon commonly referred to as “mind control.” 
Although the concept of mind control has long been a staple of that polluted well- 
spring of information known as the ‘conspiracy theory’ literature (where it often 
mingles freely with outlandish tales of reptilian aliens and paranormal activity), it 
has never been a polite topic of discussion in mainstream culture. The only expo- 
sure that most people have had to the idea of mind control is through the often 
metaphorical, and frequently absurd, images that Hollywood has provided in a 
decades-long string of films — from The Manchurian Candidate and The Stepford 
Wives in the 1960s and 1970s, to such recent offerings as Conspiracy Theory and 
Zoolander (along with the remakes of both The Manchurian Candidate and The 
Stepford Wives). 

1 The term “MK-ULTRA,” while actually just one of many codenames used over the 
years by the U.S. intelligence community, is commonly used to refer to all CIA-spon- 
sored research on mind control. 


Programmed to Kill 


Most people are naturally quite skeptical of the notion that someone’s 
thoughts and actions can be controlled by unseen actors. Particularly in Western 
culture, where the idea of “free will” is firmly indoctrinated, theories of mind 
control are inimical to the omnipresent mantra that “we are all responsible for 
our own actions.” It is quite likely then that scenarios involving mind-controlled 
killers — whether assassins like Lee Harvey Oswald or Sirhan Sirhan, or serial 
killers like Henry Lee Lucas or Charles Manson — will be summarily dismissed by 
many readers. Skeptics though should bear in mind that, contrary to perceptions, 
mind control is not a fictional creation of novelists and Hollywood screenwriters; 
to the contrary, there exists a substantial paper trail establishing that the U.S. 
intelligence community has devoted a vast amount of both human and financial 
resources, over a period of several decades, to the study of mind control. Along the 
way, luminaries of numerous social sciences have been recruited and co-opted. 

Detailing all the techniques and procedures that have received attention from 
the Central Intelligence Agency and its brethren is, unfortunately, well beyond 
the scope of this book. 2 It is possible, however, to provide a rough sketch of what 
mind control really is — a sketch that will, it is hoped, help to demystify a phe- 
nomenon that is not, as it turns out, nearly so esoteric as it may at first appear to 

The basic methodology of mind control was revealed many decades ago by 
George Estabrooks, a prominent psychologist/hypnotist who worked under con- 
tract to American intelligence agencies. In his book Hypnotism, first published in 
1943, Estabrooks teased his audience by noting that the “intelligent reader. . .will 
sense that much more is withheld than has been told.” While that was undoubt- 
edly an accurate assessment, Estabrooks nevertheless did reveal enough to allow 
an informed reader to construct a reasonably accurate picture of the fundamen- 
tals of mind control. 

The degree to which any given person is susceptible to being mind controlled is 
a direct function of that person’s susceptibility to what are known as “dissociative 
states.” According to the psychiatric community, dissociative states (or dissociative 

2 All of the following books focus directly or indirectly on CIA-sponsored mind control 
research: Jose M.R. Delgado Physical Control of the Mind (Harper and Row, 1969); 
Donald Bain The Control of Candy Jones (Playboy Press, 1976); Walter Bowart 
Operation Mind Control (Dell Publishing, 1978); Peter Watson War on the Mind 
(Hutchinson, 1978); Peter Schrag Mind Control (Pantheon, 1978); John Marks The 
Search for the Manchurian Candidate (Times Books, 1979); Martin Lee and Bruce 
Schlain Acid Dreams (Grove Press, 1985); and Gordon Thomas Journey Into Madness 
(Bantam, 1989). All of these titles contain pieces of the puzzle, but all contain varying 
amounts of disinformation as well (as do more recent titles). 

David McGowan • 


‘disorders’) include Amnesia, Fugue State, and what used to be called Multiple 
Personality Disorder (MPD) but is now generally referred to as Dissociative 
Identity Disorder (DID). All of these terms describe the same basic phenomenon: 
a person who is seemingly in control of his or her actions over a given time period 
is unable, at a later date, to recall or account for those actions. 

As with any category of ‘mental illness,’ there is no dividing line that separates 
those who are diagnosed with dissociative ‘disorders’ from those who are ‘normal.’ 
Virtually everyone possesses the ability to experience dissociative states. Many 
people, for example, are familiar with the phenomenon sometimes referred to as 
“driving on autopilot.” The scenario generally plays out as follows: you suddenly 
‘snap out of it’ just as you are pulling into your parking space at work, and you 
realize, to your horror, that you can’t remember anything since leaving your 
house! If this has happened to you, then you have experienced being in a disso- 
ciative state. In essence, you drove to work while in a “fugue state,” and you later 
had “amnesia.” In a similar vein, it could be said that an “alter personality,” which 
you have no conscious awareness of, drove you to work. In any event, it is clear 
that someone piloted your car to work in a safe and reasonable manner, and it was 
someone other than ‘you.’ 

Many people are also familiar with another common example of a dissociative 
state: you are deep in thought, oblivious to everything around you, possibly 
working on the solution to one of the world’s great mysteries, when suddenly 
your silent meditation is interrupted — perhaps by an unexpected noise, or by 
someone calling your name or tapping your shoulder. As you ‘snap out of it,’ you 
suddenly realize, much to your dismay, that you cannot remember what it was 
that you were so deep in thought about just moments before. If you have ever had 
a similar experience, or if you are familiar with the dreamlike state that some peo- 
ple attain just before falling asleep, or while engrossed in a book or television pro- 
gram, then you have experienced being in a dissociative state of consciousness. 

While the ability to dissociate is likely universal, or nearly so, some people are 
clearly more susceptible to dissociative states than are others. There is little ques- 
tion that someone’s innate ability to dissociate can be greatly enhanced — 
although not necessarily by ethical means. The most severe of the dissociative 
‘disorders,’ MPD/DID, is in almost all cases created by psychological trauma so 
severe that the traumatic episode(s) cannot be integrated into the experiences of 
the core personality. By far the most common cause of MPD is early childhood 
trauma — usually, but not always, resulting from horrific abuse by a parent or 
other adult guardian. Dr. Frank Putnam noted in 1989 that he was “struck by the 
quality of extreme sadism that is reported by most MPD victims. Many multiples 
have told me of being sexually abused by groups of people, of being forced into 
prostitution by family members, or of being offered as sexual enticement to their 


Programmed to Kill 

mother’s boyfriends. After one has worked with a number of MPD patients, it 
becomes obvious that severe, sustained, and repetitive child abuse is a major ele- 
ment in the creation of MPD.” Dr. Deirdre Barrett, writing in 2001 for 
Psychology Today, offered a similar observation: “‘dissociaters’. . .have the following 
traits in common: Many such subjects reported a history of child abuse. 
Although some remembered this directly, some had been told by others that they 
had been battered... Other dissociaters who had not been abused had suffered 
childhood traumas such as prolonged, painful medical conditions and before the 
age of 10 experienced the deaths of their parents.” 

As mental health professionals have long recognized, the normal human reac- 
tion to highly stressful situations is what is known as the “fight or flight” 
response. Children, however, typically lack the ability to either fight off or flee 
from their attackers and abusers. This is particularly true, of course, for very 
young children. The human brain, that wonderfully resilient organ, therefore 
reacts in the best way that it can under the circumstances: it allows the child to 
mentally ‘flee’ from the situation. When the abuse is of an extreme and sustained 
nature, the brain’s response is to build a virtual wall around the traumatic experi- 
ences by creating a separate and distinct ‘alter personality’ to deal with current 
and future episodes of abuse. 

Although MPD/DID is a ‘disorder’ listed in the DSMIV, the veritable bible of 
the psychiatric community, the public generally looks upon the notion of multi- 
ple personality with a healthy dose of skepticism — a skepticism encouraged by a 
news and entertainment media apparatus that generally mocks and ridicules the 
condition, and by a not insignificant number of psychologists and psychiatrists 
who deny the existence of MPD/DID (strangely enough, many of the most visi- 
ble and vocal members of the denial crowd tend to be psychologists and psychia- 
trists who have received funding from the CIA). 

In November 2001, researchers in Melbourne, Australia conducted what the 
Herald Sun described as a “world-first study” of Multiple Personality Disorder. 
The goal of the study was to help resolve the dispute within the mental health 
community. The conclusion reached by the researchers (at least one of whom 
“had been sceptical of the disorder” before working on the project) was that indi- 
viduals “who suffer multiple personality disorder are not faking their alter-egos.” 
The study involved comparing the brainwave patterns of people claiming to be 
suffering from the disorder with the brainwave patterns of actors portraying the 
condition. While the actors gave “outwardly convincing performances,” the 
researchers found that there were “distinct changes in the brain of sufferers as they 
‘switch’ personalities,” while those changes were not detected in the brains of 
those who were just acting the part. 

David McGowan • 


So how does all of this relate to the concept of mind control? In the simplest 
possible terms, what the term “mind control” refers to is the process of first 
enhancing an unwitting subject’s natural ability to dissociate (creating, in essence, 
the condition of Multiple Personality Disorder), and then controlling that sub- 
ject’s dissociative states (by creating one or more alter personalities that are effec- 
tively under the control of others, and that are unknown to the ‘core’ 

But can this really be done? Is mind control is a real phenomenon, or merely 
the product of the fertile imaginations of various ‘conspiracy theorists’ and self- 
described survivors? The answer to that question lies in the answers to several 
other questions, beginning with: 

• Do dissociative states occur naturally in the human species? 

As anyone who has ever driven their car to work “on autopilot” — or been 
caught “daydreaming” or “spacing out” — can testify, the answer is yes (although 
the vast majority of people would not normally use the term “dissociative state” 
to describe the experience). 

• Can the naturally occurring ability to dissociate be enhanced? 

The answer here also appears to be yes, albeit with the caveat that enhancing 
that ability generally requires the infliction of severe trauma, preferably during 
the vulnerable childhood years. 

• Would the CIA and other U.S. intelligence agencies be restrained morally or 
ethically from inflicting such trauma? 

How this question is answered depends largely upon the individual reader’s 
political orientation and level of awareness of national and world events. Serious 
students of covert operations know that the CIA has a long and very sordid his- 
tory of sponsoring countless assassinations, civilian massacres, violent coups, and 
barbaric torture/interrogation centers (and that is just the short list). This bloody, 
and very well documented , 3 record suggests that there is little, if anything, that 
the CIA will not attempt to justify in the name of “national security.” Documents 
released through FOLA requests have revealed that, at the very least, the agency 
has not shied away from funding and sponsoring studies in which very young 
children have been dosed with LSD continuously for several weeks. 

• If we accept that dissociation is a real and naturally occurring human ability, 
and that the tendency to dissociate can be enhanced, and that the intelligence 

3 See William Blum’s Killing Hope (Common Courage Press, 1995) for a detailed look 
at some of what the intelligence community really does with your tax dollars. 


Programmed to Kill 

community’s hands are not tied by ethical concerns, then the final, and most 
critical, question becomes: can enhanced dissociative states, once created, be 

George Estabrooks was clearly convinced that that was indeed the case. He 
claimed that once a person’s core personality had been split, it was then possible 
to control one or more of the alter personalities, without the conscious awareness 
of the primary personality. This process, according to Estabrooks, allowed the 
intelligence community to create “Super Spies” — unwitting ‘agents’ who were 
willing to follow any orders unquestioningly. Among other duties, these Super 
Spies made ideal couriers, since they could be fed sensitive information while in a 
controlled dissociative state and thereafter have no conscious awareness that they 
were transporting important data. Even under torture, the Super Spy would 
reveal nothing — for as far as he (or she) was aware, there was nothing to reveal! 
Someone at the receiving end who was familiar with the Super Spy’s program- 
ming, however, could readily extract the information — after which the Super Spy 
would remain blissfully unaware that a mission had been successfully completed. 

As dubious as Estabrooks scenario may at first appear to be, it is not so very dif- 
ferent from the common phenomenon of “driving on autopilot.” Let us imagine 
that you have managed, once again, to find yourself at work with no idea how you 
got there. You can remember nothing beyond pulling out of your driveway. So you 
decide, out of curiosity, to pay a visit to a skilled hypnotist, 4 who succeeds in “put- 
ting you under,” so to speak. While in the “hypnotic trance” (another term for a 
dissociative state), you would be able to relate to the hypnotist (and anyone else in 
the room) all the mundane details of your drive to work. Once brought back to a 
normal state of consciousness, however, you would still have no conscious memory 
of your drive to work (unless instructed otherwise by the hypnotist). You would 

4 Hypnotism is another phenomenon that is regarded with considerable skepticism by 
both the general public and the scientific community — although there are signs that 
that is beginning to change. “Despite its long history, scientists have wondered 
whether hypnotism is a genuine psychological state or a gimmick,” noted the 
National Post, “But recent research shows it causes measurable changes in the brain.” 
A number of mainstream media articles in recent years have begun to acknowledge 
the effectiveness of hypnosis, especially as a means of pain control (Lamaze childbirth 
techniques, for example, are really just a form of self-hypnosis). Psychology Today 
noted that hypnosis “is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but rather a continuum. 
Most people can be hypnotized to some degree — the only question is how far.” The 
same can be said, of course, of the ability to dissociate, which largely determines sus- 
ceptibility to hypnotism. 

David McGowan • xvii 

have served, in essence, as a Super Spy. All that is missing from the equation is the 
element of control. 

And how would that control be attained? Estabrooks shied away from the 
details, only alluding to the severe psychic torture that is required to split a per- 
son’s core personality and then exert control over the alter personalities that are 
created. The trauma is often referred to euphemistically as “a form of hypno- 
tism.” In one passage, for example, Estabrooks noted that multiple personalities 
“are caused by a form of hypnotism in the first place! We will see that emotional 
shock produces exactly the same results as hypnotism.” Later, he came a little 
closer to the truth: “multiple personality [can] be both caused and cured by hyp- 
notism. Remember that war is a grim business. Suppose we deliberately set up 
that condition of multiple personality to further the ends of military intelli- 
gence.” Still later, he came even closer: “everyone [can] be thrown into the deep- 
est state of hypnotism by the use of what [I] termed the Russian method — no 
holds barred, deliberate disintegration of the personality by psychic torture. . .The 
subject might easily be left a mental wreck but war is a grim business.” 

War is indeed a grim business, as Estabrooks was apparently fond of stating, 
but that argument hardly justified the type of research the doctor endorsed, 
including using children, who are “notoriously easy to hypnotize,” as research 

Decades after the publication of Estabrooks’ seminal work, another psychia- 
trist/hypnotist, by the name of Paul Verdier, wrote an obscure book entitled 
Brainwashing and the Cults: An Expose on Capturing the Human Mind. Yerdier’s 
manuscript began on a promising note, with this acknowledgement: “It must be 
accepted that brainwashing. now being used here [in the United States] by 
devious persons with personal gain in mind.” Unfortunately, the author followed 
that bold proclamation with a woefully inaccurate accounting of who those 
“devious persons” might be. He did though provide a reasonably good descrip- 
tion of the process of mind control (although Verdier, like Estabrooks, did not 
use the term “mind control”). 

By Verdier’s account, the objective of the would-be “brainwasher” is to access 
those areas of the brain that are outside of the individual’s conscious control. This 
is accomplished, the doctor explained, by circumventing the normal inhibiting 
response of the cerebral cortex, so that “an individual’s voluntary conscious self- 
control [will] be bypassed or short-circuited.” In order to disable what Verdier 
referred to as the brain’s “cortical block,” all of the following were recommended: 
alcohol; euphoric drugs; isolation; solitary confinement; and “the most dramatic 
and unique item in the brainwashing arsenal,” hypnosis. All of these “brainwash- 
ing” techniques, significantly, have been exhaustively researched by the CIA. 

xviii • Programmed to Kill 

Verdier went on to explain that in order to achieve truly lasting states of brain- 
washing (or mind control), it is necessary to subject the victim to “profound and 
deep emotional states.” The recommended emotional states are fear, shock, and 
anxiety — all of which have “an intense disinhibitive effect on the human brain.” 
Even more effective is pain — because, “according to the eminent neurologist, Dr. 
Wilder Pen field, ^ sensations of pain from the muscular sensory system enter the 
sub-cortical brain regions directly.” With a passage seemingly lifted from 
Estabrooks’ writings, Verdier left no doubt that pain and fear are the most useful 
items in the MK-ULTRA toolbox: “Russian political scientists do support the 
belief that given enough punishment, all the people in any time or place are sus- 
ceptible to hypnotic control. Verdier echoed other of Estabrooks’ beliefs as well, 
including the idea that “brainwashing” could and should be widely utilized for 
“benevolent” purposes, 5 6 7 and the notion that children are ideal candidates for 
mind control programming: “Brainwashing can be slow, insidious and sure when 
applied to children early in life. . .It is likely that there is a short period of time fol- 
lowing corporal punishment when the child is in a state of decortication — hyp- 
nosis, so to speak. This is the ideal time to plant the positive instructions for 
better behavior in the future.” What the good doctor considered “corporal pun- 
ishment” and “positive instructions” was left to the reader’s imagination. 

The vulnerability of children to dissociative states brought on by traumatic 
abuse is one of the reasons that the CIA and other intelligence agencies have 
played key roles in the creation of relatively mainstream satanic groups, as well as 
in denying the existence of underground satanic cults engaged in violent criminal 
enterprises. Some of the available evidence suggests that an array of satanic groups 
have served as intelligence agency ‘fronts’ for mind control operations — which 
actually makes perfect sense, considering that if the goal is to severely traumatize 

5 Dr. Penfield was an associate of the notorious medical torture practitioner, and MK- 
ULTRA operative, Dr. David Ewen Cameron. 

6 This is a very common form of disinformation that is found frequently in the writings 
of CIA- affiliated writers: acknowledge that mind control is a real phenomenon, but 
then blame it all on those godless communists. Other agency-penned manuscripts 
deny that mind control exists at all, which is another common form of disinforma- 

7 The final chapter of Verdier’s book, entitled “Benevolent Brainwashing In The 
Future,” contains the following recommendation: “The process of brainwashing. . . 
could be used effectively and economically to solve many of society’s pressing human 
problems which, until now, have seemed virtually unsolvable.” 

David McGowan • 


children, then surely nothing compares to the seemingly outlandish stories told 
by those who have survived what has been dubbed “Satanic Ritual Abuse” (SRA). 

Verdier took note in his book of the fact that one of “the most pronounced 
emotional experiences that a human being can undergo is having his or her life 
threatened. Threats of death are used as a basic tool by brainwashing 
Communists. Even among them, however, this threat is used sparingly, for they 
know that humans quickly adapt to this type of threat, especially if it is repeatedly 
given but never carried out. In order to avoid this routinization of stressful emo- 
tional situations, they have been known to casually execute prisoners for the 
apparent effect it has on others.” The actions that Verdier predictably attributed 
to “brainwashing Communists” precisely mirror the stories that have been told 
repeatedly by self-described survivors of ritual abuse. These victims speak of 
receiving frequent death threats, directed against both themselves and their fam- 
ily members. They speak also of having those threats reinforced through their 
forced witnessing of, and even participate in, the killing of others. 

There has been a tremendous amount of energy expended to discredit all such 
stories. At the forefront of the movement to deny the validity of the stories told 
by countless survivors is the False Memory Syndrome Foundation, a group led by 
a truly vile coalition of CIA-funded psychiatrists and accused (and in some cases, 
convicted) pedophiles. Also playing a key role in the movement are Paul and 
Shirley Eberle, the authors of a purportedly authoritative book entitled The 
Politics of Child Abuse. The Eberles’ book attempts to lay the blame for virtually 
all child abuse accusations and prosecutions on overzealous prosecutors, thera- 
pists and parents. That argument might be a little more credible, however, if the 
Eberles themselves were not known to Los Angeles police as distributors of child 
pornography — a fact that media outlets conveniently and rather consistently 
ignore while touting the Eberles as authorities in the field of child abuse. 

Contrary to conventional wisdom, claims of ritual abuse are certainly not a 
modern phenomenon. Such claims have actually been around for quite some 
time, and they were given legitimacy by no less an historical figure than Sigmund 
Freud. Over 1 00 years ago, Freud recognized that ritual abuse was likely the pri- 
mary cause of the psychological problems that he observed in his female patients. 
Author Kevin Marron noted that Freud had commented on the marked “similar- 
ity between what [his patients] told him and the accounts of the witchcraft con- 
fessions of the 16 th century.” In a letter to a colleague, written in January 1897, 
Freud pondered: “But why did the devil who took possession of the poor things 
invariably abuse them sexually and in a loathsome manner? Why are their confes- 
sions under torture so like the communications made by my patients in psycho- 
logical treatment?” If Freud were alive today, he might well add: “And why are the 


Programmed to Kill 

communications made by my patients a century ago so like the stories told to 
therapists today by survivors of SRA?” 

Should this remarkable consistency spanning several centuries be attributed to 
some kind of recurring mass hysteria? Or can it best be explained by the fact that, 
as historians (and the Chicago Tribune) have noted, “satanic cults have been doc- 
umented in Europe and America as far back as the 1600s”? Has there always been 
something dark and evil lurking in the shadows, only occasionally raising its 
head — at which times its existence is denied, its perpetrators cast as victims, and 
its real victims mocked and ridiculed? To ponder such a question, alas, requires 
calling into question some of our most fundamental beliefs about the nature of 
the world we live in — and that is a decidedly unsettling venture. 

Perhaps when viewed in the context of a covert, state-sponsored mind control 
program, some readers can begin to understand not only why there might be 
those who are motivated to inflict appalling levels of abuse on some of America’s 
children, but also why so much effort would be expended attempting to discredit 
claims of horrific abuse if the claims are in fact valid. 

Truth be told, the stories told by survivors of ritual abuse tend to be self-dis- 
crediting. One of the potential benefits, therefore, of cloaking mind control activ- 
ity in satanic rituals is that the operations are largely immune to disclosure. Even 
if an operation is uncovered, the stories told by the children tend to be so out- 
landish, so far removed from the world that we know, that the claims are easily 
cast aside as the product of a child’s fertile imagination. In May 2000, however, a 
report commissioned by the United Kingdom’s Department of Health concluded 
that Satanic Ritual Abuse was not (as an earlier report ordered by the 
Conservative government found in 1994), a “myth.” The Independent noted, in 
anticipation of the report’s release, that a “specially commissioned government 
report will this week conclude that satanic abuse does take place in Britain. It will 
say that its victims have suffered actual abuse and are not suffering from ‘false 
memory syndrome.’” 8 

One of the primary authors of the controversial report was therapist Valerie 
Sinason, who reportedly had personally treated 126 survivors of ritualized abuse. 
According to a report in the Guardian, Sinason has said “46 of her patients 
claimed to have witnessed murder of children or adults during ritual abuse cere- 
monies that had involved up to 300 people at a time. Some 70% of the reported 

8 The timing of the report on this landmark study was rather curious. The Independent 
published the story on April 30, 2000 — otherwise known as Walpurgisnacht (Night of 
the Witches) or Beltane. Along with the summer and winter solstices, Walpurgisnacht 
is among the most significant of the occult holidays. 

David McGowan • 


abuse was carried out by paedophiles and the rest by satanists.” The Independent 
added that sixteen of the victims had also claimed “they had seen induced abor- 
tions or babies killed.” Sinason’s research has led her to conclude that some chil- 
dren “are born for the purpose of abuse and are not registered on birth 
certificates.” That claim has been voiced repeatedly by U.S. victims as well. 

In a report from February 2000, the Independent revealed that Sinason had 
photographs documenting “horrific injuries to children and the existence of cere- 
monial sites with the remains of mutilated animals.” The same article noted that 
Scotland Yard had begun an investigation. It is unclear where that investigation 
led, as it is unclear what the official response was to the release of Sinason’s study. 
Media outlets appear to have dropped the story just before the report was issued. 
Many readers of the press accounts that preceded the report’s release were no 
doubt predisposed to dismiss Sinason and her fellow researchers as cranks. Where 
exactly, readers were left to ponder, was this alleged photographic evidence show- 
ing children with horrific injuries? And where is the evidence of ritual murders 
being performed? 

As it turns out, shockingly enough, such evidence is not that difficult to find. 
As hard as it may be to believe, especially for readers conditioned to think that all 
such stories are nothing but ‘urban myths,’ photographic evidence of exactly the 
sort described by Sinason is being peddled all over the Internet. But even with 
such compelling evidence being widely circulated, many will still be tempted to 
discount the stories told by the survivors of such abuse. Skeptics are advised to 
keep in mind the words of Detective Robert Simandl of the Chicago Police 
Department: “It’s difficult for us to believe such crimes are occurring, but they 
are, all over the United States.” 

Indeed, all over the world, as we shall see in the next chapter. 

“In the early 1950’s the CIA was looking for ‘specially gifted 
subjects’ to study ‘dissociative states,’ which could be ‘induced 
and controlled to some extent with hypnosis and drugs. ’” 

— Arlene Tyner, writing in Probe magazine, 

July/August 2000 



“From our comfortable seat in life. . . we never could have imagined 
that thousands of well- off adults, integrated and even cultured, find 
pleasure in seeing children tortured and killed. ” 

— From a front-page editorial in Italy’s Corriere della Sera 
(reprinted in The Irish Times, September 29, 2000) 

Chapter 1 

From Brussels... 

“The case of abduction and murder against Belgium’s infamous 
paedophile Marc Dutroux remains unresolved. He has not been 
brought to book for these heinous crimes. There appears to be a 
steel veil drawn over the facts at the highest level and no one is 
prepared to expose those involved in this blatant cover-up. . . The 
official answer is that a series of hysterical conspiracy theories 
forced investigators to search for paedophile networks, which 
didn’t exist. But for observers of this debacle, that’s exactly what 
didn’t happen. Far from being investigated, leads pointing to a 
network seem to have been blocked or buried. ” 

— Olenka Frenkiel for the BBC, May 2, 2002 

X o the vast majority of Americans, the name Marc Dutroux does not mean 

Drop that name in Belgium though and you are likely to elicit some very vis- 
ceral reactions. Dutroux — convicted along with his wife in 1989 for the rape and 
violent abuse of five young girls, the youngest of whom was just eleven — now 
stands accused of being a key player in an international child prostitution and 
pornography ring whose practices included kidnapping, rape, sadistic torture, 
and murder. 

Dutroux was sentenced in 1989 to thirteen years for his crimes, but was freed 
after having served just three. This was in spite of the fact that, as prison governor 
Yvan Stuaert would later tell a parliamentary commission: “A medical report 
described him as a perverse psychopath, an explosive mix. He was an evident dan- 
ger to society.” The man who turned Dutroux loose on society, Justice Minister 
Melchior Wathelet, was rewarded with a prestigious appointment to serve as a 
judge at the European Court of Justice at The Hague. 



Programmed to Kill 

Shortly after Dutroux’s release, young girls began to disappear in the vicinity of 
some of his homes. Though technically unemployed and drawing welfare from the 
state, he nevertheless owned at least six houses and lived quite lavishly. His rather 
lucrative income appears to have been derived from trading in child sex-slaves, 
child prostitution, and child pornography. Many of his houses appeared to stand 
vacant, though at least some of them were in fact used as torture and imprison- 
ment centers where kidnapped girls were taken and held in underground dun- 
geons. Some of Dutroux’s homes were used in this way for several years following 
his early release, with a growing body of evidence to indicate that fact to the police. 
Authorities nevertheless failed to act on the information, or acted on it in ways 
that implied either complete incompetence (according to most press reports), or 
police complicity in the operation (according to any sort of logic). 

Officials seem to have routinely ignored tips that later proved accurate, includ- 
ing a report from Dutroux’s own mother that her son was holding girls prisoner 
in one of his houses. In addition, key facts were withheld from investigators 
working on the disappearances and lines of communication were unaccountably 
broken, inexcusably hindering the investigation. Police did search one of 
Dutroux’s homes on no less than three separate occasions over the course of the 
investigation. On at least two of those occasions, two of the missing girls were 
being held in heinous conditions, imprisoned in a custom-built dungeon in the 
basement. Nevertheless, according to the Guardian, the police searches came up 
empty — even though the investigating officers reported “hearing children’s voices 
on one occasion.” 

It was not until August 13, 1996, four years after the disappearances began, 
that authorities arrested Dutroux, along with his wife (an elementary school 
teacher), a lodger, a policeman, and a man the Guardian described as “an associ- 
ate with political connections” — elsewhere identified as Jean-Michel Nihoul, a 
Brussels businessman and nightclub owner. One of those taken into custody — 
Michel Lelievre, described in a May 2002 BBC report as a “drug addict and petty 
thief” — reportedly told his interrogators that at least some of the girls abducted 
by the ring “were kidnapped to order, for someone else.” This was just one of 
many statements by suspects and witnesses that would later be dismissed by 
Belgian officials. 

Two days after the arrests, police again searched Dutroux’s home and discov- 
ered the soundproof dungeon/torture center. As CAW reported, three years ear- 
lier “police ignored tips from an informant who said Dutroux was building secret 
cellars to hold girls before selling them abroad.” In addition, in 1995, the same 
informant had told police that Dutroux had offered an unidentified third man 
“the equivalent of $3,000 to $5,000 to kidnap girls.” Incredibly, it was later 
reported by the Guardian that police actually had in their possession a videotape 

David McGowan • 


of the dungeon being constructed: “Belgian police could have saved the lives of 
two children [who were] allegedly murdered by the paedophile Marc Dutroux if 
they had watched a video seized from his home which showed him building their 
hidden cell.” The tape had been seized in one of the earlier searches. 

At the time of the final search, two fourteen-year-old girls were found impris- 
oned in the dungeon, chained and starving. They described to police how they 
had been used as child prostitutes and in the production of child pornography 
videos. More than 300 such videos were taken into custody by the police. 

On August 17, 1996, the story got grimmer as police dug up the bodies of two 
eight-year-old girls at another of Dutroux’s homes. It would later be learned that 
the girls had been kept in one of Dutroux’s dungeons for nine months after their 
abductions, during which time they were repeatedly tortured and sexually 
assaulted — all captured on videotape. The girls were then left to slowly starve to 
death. Alongside of their decimated corpses was the body of Bernard Weinstein, a 
former accomplice of Dutroux who had occupied one of the houses for several 
years. Weinstein had been buried alive. 

A few weeks later, two more girls were found buried under concrete at yet 
another of the Dutroux properties. Autopsy reports suggest they were drugged 
and then buried alive. By that time, ten people connected to the case were report- 
edly in custody. As the body count mounted, the outrage of the Belgian people 
grew. They demanded to know why this man, dubbed the ‘Belgian Beast,’ had 
been released after having served such an absurdly short sentence. And they 
demanded to know why, as evidence had continued to mount and girls had con- 
tinued to disappear, the police had chosen to do nothing. How many girls, they 
wanted to know, had been killed due to this inaction? 

Adding further fuel to the fire, as a Los Angeles Times report revealed, were 
claims by “a highly regarded children’s activist, Marie-France Botte. . . [that] the 
Justice Ministry is sitting on a politically sensitive list of customers of pedophile 
videotapes.” The same report noted, “the affair has become further clouded by 
the discovery of a motorcycle that reportedly matches the description of one used 
in the 1991 assassination of prominent Belgian businessman and politician 
Andre Cools. Michel Bourlet, the head prosecutor on the pedophile case, mean- 
while, has publicly declared that the investigation can be thoroughly pursued 
only without political interference. Several years ago, Bourlet was removed from 
the highly charged Cools case, which remains unsolved.” 

A report in Time magazine alluded to murky links between the Dutroux oper- 
ation and organized crime figures. Marc Yerwilghen — the chief investigating 
magistrate on the case — stated the case more bluntly: “For me, the Dutroux affair 
is a question of organised crime.” Also mentioned in the Time article was the use 


Programmed to Kill 

of secret “underground tunnels,” not unlike those described by children a decade 
earlier at the infamous McMartin Preschool. 

Outrage continued to grow as more arrests were made and evidence of high- 
level government and police complicity continued to emerge. One of Dutroux’s 
accomplices, businessman Jean-Michel Nihoul, confessed to organizing an ‘orgy’ 
at a Belgian chateau that had been attended by government officials, a former 
European Commissioner, and a number of law enforcement officers. A Belgian 
senator noted, quite accurately, that such parties were part of a system “which 
operates to this day and is used to blackmail the highly placed people who take 

According to the BBC, Nihoul has brazenly claimed: “I am the monster of 
Belgium.” He has all but dared the state to prosecute him, claiming that he is 
beyond the reach of the law because he has information that, if made public, 
“would bring the Government and the entire state down.” 

In September 1996, twenty-three suspects — at least nine of whom were police 
officers — were detained and questioned about their possible complicity in the 
crimes and/or their negligence in investigating the case. As the Los Angeles Times 
noted in a very brief, two-sentence report, the detainments “were the latest indi- 
cation that police in the southern city of Charleroi may have helped cover up the 
alleged crimes of Marc Dutroux.” The arrests followed raids on the police officers’ 
homes and on the headquarters of the Charleroi police force and were based on 
information supplied by police inspector Georges Zicot, who had already been 
charged as an accomplice. Three magistrates had also reportedly been interro- 
gated by police investigators. 

Just days before the arrests, police had also arrested five suspects in the Cools 
assassination, including a former regional government minister named Alain 
VanderBiest. Strangely enough, the News Telegraph reported that: “Police investi- 
gating the Cools murder in 1991... have been given helpful leads by some of 
those arrested in the Dutroux case.” The Telegraph also noted that Cools “had 
promised ‘shocking revelations’ before his death.” 

On October 14, 1996 came the straw that broke the camel’s back: Jean-Marc 
Connerotte, who had been serving as the investigating judge on the Dutroux 
case, was dismissed by the Belgian Supreme Court. Connerotte was viewed by the 
people as something of a rarity: a public official/law enforcement officer who 
actually appeared to be pursuing a prosecution, rather than a cover-up. The News 
Telegraph described him as: “the only figure in the judiciary who enjoys the 
nation’s confidence.” As the New York Times reported, Connerotte “became a 
national hero in August after saving two children from a secret dungeon kept by 
a convicted child rapist and ordering the inquiry that led to the discovery of the 
bodies of four girls kidnapped by a child pornography network.” He had also 

David McGowan • 


arrested three men in 1994 as suspects in the Cools assassination — just before the 
case was transferred to the jurisdiction of another magistrate. 

A May 2002 BBC report revealed that, after Connerotte’s removal, a “special 
team of police officers interviewing Regina Louf and the other ‘X’ witnesses, as they 
were called, were the next to be sacked.” The “X” witnesses were victims of the 
pedophile ring who had come forward to tell harrowing tales of their victimization. 

A woman named Regina Louf was the first of eleven such victims to be inter- 
viewed by police officials. Louf claimed that she had been victimized by the 
ring — which included her parents and her grandmother — from the time that she 
was a very young child. She described the operation in detail to authorities, sup- 
plying them with names — names that included “senior judges, one of the coun- 
try’s most powerful politicians — now dead — and a very influential banker.” 
According to Louf, the operation “was big business — blackmail — there was a lot 
of money involved.” Many of her victimizers, she said, were secretly filmed for 
blackmail purposes. 

Louf identified Michel Nihoul as a regular organizer of ‘parties.’ These parties, 
she said, “not only involved sex, they included sadism, torture and murder.” She 
described in detail the murdered victims, and how and where they were killed. The 
BBC reported that when police checked into Louf’s claims, they were able to ver- 
ify “key elements of Regina’s story and found [that] at least one murder that she 
says she witnessed matched an unsolved murder.” Nevertheless, the same BBC 
report revealed that, “today in Belgium Regina Louf’s reputation is destroyed. The 
Prosecutor General of Liege, Anne Thilly, declares she’s completely mad despite 
numerous statements from independent psychologists to the contrary.” According 
to the judges now on the case, “her testimony has been declared worthless” and 
will not be presented in any trial of Dutroux or his associates. 

Connerotte’s removal from the Dutroux case fanned the smoldering flames of 
public outrage; as the Times reported, “Hundreds of thousands of people had peti- 
tioned the high court to retain the judge.” Adding yet more fuel to the fire, prose- 
cutor Michel Bourlet was claiming that evidence indicated a pedophile ring, 
composed of the wealthy and powerful, had been protected for twenty-five years. 
With the families of Dutroux’s victims calling for a general strike, men and women 
all across the country walked away from their jobs in protest as railway workers 
and bus drivers shut down public transportation, bringing some cities to a virtual 
standstill. The Telegraph reported that, “in Liege, firemen turned their hoses on the 
city’s court building” to symbolize the massive clean-up that was in order. 

On October 20, 1996, 350,000 citizens of the tiny nation of Belgium took to 
the streets of Brussels dressed all in white, demanding the reform of a system so 
corrupt that it would protect the abusers, rapists, torturers, and killers of chil- 
dren. The political fallout from the case ultimately brought about the resignation 

Programmed to Kill 

of Belgium’s State Police Chief, Interior Minister, and Justice Minister, who 
became sacrificial lambs tossed to the outraged masses to avoid what could easily 
have exploded into a full-scale insurrection by the people, particularly after police 
‘incompetence’ allowed Dutroux to ‘escape’ and remain at large for a brief time in 
April 1998. 

There were in fact calls from the people for the entire coalition government to 
step down. Months later, an opinion survey by Brussels’ Le Soir newspaper found 
that only one in five Belgians still had confidence in the federal government and 
in the nation’s criminal justice system. As the Los Angeles Times reported in 
January 1998, “the conviction remains stubbornly widespread that members of 
the upper crust — government ministers, the Roman Catholic Church, the court 
of King Albert II — belonged to child sex rings, or protected them.” 

The lingering distrust of the people was not alleviated by the fact that a parlia- 
mentary inquiry had identified, in April 1997, thirty officials who had, as the 
Times tactfully put it, “failed to uncover Dutroux’s misdeeds.” Nearly a year later, 
none of them had yet suffered any repercussions. Additionally, at least ten missing 
children suspected of having fallen prey to Dutroux’s operation have never been 

Just a few months before the parliamentary commission issued its report on 
the Dutroux case, viewed by many as a shameless cover-up, the Telegraph 
reported, “grim rumors. . .have been circulating that a second paedophile network 
at least as appalling may have been operating in parallel to that said to involve 
Dutroux.” The bodies of seven children were believed to have been hidden by the 
ring, which was thought could be linked to Dutroux through Michel Nihoul. 
Two months after that, a man named Patrick Derochette and three of his family 
members were arrested following the discovery of the body of a nine-year-old girl. 
Rumors quickly began circulating linking that crime to Dutroux as well. Like 
Dutroux, Derochette had previously been convicted on multiple counts of child 
rape. He had been committed to a psychiatric institution from which he was 
released after just six weeks. Authorities quickly denied that there was any con- 
nection between the cases. In January 1998, however, the Telegraph reported, 
“new evidence from a lawyer involved in the investigations blows a hole in previ- 
ous police claims that there was no link between the cases involving the alleged 
child murderers Marc Dutroux and Patrick Derochette.” Once again, the con- 
nection was said to be through Nihoul. 

In April 1999, the Guardian weighed in with this report: “the highly respected 
chairman of a parliamentary inquiry into the [Dutroux] case claims that his com- 
mission’s findings were muzzled by political and judicial leaders to prevent details 
emerging of complicity in the crimes... Mr. Verwilghen claims that senior politi- 
cal and legal figures refused to cooperate with the inquiry. He says magistrates 

David McGowan • 


and police were officially told to refuse to answer certain questions, in what he 
describes as ‘a characteristic smothering operation.’” 

As of May 2002, nearly six years after Dutroux was taken into custody, his trial 
had yet to begin. Parents of victims continued to loudly shout of a cover-up, and 
the Telegraph was reporting that: “It was recently learnt that scientific tests on 
6,000 hairs found in the [underground dungeon] began only this year.” Those 
tests, of course, could reveal how many victims passed through Dutroux’s cham- 
ber of horrors. Perhaps more importantly, they could also, as a BBC News report 
noted in January 2002, “establish whether the girls had any other visitors.” 

Anne Thilly, the aforementioned Prosecutor General of Liege who dismissed 
as “mad” a key prosecution witness, has been quoted as saying, “there was no need 
to get the hairs analysed as no one else entered the cage. There was no network so 
there was no need to look for evidence of one. In any case, the hairs have all now 
been analysed.” Thilly gave no indication of how she knew there was nothing to 
find before even bothering to look. And contrary to her claims, the BBC reported 
in May 2002 that the hairs had “still not been analysed,” according to “sources 
central to the investigation.” Thilly has also claimed “the bodies [recovered from 
Dutroux’s properties] were too decomposed to test for DNA.” The BBC though 
noted “the autopsy states quite clearly that the bodies were not decomposed. 
Samples were taken. It is just that no one seems to know what has happened to 
the results.” 

The January BBC report came on the heels of an interview that the impris- 
oned Dutroux granted a Flemish journalist and a Belgian senator. Therein, 
Dutroux was quoted as admitting, “a network with all kinds of criminal activities 
really does exist. But the authorities don’t want to look into it.” He also acknowl- 
edged the existence of “a well-grounded [paedophile] ring. I maintained regular 
contact with people in this ring. However, the law does not want to investigate 
this lead.” 

Another lead that was never seriously investigated involved allegations of 
satanic cult involvement in the abductions. In 1996, police had found a note at 
Bernard Weinstein’s home that led them to investigate the Abraxas organization 
and its high priestess, Dominique Kindermans. Some segments of the Belgian 
press speculated that the organization was a satanic cult that assisted in obtaining 
young girls for ritual sacrifices. 

If the Marc Dutroux case were some kind of aberration, it would still be a dis- 
turbing story for the level of unspeakable corruption and depravity of the Belgian 
political and law enforcement establishment of which it speaks. Far more disturb- 
ing is the fact that it does not appear to be an isolated case at all. 

As 1 999 drew to a close, the nation of Latvia was rocked by a child prostitu- 
tion/child pornography scandal that reached to the very top of the political power 


Programmed to Kill 

structure. The case first broke in August, when police uncovered a massive opera- 
tion involving as many as 2,000 severely abused children. When media reports 
began linking top Latvian officials to the case, a special parliamentary commis- 
sion was assembled to investigate the emerging allegations. In February 2000, the 
chairman of the commission delivered a report to Parliament linking the coun- 
try’s Prime Minister and Justice Minister, the director of the State Revenue 
Service, and a number of army and law enforcement officers to the case. A cam- 
paign was immediately begun to discredit the committee chairman, including 
allegations that he is tied to the former KGB — a classic case of redbaiting that 
enabled the allegations to be dismissed as ‘Communist propaganda. 

On November 27, 2002, The Guardian reported that many among Portugal’s 
elite were linked to a pedophile ring as well: “A scandal over a paedophile ring run 
from a state orphanage gripped Portugal yesterday as it threatened to engulf 
diplomats, media personalities and senior politicians. Photographs of unnamed 
senior government officials with young boys from Lisbon’s Casa Pia orphanage 
were among the evidence reportedly available to police after they arrested a for- 
mer orphanage employee called Carlos Silvino.” One revelation in the case was 
“that systematic sexual abuse of children at the home had allegedly been going on 
for more than 20 years and had been known to police and other authorities for 
most of that time.” Teresa Costa Macedo, a former secretary of state for families, 
has said that she sent a dossier to police twenty years ago containing “damning 
proof” of the abuse, including photographs and eyewitness statements. The 
information was not acted upon, and, for her trouble, Macedo became the victim 
of a campaign of threats and intimidation. 

In June 2003, the Independent reported that police “at first denied her reports 
existed,” but then later produced them. Macedo has testified before parliament 
that the former president, Antonio Ramalho Eanes, the former foreign secretary, 
Jaime Garcia, and elements within the police all knew of the ongoing abuse. An 
official report claims that, “among the children still living at Casa Pia, at least 128 
had been subjected to sexual abuse. Many are deaf and dumb.” Countless other 
victims have passed through the facility over the last thirty years. Among those 
detained or questioned in the case were Carlos Cruz, known in Portugal as “Mr. 
Television”; Manuel Abrantes, a former director of Casa Pia; Joao Ferreira Diniz, 
a doctor at Casa Pia; Jorge Ritto, a former ambassador to UNESCO; Flugo 
Marcal, Carlos Silvino’s former attorney; Eduardo Ferro Rodrigues, Portugal’s 
Socialist Party leader; television talk show host Herman Jose; and Paulo Pedroso, 
a former Labour minister. 

A follow-up report in the Independent noted that Casa Pia, founded by a 
police superintendent, first “came under scrutiny 20 years ago when a young 
inmate died. . .Officials found the home’s doors open all night and youngsters in 

David McGowan • 


a cruising area for male prostitutes. Four children aged between eight and 12, 
missing for a fortnight, were found in a luxury flat in nearby Cascais owned by a 
diplomat.” That diplomat was Jorge Ritto. It is now alleged that Silvino, an 
employee and former resident of Casa Pia, acted for years to procure young boys 
for rich and powerful pedophiles, including Ritto. Adolescent witnesses have 
claimed on Portuguese television that they were offered enticements and “then 
raped... and recruited for sex parties with powerful ‘friends.’ Others, now adult, 
have told of chilling experiences long suppressed.” A Portuguese organization 
calling itself Innocence in Danger has been working for years to publicize the prob- 
lem of child abuse and child abductions in the country, but have been unable to 
penetrate what they describe as a “media blackout.” 

As of February 2003, a campaign was underway in Scotland to unseal records 
that have been sealed for 1 00 years under special order. The records concern the 
activities of Thomas Hamilton, a notorious child molester/murderer who was 
credited with killing sixteen schoolchildren and a teacher, and then himself, in 
1996. One police report sealed under the order “concerns Thomas Hamilton’s 
activities at a summer camp in Loch Lomond in 1991, five years before the 
shootings,” and allegedly links Hamilton to “figures in the Scottish establish- 
ment, including two senior politicians and a lawyer,” according to the Guardian. 

A report in Scotland’s Sunday Herald, from March 2003, revealed that 106 
documents had been sealed. These included “a letter connected to Hamilton, 
which was sent by George Robertson, currently head of NATO, to Michael 
Forsyth, who was then Secretary of State for Scotland,” as well as “correspon- 
dence relating to Thomas Hamilton’s alleged involvement in Freemasonry.” A 
deputy justice minister, Michael Matheson, was quoted in the article questioning 
the official justification for sealing the documents: “The explanation to date 
about the 1 00-year rule was that it was put in place to protect the interests of chil- 
dren named in the Central Police Report. How can that explanation stand when 
children aren’t named?” 

On September 29, 2000, The Irish Times reported that yet another pedophile 
network had surfaced: “Eight people were arrested in Italy and three in Russia, and 
police said 1,700 people were being investigated in Italy.” The images traded by 
this ring were “divided into several categories. . .The most gruesome, police said, 
was coded ‘Necros Pedo,’ in which children were raped and tortured to death.” 

And so it is that we first confront that most disturbing of topics — snuff films, 
which most people assume do not actually exist. As recently as February 1999, 
the New York Post assured readers that: “Snuff films are the stuff of urban leg- 
end... how did this legend get started? No one knows.” The unfortunate truth 
though is that snuff films do actually exist, and they likely have existed for as long 
as film has existed, though they were not always known by that name. According 


Programmed to Kill 

to the Post: “The term ‘snuff’ was actually coined during the Charles Manson 
case, when press reports repeated a rumor that the Manson ‘family’ had filmed 
home movies of the brutal slayings.” Other reports hold that the term was coined 
in 1976 by a writer for the New York Times who was in need of a phrase to 
describe reports of murders following sexual activity being captured on film. 

In the late 1970s, as Carl Raschke noted in Painted Black, the “Texas House 
Select Committee on Child Pornography disclosed. . .that investigators probing 
leads to organized crime in Houston, Dallas, and other major cities found that 
‘slave’ auctions for sixteen- and seventeen-year-old boys were routinely held in 
Mexico. Some of the boys were featured in brutal snuff or ‘slasher’ movies.” 
Raschke also quotes from a study by U.S. mental health professionals that claims 
that a child from Mexico “can be packaged, delivered, and sold deep within [the 
United States] in a short time,” and that many are purchased solely “for the pur- 
pose of killing.” 

In Enslaved, Gordon Thomas reported that: “At the start of the year [1991] 
Britain’s Scotland Yard was continuing to investigate reports that up to twenty 
children in London had been murdered last year in [snuff films] and the video 
tapes sold on the Continent.” Journalist Nick Davies, writing for the Guardian in 
November 2000, revisited that investigation, which was centered on a group of 
British pedophiles living in Amsterdam. The investigation revealed that the men 
were running gay brothels that were essentially ‘fronts’ for trafficking underage 
boys, many purchased from the streets of economically ravaged Eastern Europe, 
and others collected from the streets of London. Prominent among the group of 
pedophiles were a man named Alan Williams, known as the “Welsh Witch,” and 
another named Warwick Spinks, who according to Davies, “pioneered the traf- 
ficking of boys as young as 10.” 

The men used the boys in the production of child pornography and, according 
to several witnesses, in the production of snuff films. Davies wrote: “not just once 
but repeatedly, evidence had come to the attention of police in England and the 
Netherlands, that, for pleasure and profit, some of the exiled paedophiles in 
Amsterdam had murdered boys in front of the camera.” Indeed, witnesses had 
independently given descriptions of snuff films that were remarkably consistent in 
the details of the types of torture used and the manner of death, though the 
descriptions of the victim and the filming location differed, indicating that a num- 
ber of such films had been made. One witness claimed to have seen five such films. 

In the fall of 1998, British detectives flew to Amsterdam to investigate a par- 
ticularly detailed account provided by a witness. The investigators had in their 
possession: a detailed description of the apartment where the witness had viewed 
the tape; the name of the owner of the apartment and videotape; the name of the 
man who committed the murder; a detailed description of events on the tape; 

David McGowan • 13 

and the first name and approximate age of the victim. With all that in hand, says 
Davies, the detectives “hit a wall.” Dutch police “said it was not enough” to war- 
rant launching any sort of an investigation. By that time, investigators had been 
hearing accounts of the snuff films for nearly eight years. At one point, they had 
recruited an undercover officer “to pose as a child abuser and befriend Warwick 
Spinks,” who acknowledged to the officer that he was actively involved in traf- 
ficking boys. He also revealed that he knew “some people who were involved in 
making snuff movies and how they did it was, they only sold them in limited edi- 
tions, made 10 copies or something, 10 very rich customers in America, who paid 
$5,000 each or something like that.” There is no indication that any thorough 
investigation was ever conducted, or that any arrests were ever made. 

In September 2002, the Chicago Sun Times carried a brief report of two broth- 
ers who were arrested and charged with possessing an enormous collection of 
child pornography. Seized from the brothers were 5,000 photographic images, 
along with about 100 videotapes and 8mm films. Among this evidence were 
images of “young girls apparently tortured, raped and killed.” The American 
media has shown no inclination to shine any additional light on the case. 

An account of the recent Italian case carried by the Guardian affirmed the exis- 
tence of snuff films: “Police have discovered a massive international paedophile 
network selling violent child-pornography videos to clients in Italy, the US and 
Germany. .. (authorities are) trying to identify 5,000 people who are suspected of 
attempting to purchase the videos, some of which appear to contain images of 
children being tortured and murdered.” The UK’s Independent, in a follow-up 
published in November 2000, also confirmed that the seized materials included 
child snuff films: “Horrified investigators gathered images of more than 2,000 
children who were filmed while being abused, raped, and. . .killed.” By that time, 
close to 1,500 people had been charged in the case, but not — as the Guardian 
noted — “those in high places who are believed to form a ‘paedophile lobby.’” 

As in the Belgian, Latvian, and Portuguese cases, there were indications in the 
Italian case of high-level complicity and a strong belief among the people that the 
facts of the case were being covered up. And as with the other cases, the 
Independent reported that the magistrate heading up the inquiry “provoked a 
furore by denouncing a ‘paedophile lobby’ supported by politicians which he said 
openly obstructed the investigators and worked to prevent tougher sanctions for 
the consumers of child pornography.” The New York Times reported in March 
1 997 that there is “growing public indignation in France and elsewhere about the 
recurrent reports of kidnapping, rape or incest involving the very young.” The 
same Times report revealed that French police had “detained more than 250 peo- 
ple and confiscated some 5,000 videocassettes” in conjunction with an investiga- 
tion into a massive child pornography ring. Those detained by police were 


Programmed to Kill 

described as “mainly married professionals.” A dozen of rhem soon turned up 
dead, allegedly by their own hand. 

The BBC filed a brief report on a 1996 case that was otherwise almost com- 
pletely ignored by the English-language press: “Mexican police broke up an inter- 
national child pornography ring based in the resort of Acapulco which they said 
had at least four thousand clients in the United States ,” (emphasis added). A UN 
envoy investigating the case said that the “child pornography sometimes involved 
babies of less than one month old.” 

In June 1997, the News Telegraph spoke of over 800 French homes being 
raided and 204 suspects being taken into custody. Among those detained were 
“more than 30 teachers. . .and a number of priests,” as well as the deputy mayor of 
the town of Saint Mihiel. By the end of the week, four had committed suicide, 
including a school headmaster. Three years later, the BBC filed a very brief report 
noting that a verdict was due “in the trial of more than sixty people accused of 
possessing child pornography. One of the judges hearing the case said examining 
the video evidence made him feel physically sick.” In a familiar refrain, it was 
reported that: “the French courts have been accused of attacking the easy tar- 
gets — porn consumers — rather than producers and distributors. And one chil- 
dren’s rights group has alleged that senior public figures were among those 
investigated — but their cases were dropped before coming to court.” 

In 1998, another large-scale international ring was discovered operating out of 
the Netherlands and Berlin, Germany. The New York Times reported that investi- 
gators called the case “nauseating,” in that “images of abuse of even babies and 
infants were peddled via the Internet and other media.” Police discovered “volu- 
minous records of what appear to be clients and suppliers from countries includ- 
ing Israel, Ukraine, Britain, Russia and the United States.” The ring was first 
uncovered when a key member was found dead in Italy. According to the Irish 
Times, he was murdered by another member of the ring. His apartment in the 
Dutch town of Zandvoort was found to contain “thousands of digital images 
stored on computer disks,” as well as “hundreds of addresses of suspected suppliers 
and clients,” according to the New York Times. The images shocked even veteran 
sex-crimes investigators, one of whom stated that the seized evidence “left [him] 
speechless... It looks like the perpetrators are not dealing with human beings but 
with objects.” 

The BBC reported in June 1999 that two unnamed German men had “gone 
on trial, accused of running a child pornography ring in Germany, Poland and 
the Czech Republic.” The pair, along with at least eleven identified but unin- 
dicted accomplices, “made video recordings of the gang sexually abusing children 
between the ages of three and 14 since 1993.” A large but unspecified quantity of 
“videos, photography, magazines and CD-ROMs containing child pornography 

David McGowan 


were confiscated.” Also noted was a possible connection to the Dutroux case: 
“There have been cases of Slovak children being taken to Vienna to make porno- 
graphic films. The Belgian paedophile Marc Dutroux. . .was a regular visitor to 
one Slovak town.” 

In September 1998, another ring had been raided — one that the BBC 
described as “a larger and more sinister paedophile network called Wonderland.” 9 
The San Jose Mercury News reported, “police in... 22 states and 13 foreign coun- 
tries conducted coordinated raids... aimed at breaking up an Internet child- 
pornography ring. . .The ring involves as many as 200 people around the world, 

9 The network was so named in honor of Lewis Carroll’s revered children’s book, Alice’s 
Adventures in Wonderland. Carroll, whose real name was Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, 
was widely known to have a predilection for underage girls and boys, and is now 
something of a patron saint of pedophiles around the globe. A concerted effort has 
been made over the decades to cover up Carroll’s pedophilic tendencies, but the truth 
is evident even in the heavily whitewashed profiles of him that can be found in mod- 
ern encyclopedias. “Always a friend of children, particularly little girls, Carroll wrote 
thousands of letters to them,” notes Microsoft’s Encarta, adding that Carroll “gained 
an additional measure of fame as an amateur photographer. Most of his camera por- 
traits were of children in various costumes and poses, including nude studies.” A New 
York Times report from August 1998 states: “Dodgson exhibited a lifelong affection 
for little girls, seeking them out not only to enjoy their company and tell them stories, 
but also to photograph them, at times naked. His university colleagues thought this 
bizarre.” The Times also noted that the mother of Alice Liddell, the pre-pubescent girl 
that inspired Carroll’s most famous book, had banned Carroll from the Liddell home 
by the time the book was published. The Encyclopaedia Britannica reports that 
Carroll’s photographic hobby was abandoned in 1880, but dismisses suggestions that 
“this sudden decision was reached because of an impurity of motive for his nude stud- 
ies.” Carroll’s interest in child sexuality certainly hadn’t diminished; as the NY Times 
reported, “ [Carroll] remained attached to his ‘child friends’ after giving up photogra- 
phy, even sketching some naked girls as late as 1885.” Britannica also notes that 
Carroll — who was raised in an environment where there were “few friends outside the 
family,” and who was ordained a deacon in the Church of England on the winter sol- 
stice of 1861 — generally lost interest in his child ‘friends’ when they reached the age 
of twelve. Wonderland is also the name of the quarterly publication of an organization 
calling itself the Lewis Carroll Collector’s Guild, which bills itself as a “voluntary asso- 
ciation of persons who believe nudist materials are a constitutionally protected expres- 
sion and whose collective interests include pre-teen nudes.” As Gordon Thomas has 
noted, “in Wonderland the ‘delights’ of ‘transgenerational sex’ pepper the pages.” Such 
is the legacy of the man whose literary works are peddled to our children. 


Programmed to Kill 

who exchanged over the Internet thousands of sexually explicit images of children 
as young as 1 8 months.” The Independent later reported that the ring “shared pic- 
tures of children being abused — in some cases live via web-cam broadcasts over 
the internet.” The raids included homes in “Australia, Austria, Belgium, Finland, 
France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Portugal and Sweden,” according to the New 
York Times, which added that: “Several dozen people were arrested, but officials 
said they expected more than 100 to be charged.” The Independent later reported 
that 1 07 suspects were ultimately arrested. The Mercury News implied that that 
was only the tip of the iceberg: “The ring actually extends into 47 countries.” 

The case was described by a British official as “stomach-churning.” The Times 
reported, “Wonderland Club members are believed to have posed their own chil- 
dren for pictures... In other cases. . .parents may have taken money to let their 
children be used.” The Guardian reported that over 1,250 children were featured 
in the photos and videos, “many of whom suffered appalling injuries and were 
seen sobbing uncontrollably as they were being sexually violated.” The 
Independent added that the victimized children were “mostly under [the age of] 
10.” A BBC report held that the combined raids resulted in the seizure of more 
than “750,000 computer images of children.” A Detective Superintendent with 
the British National Crime Squad called these images “disgusting” and added that 
“the behavior that has been carried out is absolutely appalling.” The BBC also 
took note of the fact that, while ignored by the American press, “Wonderland 
originated in the United States.” 

Among the scores of U.S. homes raided in connection with the case, one 
yielded a “database of more than 100,000 sexual photographs of naked boys and 
girls.” Interestingly enough, the Times also noted that another raid, “in Missouri, 
turned up a cache of weapons as well as child pornography in a heavily fortified 
trailer” — illustrating once again, as did the Dutroux case, the close ties between 
organized pedophilia and other terrorist assaults against society. 

As with the earlier raids in Europe, a rash of ‘suicides’ followed the Wonderland 
arrests. By October 24, 1998, the Mercury News was reporting that no fewer than 
four of the thirty-four American suspects had killed themselves. These included a 
retired Air Force pilot, a microbiologist at the University of Connecticut, and a 
computer consultant in Colorado. In the UK, the Wonderland raids — dubbed 
Operation Cathedral — resulted in the indictments of eight suspects. One of the 
eight turned up dead four months later — another alleged suicide. The other seven 
were given ridiculously light sentences in February 2001 for their complicity in 
inflicting unfathomable abuse on countless children. Sentences ranged from 12 to 
30 months. Just a few weeks before the sentences were handed down, the 
Guardian was reporting that: “Police today arrested 13 suspected paedophiles in 
the largest ever UK operation against child pornography.” Once again, a massive 

David McGowan • 17 

amount of appalling evidence was seized, with most of the material featuring 
“scenes of children being raped and sexually abused.” 

The Independent reported in February 2001: “Detectives working on the 
[Wonderland] case discovered that many of the paedophiles were also members 
of other child pornography groups.” One of the groups most closely tied to 
Wonderland was a ring known as the Orchid Club, which had been exposed by a 
1996 investigation in San Jose, California. That investigation had led to the 
indictment of sixteen men on charges of conspiring to produce and exchange 
child pornography. Members of the club were identified in at least nine states and 
three foreign countries. By the time of the Wonderland raids, the Mercury News 
was able to report that the purported ringleader of the Orchid Club and “twelve 
others either have pleaded guilty or have been convicted in connection with that 
case.” Their crimes included recruiting “young relatives and friends of their own 
children to be molested and photographed.” 

The club was also, like Wonderland, involved in “real-time exploitation of chil- 
dren” on the Internet. Club members were able to send in requests and have them 
acted-out on live feeds. The club also held a pedophile ‘summit,’ at which mem- 
bers “traded stories about pre-teen girls they had molested and photographed in 
sexually explicit poses.” The summit was held, appropriately enough, on April 
20 — the birth date of Adolph Hitler and a significant occult holiday. 

In late March 2001, yet another interlinked, global pedophile network was 
exposed. That month, the Independent reported, “US authorities announced the 
arrest of four American citizens for involvement in an international child-porn 
ring called Blue Orchid.” The Los Angeles Times added further details: “the United 
States and Russia have shut down a Moscow-based international pornography 
ring that used the Internet to sell videotapes of children engaged in sexual acts.” 
These tapes were said to sell for “between $200 and $300.” As an Associated Press 
release revealed, “police seized some 600 videotapes, 200 digital video disks and 
many boxes of photographs.” Video duplication equipment and sales and ship- 
ping records were also seized, leading to “criminal inquiries in 24 nations. . .Many 
of the tapes were bought by people in the United States; others went to Germany, 
Britain, France, Denmark, China, Kuwait, Mexico and scores of other countries.” 
The Times reported that nine people had been arrested and fifteen search war- 
rants had been issued in the case. The AP report noted that four of those arrests 
were in Russia, where two suspects, alas, had “committed suicide.” The ring was 
also said by the Times to offer what were cryptically referred to as “custom-made 
videos” for the hefty price of $5,000 each. The contents of these videos were not 
revealed, but it was revealed that the “prevalence of child pornography has 
increased dramatically with the growth of the Internet. There are approximately 
100,000 web sites worldwide associated with child pornography.” 


Programmed to Kill 

This point was reinforced the next day when the British press reported police 
raids on yet another pedophile ring. A report in the Guardian held “more than 30 
people, including a... man working for a national youth organization, were 
arrested yesterday in dawn raids on the homes of suspected paedophiles.” Once 
again being sold and traded were images “which showed children being abused.” 
A report on the case in the Independent quoted a law enforcement spokesman as 
revealing, “that those arrested included members of ‘some interesting profes- 
sions,’” though the source demurred from revealing what those professions might 
be. The official did say that they had “a disturbing scenario of one or two juve- 
niles who have been caught in this way. One of them appears to be a 1 3-year-old 
boy.” The police acknowledged that the arrested boy was “also a potential victim 
and would be treated in that light,” which seems rather obvious. Nevertheless, a 
follow-up to the story that the Independent ran in May held that the boy had 
become “one of the youngest people to be listed on the sex offenders’ register.” 
The next month, the Guardian carried a report on Eric Franklin Rosser — 
accused child pornographer, one of the FBI’s ten-most-wanted criminals, and a 
former keyboardist for John Cougar Mellencamp’s band. According to the report, 
“investigators believe Rosser’s material is among pornography circulated by a 
British paedophile ring. ..More than 1,800 members are thought to belong to a 
club called Teenboys. Its website features boys aged around 12...Teenboys is con- 
sidered bigger than the notorious Wonderland Club.” 

In September 200 1 , the Scottish Daily Record reported that a “salvation army 
couple working on a British army base have been arrested in a massive paedophile 
crackdown.” Seized from the couple’s home were “some 400 videotapes. . .comput- 
ers, discs, photographs and other material... images of children as young as two 
have been found.” The same report claimed “a massive vice probe into kiddie porn 
in the USA would expose some of the biggest names in Hollywood as paedophiles. 
A federal investigation, codenamed Operation Avalanche, has already resulted in 
over 1 00 arrests — and the US Department of Justice say there will be hundreds 
more, including celebrities.” Lori Rabjohns, identified as a Justice Department 
spokeswoman, was quoted as saying: “These are people who appear upstanding 
members of society. . .We’re talking doctors, lawyers — and celebrities.” 

The investigation came about as a result of a raid on the Ft. Worth, Texas 
home of Thomas and Janice Reedy, who had been operating a business called 
Landslide Productions, which offered child pornography for sale over the 
Internet. The Reedy’s website, according to the Independent, functioned as a por- 
tal to “more than 5,700 websites with names such as Child Rape and Cyber 
Lolita.” The Reedys had made millions of dollars from their child porn business, 
which “employed more than a dozen staff, including a customer service represen- 

David McGowan • 19 

tative and a receptionist.” This financial empire was built with “money raised 
from the torture, rape and sexual abuse of children as young as two.” 

The raid on the Reedy’s home, conducted in September 1999, unexpectedly 
yielded a database of the names and addresses of a reported 75,000 subscribers 
around the world. According to a report carried in February 2002 by TechTV, 
“more than 35,000 [of those] individual subscribers [were] in the United States.” 
Nevertheless, only 100 arrests had been made at that time of the report — a num- 
ber that remained unchanged in the months after the initial arrests. By early 
2003, the story had dropped out of sight with little indication that there would 
be any further arrests, despite Chief Postal Inspector Kenneth Weaver’s earlier 
insistence that the initial arrests were just “the tip of the iceberg.” 

More than 7,000 subscribers to the site were British citizens. Their names, 
addresses and credit card information were provided by the FBI to British author- 
ities, who launched an investigation paralleling Operation Avalanche that was 
dubbed Operation Ore. As in America, only a few of the known offenders have 
thus far been arrested. Included among those questioned by police have been tel- 
evision personality Matthew Kelly and legendary guitarist Pete Townshend. 

Rushing to Townshend’s defense was The Nation columnist Alexander 
Cockburn, who earlier played a prominent role in denouncing the McMartin 
prosecutions. In a posting on his Counterpunch website from February 2003, 
Cockburn grossly misrepresented the nature of the charges against Townshend. 
Fie charged that, according to the Supreme Court, “‘porn’ encompass [es] even 
clothed images of children if they are construed as arousing. ‘Child’ means any- 
one under 18.” Cockburn labeled Townshend’s arrest “absurd,” and claimed that 
if you “have a photo of a kid in a bath on your hard drive, and the prosecutor says 
you were looking at it with lust in your heart, [then] that is tantamount to sexu- 
ally molesting an actual kid in an actual bath.” 

Cockburn was clearly trying to convey the impression that Townshend and 
others are the innocent victims of overzealous prosecutors. It will be recalled, 
however, that the images that the Landslide website was offering to Townshend 
and other subscribers were images of “the torture, rape and sexual abuse of chil- 
dren as young as two.” Those are not the types of images that would easily be mis- 
taken for innocent pictures of a child taking a bath. 

Also included among the 7,272 suspects in the United Kingdom, according to 
the Observer, were “hundreds of child welfare professionals, including police offi- 
cers, care workers and teachers,” all of whom were “identified as ‘extremely high- 
risk’ paedophiles.” Particularly well represented on the list were law enforcement 
personnel: “Investigators now believe as many as 90 police officers have so far 
been identified from an initial trawl of 200 of the British names found in the U.S. 


Programmed to Kill 

Many of the other suspects work in other sensitive professions, often linked to the 
criminal justice system.” 

On November 4, 2002, the Independent carried a brief report that noted that 
virtually all of the British suspects had “yet to be investigated despite the police 
having their details for four months.” All the information on the suspects was 
sent in July 2002 to the fifty-one police departments throughout Great Britain, 
but “despite detailed intelligence, nearly all of the suspected paedophiles remain 
at large.” No mention was made of why it took U.S. authorities nearly three years 
to get the information to their UK counterparts. In January 2003, the Sunday 
Herald announced that the “police inquiry which plans to arrest a further 7000 
men across the UK. set to end in disaster with many suspects walking free.” 
Detective Chief Inspector Bob McLachlan, the former head of Scotland Yard’s 
paedophile unit, told the Sunday Herald, “the lack of urgency in making arrests 
will lead to suspects destroying evidence... before they are arrested.” McLachlan 
also told the Herald that claims made by police chiefs and the government that 
they are prioritizing pedophile crime are nothing but “smoke and mirrors.” 

The final line of the Sunday Herald article revealed that, according to police, 
there were enough “rich and famous Operation Ore suspects [to] fill newspaper 
front pages for an entire year.” According to The Register and the Sunday Times 
(which reportedly obtained, but did not publish, all 7,272 names), the list of sus- 
pects included “at least 20 senior executives,. . .services personnel from at least five 
military bases, GPs, university academics and civil servants.” Also on the list were 
a “famous newspaper columnist... along with a songwriter for a legendary pop 
band and a member of another chart-topping 1980s cult pop group, along with 
an official with the Church of England.” 

It is unlikely that any of those suspects, nor the “high-profile former Labour 
Cabinet minister” mentioned by the Sunday Herald, will ever be prosecuted. In 
August 2003, Scotland on Sunday reported that the Scottish arm of the “massive 
internet child pornography investigation Operation Ore has ended. . .without 
anybody being charged with sex abuse.” An unnamed Scottish police chief said 
that that outcome “would not trouble us if we thought that all the men who were 
looking at child porn on their computer were just sad creeps who did not pose a 
risk to the children in their lives, but that is not the conclusion that was drawn 
from every raid.” To the contrary, what investigators repeatedly encountered was 
evidence that suspects were engaged in the ongoing abuse of children. 

In March 2002, Knight Ridder carried a report that stated: “Postal inspectors, 
the FBI and Canadian authorities have broken up an underground network of 
adults who traded pornographic videos of children — sometimes their own — being 
brutally beaten.” At the time that the report was filed, ten perpetrators had already 
been convicted and “more arrests are expected in the ongoing investigation of what 

David McGowan • 21 

authorities described... as a unique case.” According to Raymond Smith, head of 
the Postal Service’s child exploitation investigations: “We’ve seen organized net- 
works of sadomasochistic beatings with adults before, but this is the first time 
we’ve seen it with children.” 

In an apparent attempt to downplay the appalling behavior uncovered by the 
investigation, a postal inspector named Michael Galuppo described the ring as “a 
bizarre group of people obsessed with spanking children for sexual gratification.” 
“Spanking,” it should be noted, is a rather odd way to describe what in fact were 
brutally sadistic beatings involving “whips, hairbrushes, canes and wooden pad- 
dles.” The abuse was so severe that at least one of the children depicted on video- 
tape “suffered permanent disfigurement from beatings that investigators said 
went on for ‘years.’” Among those convicted in the case were “a middle school 
teacher... a nurse and former Boy Scout leader. .. [and] a former Sunday school 

Just months later, in August 2002, the Independent reported that U.S. author- 
ities had “announced the discovery of a ‘despicable’ child pornography ring 
stretching to Britain and continental Europe, in which parents sexually abused 
their children and distributed photographs of them over the internet. . .Robert 
Bonner, The Customs Commissioner, said he was particularly shocked to see the 
degree of collusion by parents. ‘If this isn’t unusual, God help us. . .I’ve rarely seen 
crimes as despicable and repugnant.’” Of the sixteen suspects arrested in the U.S., 
one “committed suicide shortly after being arrested.” 

These cases were not, of course, in anyway “unique” or “unusual,” as veteran 
Customs and Postal Service officials, with experience investigating cases of child 
exploitation, should know. 

In September 2003, the International Herald Tribune carried a report from 
Berlin concerning “an international police investigation [that] had uncovered an 
immense child pornography ring involving 26,500 suspects who swapped illegal 
images on the Internet in 166 countries.” More than 500 homes in Germany 
were searched and hundreds of computers were seized, along with tens of thou- 
sands of CD-ROMs, diskettes, and videotapes. One seized image “showed a baby 
of four months being abused.” A statement issued by the German Interior and 
Justice Ministries warned that many of the suspects, a number of whom are 
reportedly teachers and police officials, “are extremely dangerous pedophiles and 
are from all walks of life.” About 800 of those suspects reside in the United States. 

Curt Becker, the justice minister for the German state of Saxony- Anhalt, called 
for tougher laws to contend with the growing market for child pornography. He 
also directly challenged the notion that mere possession of such images is largely a 
victimless crime. “Every case of child pornography is a document of the sexual 
abuse of a child,” Becker noted, and “every look at that image kills a child’s soul.” 


Programmed to Kill 

A January 2003 Sunday Herald article revealed that police investigators had 
discovered “that images of Fred West abusing one of his children are among child 
pornography available for downloading from the Internet. It is unclear whether 
the child was West’s murdered daughter Heather.” Fred West was one of the UK’s 
most notorious, and most prolific, serial killers. Shortly after being charged with 
twelve counts of murder, he died while in police custody, allegedly by his own 
hand. Like Dutroux, West had constructed a torture chamber in his cellar where 
his victims were filmed being raped, tortured, murdered and mutilated. The 
remains of nine of his victims, minus some missing parts, were discovered buried 
under his house and in his yard. 

While we are on the subject of serial killers, The Irish Times carried the follow- 
ing report in July 1998: 

Police suspect a series of gruesome gay hate killings in the Sydney 
region could be the work of a serial killer whose victims might be 
linked through a notorious paedophile ring. The latest mutilation mur- 
der was that of Australia’s longest serving mayor, Frank Arkell, aged 68, 
who was bludgeoned to death in his flat and who had previously faced 
29 child sex charges. In the past few months two other men, one a con- 
victed child sex offender, were attacked in their homes in similar cir- 
cumstances and also suffered horrific injuries. Arkell, the former Lord 
Mayor of Wollongong, 50 miles south of Sydney, was a key witness in 
a royal commission into police corruption which uncovered a network 
of paedophiles. 

Those serial killers sure come in handy sometimes. 

“Bruno Tagliaferro, a Charleroi scrap metal merchant who 
knew Dutroux, claimed to know something about the car in 
which Julie and Melissa were kidnapped. But he was soon 
found dead, apparently of a heart attack. His wife Fabienne 
Jaupart, refused to accept the verdict and arranged for his body 
to be exhumed. Samples sent to the USA for analysis showed 
he’d been poisoned. Soon after, her teenage son found her dead 
at home in her bed, her mattress smouldering. Publicly it was 
declared suicide, or an accident. There have been 20 such unex- 
plained deaths connected with Dutroux. ” 

— Olenka Frenkiel for the BBC, May 2, 2002 

Chapter 2 

. . .to Washington 

“...several prosecutors, policemen and crucial eyewitnesses have 
committed suicide. Important evidence has also disappeared. So 
maybe Dutroux is being protected from on high. What other 
explanation can there be for such a disgraceful chain of events?” 

— Andrew Osborn in the Guardian, January 25, 2002 

w hile the size and scope of pedophile rings have grown rapidly in recent years, 
America, as it turns out, has long been a nation whose laws were friendly to pur- 
veyors of child pornography. It was just twenty-five years ago, in 1978, that the 
very first federal statute on child pornography was passed into law. While forbid- 
ding production and sale, the statute placed no restrictions at all on the posses- 
sion or trade of such materials. New laws enacted in 1984 forbid the trade of 
child pornography regardless of whether any money changed hands, though pos- 
session remained legal. In fact, as recently as 1990, private possession of child 
pornography was legal in 44 of the 50 states, despite the inescapable fact that all 
such materials were, by necessity, illegally produced and/or illegally obtained. 

Technology has for some time now played a key role in greatly expanding the 
availability of child pornography. The Polaroid camera, for example, eliminated 
the need for child pornographers to have access to complicit photo labs. Home 
video cameras did likewise for moving images. Personal computers, digital cam- 
eras, web cams, scanners, and — most notably — the Internet, have vastly 
expanded the reach of child pornography networks. In the age of the Internet, 
child pornography is a booming business. The Los Angeles Times noted in 
December 1999 that: “the number of investigations for Internet-related child 
pornography is soaring. The FBI launched 1,125 such inquiries this year, more 
than twice as many as last year.” 

In the wake of this rising tide, the U.S. 9 r ^ Circuit Court of Appeals issued a 
ruling on December 17, 1999 that struck a serious blow to the prosecution of 



Programmed to Kill 

child pornography cases. As the Times reported, the decision stipulated, “the gov- 
ernment cannot prohibit computer-generated sexual images that only appear to 
be pictures of children.” A later report noted that appeals court judge Donald 
Molloy had stated that the First Amendment bars the government from criminal- 
izing the generation of “images of fictitious children engaged in imaginary but 
explicit sexual conduct.” As a result of the court’s decision, prosecutors were 
thereafter “barred from bringing virtual-child pornography cases in California 
and the eight other Western states within the jurisdiction of the U.S. 9 r ^ Circuit 
Court of Appeals.” 

As critics have noted, graphics technology now available to the general public 
is so sophisticated that it is virtually impossible to determine if an image has been 
digitally altered, and therefore if any actual children were involved in the genera- 
tion of the image. U.S. Justice Department lawyers argued that very point, noting 
that the “government may find it impossible in many cases to prove that a porno- 
graphic image is of a real child.” Any good defense attorney, in other words, could 
raise reasonable doubt as to the authenticity of an image. It could in fact be 
argued that all such computer images “only appear to be pictures of children.” 
Computer images are not in fact photos, but are digital computer files that dis- 
play as a facsimile of the original photo. A sound legal argument could be made 
that all digitally transferred and displayed child pornography is therefore legal, as 
it does not represent ‘real children.’ 

That should come as great news to the international child pornography net- 
works, given that the United States is their number-one market. According to 
investigative author Gordon Thomas, the majority of child pornography pro- 
duced worldwide is targeted at the U.S., where by the early 1990s it was already a 
$3 billion a year business, and growing. Thomas claims that — according to law 
enforcement figures — over 22 million copies of child pornography videos were 
sold or rented in the U.S. in 1991. He also writes that much of that pornographic 
material is produced domestically, where it is “part of the largest segment of 
movie making in the United States.” Jan Hollingsworth concurs with Thomas’ 
figures, describing child pornography as a “three-billion-dollar — per year — U.S. 
industry that grossed twice that worldwide. It [is] bigger than Disney. Much big- 
ger.” Speaking of Disney, Thomas notes that child porn videos are frequently traf- 
ficked internationally by deceptively packaging them as Disney videos. 

Strangely enough, the first man to benefit from the 9 r '' Circuit Court decision 
was Patrick J. Naughton. You may remember him as the executive with the Walt 
Disney Co. who ran one of the company’s kid-friendly web sites. Naughton was 
arrested and later tried on child pornography charges. He was convicted on 
December 16, just one day before the decision was handed down in the case 
before the circuit court. Within hours of the appeals court ruling, Naughton was 

David McGowan • 25 

released by federal prosecutors on $100,000 bail. Despite the fact that he was, as 
the Times acknowledged, convicted of “possessing pictures of actual children,” a 
decision was made to release him “until the impact of the court’s ruling can be 
sorted out” — illustrating the significant undermining of existing law that could 
result from the circuit court ruling. 

On January 22, 2001 , the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to hear an appeal of the 
case. In April 2002, the high court rendered its decision, upholding the ruling of 
the lower court. By doing so, the highest court in the land extended the ban on 
prosecutions of “virtual-child pornography” to all fifty states. As the L.A. Times 
reported on April 17, 2002, the “ruling creates an immunity for a new generation 
of ‘virtual’ pornographers who rely entirely on computer images.” The Times 
noted that it was “an unexpected move” for the conservative court, describing the 
decision as “a surprisingly strong defense of the right to free speech.” The decision 
was, alas, not all that surprising, given that the Supreme Court has demonstrated 
in the past — most notably during the 2000 election debacle — its willingness to 
toss aside its alleged principles when the need arises. Noted by the Times once 
again was the concern among prosecutors that they will “have a hard time prov- 
ing that children portrayed on an Internet sex site, for example, are real children.” 
The decision handed down by the Supreme Court, notably, “does not answer that 

Closely associated with child pornography is, of necessity, child abuse. It 
should be self-evident that all kids used in child pornography are abused children, 
their abuse recorded on film and tape for the depraved enjoyment of other child 
abusers. As Anne Houston, the director of the organization Childline Scotland, 
has said: “Every image of child abuse on the internet is a crime scene.” 

Also closely associated with child pornography is the always-controversial issue 
of ‘missing children.’ There is considerable debate as to whether there is a prob- 
lem in this country with missing children. Some claim that 200,000 or more chil- 
dren disappear without a trace every year. Others steadfastly maintain that 
numbers such as those are grossly inflated, and that abduction of children by 
strangers with bad intent is actually quite rare. The problem is that nobody really 
knows for sure, since the FBI — America’s compiler of crime statistics — does not 
bother to keep track. As the Los Angeles Times reported in July 2002, there is a 
“lack of knowledge about the prevalence of a crime that historically has not been 
included in the federal government’s Uniform Crime Report. Local agencies have 
only sporadically kept data.” Many believe that the numbers are not compiled 
because the FBI does not want to know — or more accurately, the FBI does not 
want the American people to know, how many children disappear every year. 

What is known though is that reports of child abuse have skyrocketed. 
Between 1963 and 1988, reported cases of child abuse rose from 150,000 to 


Programmed to Kill 

2,000,000 per year, a 1300% increase in just a quarter-century. Child abuse may 
in fact be the most prevalent crime in American society — and possibly the most 
significant as well, given that it provides the breeding ground for so much of the 
more visible crime plaguing Western culture. As Thomas reports: “over 90 per- 
cent of the teenage prison population are now victims of child abuse.” And that 
population is growing rapidly. In the wake of that rising tide, the Los Angeles 
Times reported in March 2001 that: “President Bush’s budget will trim a program 
aimed at preventing child abuse and cut some child care spending. . .A child abuse 
prevention program will see an 18% cut.” 

Author and e-zine editor Robert Sterling has written of what he refers to as “a 
pattern of trivialization of child molestation evidence” that seems to characterize 
high-profile media stories. He points out, for instance, that in the highly publi- 
cized Woody Allen and Mia Farrow child custody case, all the attention was 
focused on Allen’s illicit romance with Soon-yi Previn. Almost entirely ignored in 
the media coverage was the fact that Allen was also charged with molesting his 
own seven-year-old adopted daughter, Dylan. While the press dismissed those 
allegations as unfounded and unworthy of reporting, Sterling notes that, 
“Connecticut state authorities, based on the testimony of Dylan and others, have 
stated that they do believe Woody did molest her, but decided not to prosecute 
anyway,” allegedly to spare the child any further trauma. 

Sterling also takes note of the “case of the Menendez brothers, who, after 
admitting to murdering their parents, painfully revealed that they were ruthlessly 
abused and molested by them over the years.” Their claims were never fully inves- 
tigated and the boys were “viciously demonized for trying to escape the murder 
charges and accused of making up their abuse,” though there was in fact evidence 
of that abuse. Also referenced by Sterling is the kid-gloves treatment afforded 
Michael Jackson when he was charged with molestation: “even though the accu- 
sations against him are widely believed to be true, [they] are merely passed off 
with a laugh among other smirking monologue jokes on Jay Leno.” And of 
course, though not mentioned by Sterling, sister LaToya was ridiculed by the 
media when she came forward with stories about the sexual abuse suffered by the 
Jackson kids at the hands of their father. Other cases discussed in the Sterling 
piece include the over-hyped ‘au-pair’ trial, during which evidence of prior abuse 
of the child by his parents was consistently ignored, and the Susan Smith case, in 
which the media refused to consider whether Smith’s own severe childhood abuse 
could have been a factor in the murder of her children, despite the fact that her 
father admitted to the chronic abuse. 

Coupled with the fact that the press have consistently downplayed the occur- 
rence of child molestation is the equally disturbing fact that that very same media 
have actively promoted the sexualization of children — a trend that has been 

David McGowan • 27 

greatly accelerated in recent years, and which has served to, to some degree, legit- 
imize pedophilia. Taking note of the proliferation of young teen — and even pre- 
teen — sex symbols, Tom Junod wrote in Esquire (February 2001) that: “the entire 
culture is besotted with the erotic promise of teenage girls... The lure of jailbait 
now supplies the erotic energy to a popular culture desperate for what’s new, 
what’s young, what’s alive.” The Junod article is, strangely enough, a profile of 
Greg Dark, one-half of the former ‘Dark Brothers’ — notorious purveyors of dark- 
themed, occult-tinged porno films. Dark is rather noteworthy for having openly 
produced and peddled child pornography, in that many of his films featured a 
very young Traci Lords, who began working with the Dark Brothers at the age of 

But Dark has now put those days long behind him. He is now working com- 
fortably in the mainstream. And he is no longer marketing teen sexuality. No, 
now he is creating music videos. . .for Britney Spears, Mandy Moore and the pre- 
teen Leslie Carter (sister of Aaron Carter and “Back Street Boy” Nick Carter). 
That is, according to Dark, 10 a completely different line of work. 

It is not just the media that has been actively promoting the sexualization of 
children; certain segments of academia have been busily doing so as well. On 
April 19, 2002, the Washington Times carried a report detailing a “movement 
within academia to promote ‘free sexual expression of children.’” This “move- 
ment to legitimize sex between adults and children is ‘gathering steam,’ warns 
Stephanie Dallam, researcher for the Leadership Council for Mental Health, 
Justice and the Media in Philadelphia, an organization that deals with prevention 
and treatment of child abuse. ‘Some people view children as the next sexual fron- 
tier,’ Ms. Dallam says.” Referenced in the Times article is Judith Levine’s book 

10 Some other interesting facts about Dark emerged from the Esquire profile, such as 
that he was raised by a Satanist father, who “used to read to Gregory from the works 
of Aleister Crowley, the noted occultist, when Gregory was very young.” His father’s 
collection of “black magick” books is one of Dark’s most cherished possessions. Also 
revealed was that Dark is a master manipulator, as he candidly admitted to his inter- 
viewer: “And the thing is, I like manipulating people. I’m comfortable manipulating 
people. I’m good at it.” Junod added that, during Dark’s porno days, he “asked people 
to do things... curious things... and they did them.” Such is the nature of the man 
who helps craft the images of America’s teen sex symbols and market them to millions 
of pre-teen fans. Britney Spears later revealed to Esquire an interesting detail of her 
family life: “...when I was thirteen years old, I used to walk around my house com- 
pletely naked... My family just always walked around the house naked. We were 
earthy people.” 


Programmed to Kill 

Harmful to Minors: The Perils of Protecting Children from Sex, published by the 
University of Minnesota Press. Levine’s book endorses a Dutch law passed in 
1990 “that effectively lowered the age of consent to 12.” As the Times article 
points out, the book “is only the most recent in a series of academic arguments 
for ‘consensual’ sex involving children.” Included among such academic endeav- 
ors are: 

• An article published in 2000 by the Institute for Advanced Study of Human 
Sexuality in San Francisco in which the authors claimed that there was “con- 
siderable evidence” that there is no “inherent harm in sexual expression in 

• An interview with San Francisco State University professor Gilbert Herdt in 
the Dutch pro-pedophilia journal Paidika in which Herdt stated: “the cate- 
gory ‘child’ is a rhetorical device for inflaming what is really an irrational set 
of attitudes” against pedophilia. 

• Another interview with Paidika, given by John Money, professor emeritus at 
Johns Hopkins University, that spoke of “genuinely, totally mutual” sex 
between adult men and young boys. 

• A 1998 study in a journal of the American Psychological Association argued 
that “value-neutral” terms such as “adult-child sex” should be used to 
describe a “willing encounter” between an adult pedophile and a child. One 
of the study’s co-authors, Robert Bauserman, with the Maryland 
Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, has written previously for 
Paidika. This 1998 study, according to the Times, “has already been used as 
evidence to defend accused child molesters in at least three court cases.” 

Many of these recent arguments in favor of the expression of child sexuality 
were influenced by the work of Indiana University professor Alfred Kinsey, who 
claimed in his notorious late- 1940s/early- 1950s reports on human sexuality that 
children “are sexual from birth.” The professor was, oddly enough, another 
devoted disciple of Aleister Crowley. Kinsey died shortly after paying a visit to 
Crowley’s Thelema Abbey in Sicily with filmmaker and fellow occultist Kenneth 
Anger — who was the roommate and probable lover of Manson Family member 
Bobby Beausoleil. . .but we will get to that later. 

Like child molestation and child abduction, child prostitution is also closely 
associated with child pornography. And make no mistake about it; child prostitu- 
tion is a booming business. A&Es “Investigative Reports” has noted that law 
enforcement figures indicate that there are currently some 600,000 child prosti- 
tutes working in the United States and Canada, in an industry that generates $5 
billion a year worldwide. A&E also reported that, throughout North America, 

David McGowan • 29 

there is “growing use of children in the sex trade.” Young boys make up 51% of 
that trade. The FBI, alas, has turned a blind eye; for the last quarter-century, “fed- 
eral prosecutions of major pimp operations have been virtually nonexistent.” As 
Dr. Lois Lee has noted, “It’s not a high priority with the FBI to go after kids that 
are being transported across state lines. It’s really a disgrace.” 

Dr. Lee is the founder of Children of the Night, an organization devoted to 
helping repair the shattered lives of child-sex-trade victims. Her facility, said to be 
the only one of its kind in the world, has seen 10,000 kids pass through its doors. 
Fully ninety percent of them have suffered a lifetime of abuse — first at home, and 
later on the streets and alleys of America’s big cities. Most of them suffered their 
first abuse before the age of three. Many of these victims are runaways recruited 
from small towns across the country, and then brought to prime child prostitu- 
tion markets like Los Angeles and Las Vegas. Once there, they have an average life 
span of just seven years; many of them do not make it through their teenage 
years. For as long as they survive though, they reap enormous financial rewards 
for their pimps. The younger the child, the more popular they are with the 
‘Johns,’ and therefore the more profitable for their exploiters. 

A landmark study on the commercial sexual exploitation of children was con- 
cluded by the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Social Work in 200 1 . The 
chilling report issued by the researchers was completely ignored by the U.S. media. 
That no doubt was due in part to the rather curious timing of the release of the 
report: it was issued on September 10, 2001 — less than twenty-four hours before 
the World Trade Center towers came crashing down. Written by Richard J. Estes 
and Neil Alan Weiner, the study notes that the era of “economic globalization, 
internationalization, and free trade” has been accompanied by a “dramatic rise 
worldwide in the incidence of child exploitation. . .Child pornography, juvenile 
prostitution and trafficking in children for sexual purposes have emerged as signif- 
icant problems on the national, regional, and international stages. So, too, has 
child sex tourism.” 11 The ugly reality is that, in the global marketplace, everything 

1 1 According to the publication Only in Russia, globalization has been accompanied by 
another dramatic rise: “In an already crime-ridden country, Russia’s Interior Ministry 
has identified yet another malefactor to be dealt with — the Devil. Deputy chief of the 
Ministry’s Main Crime Directorate, Alexsander Greshanin, informed the press on 
February 3 [2003] that a special department has been set up to investigate the activi- 
ties of Satanist sects. He said that the Ministry was very worried by the country’s 
descent into the ways of black magic and devil worship, adding that Satanists often 
conduct ritual sacrifices and, in some cases, their activities involve serious crimes like 
murder or grievous bodily harm.” The tone of the article was decidedly skeptical. 


Programmed to Kill 

has a price tag — including the sexual services of our children. The study also 
revealed, “CSE [child sexual exploitation] and the CSEC [commercial sexual 
exploitation of children] appear to be related in complex ways with other forms of 
child exploitation, such as the use of children in labor, drug and warfare settings.” 
Among the findings summarized in the report’s Executive Summary are all of 
the following: 

• “About 20% of children we encountered in this study were being trafficked 
nationally by organized criminal units using well established prostitution 

• “Children are trafficked into, and within, the U.S. by a variety of private and 
public means — e.g., cars, buses, vans, trucks, planes.” 

• “Most trafficked children have available to them a variety of false identity 
papers for use in case of arrest.” 

• “The majority of nationally trafficked children both use drugs and engage in 
drug sales.” 

• “[A] bout 10% of the children we encountered are trafficked internationally.” 

• “Most internationally trafficked children are the citizens of developing coun- 
tries located in Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and Central and 
Eastern Europe.” 

• “International trafficking in children is highly lucrative — a single trafficked 
child can earn a trafficker as much as $30,000 or more in trafficking fees.” 

• “In many cases, trafficked children also are required to serve as ‘mules’ in 
transporting illicit drugs either into or across the U.S., or both.” 

Obvious in these findings is the fact that the trafficking of children — both 
nationally and internationally — is an immense, and immensely profitable, crimi- 
nal enterprise 12 requiring “the involvement of a wide range of functionaries — 
including recruiters, trainers, purveyors of false documents, transporters, money 
collectors, enforcers... arrangers/investors... corrupt public officials, informers, 
guides and crew members... supporting personnel and specialists.” The 
University’s researchers also discovered “approximately 10% of pimps in the U.S. 
are tied into international sex crime networks.” These individuals “participate 

12 The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) released a report on July 30, 2003 
that declared that 1.2 million children are trafficked every year, creating a $10 billion 
a year industry. The report’s authors concluded: “Trafficking is a truly global problem, 
affecting all countries everywhere.” 

David McGowan • 31 

actively in the international trafficking of children — including American children 
and children who are nationals of other countries. Typically, these pimps also are 
connected in some way. . .to international drug networks.” The close connections 
between the international trafficking of children and the international trafficking 
of drugs is significant in that, as a number of researchers have documented, 
Americas Central Intelligence Agency plays a central role in the international 
drug trade. It would seem then to logically follow that that same organization 
would be deeply involved in the equally lucrative international trade in children. 

Just months before the release of the University of Pennsylvania’s report, 
DePaul University’s International Human Rights Law Institute released the 
results of a three year study of sexual slavery. Researchers concluded that some 
two million women and children are held in sexual servitude worldwide — and 
those numbers are growing. As with the other academic study, the report’s 
authors concluded that the “advent of globalization has exacerbated the problem 
by creating what some call market opportunities for traffickers in human beings 
and for their exploiters.” Also as with the other study, researchers found clear evi- 
dence of official complicity in the trafficking rings. The report’s authors warned 
that trafficking victims “have no one to turn to for help. Law enforcers are fre- 
quently in collusion with the traffickers and exploiters and victims who seek to 
escape are returned to their captors by those from whom they sought protection. 
Their despondency and despair is beyond description.” 

An estimated 30,000 of these victims die every year from “abuse, torture, neg- 
lect and disease.” But neither the U.S. media nor the Washington establishment 
have anything to say about that, leaving the America people in a state of collective 
ignorance and denial even as child exploitation rings, which constitute a vast 
underground in this country, grow exponentially. 

How far does this pedophilic underground extend into the halls of power? Are 
America’s political, corporate and military elite — like their counterparts in 
Belgium, Latvia and Portugal — hiding a particularly dirty little secret from the 
American people? A secret that, if exposed, could shatter America’s cherished 
political and economic institutions and bring the house of cards crashing down? 
Consider the case of Craig Spence, a behind-the-scenes Republican powerbroker 
in Washington. In June 1989, the Washington Times published a story that sent 
shockwaves rippling across Capitol Hill. It seemed that Spence had been deeply 
involved with a callboy ring that supplied young boys, some of them very young 
boys, to the elite of both political parties, as well as to visiting dignitaries. 

It was reported by the Times that a list of some 200 influential clients included 
the names of “government officials, locally based U.S. military officers, business- 
men, lawyers, bankers, congressional aides, media representatives and other pro- 
fessionals,” only a few of whom were publicly identified. On the guest lists for 


Programmed to Kill 

Spence’s parties were former CIA Director William Casey and former Deputy 
Director of Intelligence Ray Cline; Congressman Barney Frank and Senators 
John Glenn and Frank Murkowski; political activist/propagandist Phyllis 
Schlafly; former Attorney General John Mitchell (who once co-hosted a party 
with Spence); journalists William Safire, Liz Trotta, Ted Koppel and Eric 
Severeid; former Ambassadors James Lilley, Robert Neumann and Elliot 
Richardson; General Alfred M. Gray, the Commandant of the U.S. Marine 
Corps, and Lt. General Daniel O. Graham, an expert on the ‘Space Defense 
Initiative’; and former U.S. Attorneys Joseph diGenova and Victoria Toensing. 1 
Spence once held a birthday bash for the notorious Roy Cohn. Lie also boasted of 
playing host to Rock Fludson and other celebrities. 

Among the revelations in the case was that Spence had taken some of his call- 
boy escorts on private, late-night tours of the White Elouse. The tours, of which 
there were at least four, were cleared by a uniformed Secret Service guard who 
moonlighted as a bodyguard at Spence’s parties. Spence hinted that the tours were 
arranged by the national security adviser to then-Vice President George H.W. 
Bush, Donald Gregg, for whom Spence once sponsored a dinner. One of the 
tours occurred just after Spence stopped by the Nightline studio to see his friend, 
Ted Koppel. Spence reportedly introduced Koppel to a 15-year-old boy, whom 
Koppel later claimed Spence had introduced as his son. Koppel though had been 
a close friend for over twenty years and surely knew that Spence did not have a 
teenage son. Koppel first met Spence in Southeast Asia when Koppel was serving 
as the ABC bureau chief in Flong Kong, and Spence was nominally working as an 
ABC correspondent in Vietnam. 

Spence openly boasted of working with both the CIA and ranking members of 
the Reagan and Bush administrations. Fie claimed that he had been involved in 
covert operations in Vietnam, Japan, Central America and the Middle East. His 
claims were scoffed at and he was largely portrayed as a self-important blowhard. 

13 DiGenova served in 1975-1976 as counsel to the Senate Select Committee on 
Intelligence, commonly referred to as the Church Committee. He later served as U.S. 
Attorney under President Ronald Reagan. During that time, and after purportedly 
leaving government service for private practice, he frequently attended Spence’s par- 
ties. In December 1988, he accompanied Spence on a business trip to Japan. 
Toensing, diGenova’s wife, is a former deputy assistant attorney general for the Justice 
Department and a former chief counsel for the Senate Select Committee on 
Intelligence (1981-1984). Both were investigated for their close links to Craig 
Spence. Both later made almost daily appearances on cable newscasts as shrill propo- 
nents of the Clinton impeachment proceedings. 

David McGowan • 33 

There are indications, however, that Spence was involved in covert operations as 
far back as Vietnam, where he could well have been working under journalistic 
cover. An associate of his from that era told the Washington Post-. “Spence pulled 
disappearing acts in Vietnam — sometimes for weeks at a time... Then he’d turn 
up, refusing to say where he’d been.” 

“The sex? That’s done all the time,” a former Bush economic adviser told the 
press. “If a foreign diplomat wants a companion, the State Department provides 
it. It doesn’t matter if it’s a man or woman. They have a special fund set up for 
that.” What the unnamed adviser did not say was that such services were pro- 
vided not as a courtesy to the dignitary, but as a way to compromise and control. 
Allegations quietly arose that the callboy ring, and Spence’s parties, were part of a 
CIA sexual blackmail operation. Spence’s Washington mansion was said to be 
overflowing with surveillance equipment, including hidden cameras and micro- 
phones and an abundance of two-way mirrors. It was also alleged that cocaine 
flowed freely at Spence’s parties, and that he could have been involved in bringing 
drugs in from El Salvador. 

The Spence story never really registered on the national media’s radar screen. 
Despite being a largely Republican scandal, it was completely ignored by such 
pillars of the purportedly liberal press as the New York Times, the Washington Post 
and the Los Angeles Times. The story soon disappeared entirely and Washington 
and the media proceeded to pretend as though nothing had ever happened. 
According to a Washington Times reporter, the paper trail was quickly covered up. 
Some 20,000 documents pertaining to the case were sealed by court order and 
the U.S. Attorney’s office issued a gag order on the release of information. By the 
time that Craig Spence turned up dead in a Boston hotel less than five months 
after the story first broke, he had been all but forgotten. He had earlier told a 
friend: “I may be disappearing soon. It will be sudden. It may appear to be a sui- 
cide, but it won’t be.” 

Spence was reportedly found lying on his bed in room 429 of the Ritz-Carlton 
Hotel, wearing a tuxedo and with a telephone cradled to his ear and a Walkman 
headset around his neck. He had, according to the Independent, “no obvious signs 
of injury,” and “police refused to comment on the cause of death.” The door to 
the room was barricaded. Written on the mirror were several messages, one of 
which read: “Chief, consider this my resignation, effective immediately. As you 
always said, you can’t ask others to make a sacrifice if you are not ready to do the 
same. Life is duty. God bless America.” Another was an apology to the hotel: “To 
the Ritz, please forgive this inconvenience.” A third was an unexplained Japanese 
phrase: “Nisei Bei.” The hotel registry showed that the room the apparent suicide 
victim was found in was occupied by “C.S. Kane.” 


Programmed to Kill 

Spence had been subpoenaed by a grand jury but had not yet been called to 
appear. As it turned out, very few witnesses ever did appear before that grand jury 
Spence had also reportedly agreed to provide Penthouse magazine with “lurid 
details of Washington’s bisexual wonderland.” His story, needless to say, was never 

The cailboy ring, oddly enough, had close ties to the funeral home/mortuary 
business. Robert Chambers was convicted on charges of handling the credit card 
processing for Professional Services, Inc., an entity that served as a cover for an 
interlinked network of half-a-dozen male escort services. Chambers was a funeral 
director and the son of the owner of the Chambers Funeral Homes chain. He was 
sentenced to serve 41 months. Two of the linked services, Dream Boys and Man 
to Man, were reportedly run by Henry Vinson, a mortician and the former coro- 
ner of Mingo County, West Virginia. Vinson had moved to D.C. after losing his 
job as coroner for making harassing phone calls to rival funeral homes. While he 
was under investigation in Washington, his obituary appeared in West Virginia 
newspapers, apparently as the result of an assisted effort to fake his death. 
Vinson 14 ultimately pled guilty and received a 63-month sentence. The presiding 
judge openly criticized U.S. Attorney Jay Stephens for departing from mandatory 
sentencing guidelines. Vinson’s legal representation was provided by Fox News 
mouthpiece Greta Van Susteren. 

Also implicated in the case was Democratic Congressman Barney Frank, 
whose D.C. home was used as a base of operations for an escort service from late 
1985 through mid 1987. The service was run by Frank’s lover, Stephen L. Gobie, 
the son of a Marine Corps master sergeant and Pentagon budget analyst. Frank 
wrote a number of letters to probation officials on behalf of Gobie, who had four 
felony convictions from 1982. Those letters provided the necessary cover for the 
ring, which Frank denied having knowledge of. Gobie also regularly operated out 
of Chevy Chase Elementary School, in collusion with the ‘magnet’ school’s prin- 
cipal, Gabriel A. Massaro, a former school counselor. The school was home to 
350 students aged nine to twelve. Massaro vigorously denied that any students 
were involved in cailboy operations, which he eventually admitted were run from 
the school. In addition to Barney Frank and Gabriel Massaro, Stephen Gobie had 
close ties to Craig Spence as well. 

14 Vinson later reportedly married Dr. Diane Shafer, who was appointed to fill the 
Mingo County coroner position that he had once held. Shafer had previously been 
convicted of bribery in Kentucky. Her appointment came just after the reversal of the 
appointment of Gerald Chafin, a mortuary owner and former Mingo County Sheriff 
who had twice been indicted on federal wiretap charges. 

David McGowan • 35 

Elsewhere in the country, a political operative named Larry King — hailed as 
“the fastest rising Black star in the Republican Party” — was embroiled in another 
high-level pedophile ring. King, whose operation was based in Omaha, Nebraska, 
had connections to Craig Spence as well as to Ronald Reagan, George Bush, 
Oliver North, and various other major players in Washington. The King story 
first began to emerge with the collapse of his Franklin Community Credit Union, 
one of many such entities that went belly-up in the 1980s savings and loan scan- 
dals. A special senate ‘Franklin Committee’ was established and tasked with look- 
ing into allegations of financial improprieties, but soon found itself instead 
investigating claims of child prostitution, child pornography and ritual homicide. 
Committee members began receiving anonymous threats. 

The investigation led to the doorsteps of some of the most powerful men in 
Omaha, including newspaper publisher Harold Andersen (a lunch partner of 
George Bush), local columnist Peter Citron, a judge, the mayor, the city’s Games 
and Parks Commissioner, a prominent attorney, the former police chief, busi- 
nessman Alan Baer, and multi-billionaire Warren Buffet (for whose son King 
sponsored a political fund-raiser). Some of the victim/witnesses identified George 
Bush as being directly complicit. The scandal was completely ignored by the 
national U.S. media, and appears to have been covered by the local press for the 
sole purpose of discrediting the witnesses and denouncing the investigation as yet 
another ‘witch hunt.’ The case did attract some attention from the European 
press though. Pronto, Spain’s largest circulation weekly, reported that the scandal 
“appears to directly implicate politicos of the state of Nebraska and Washington, 
D.C. who are very close to the White House and George Bush.” The report also 
noted “there is reason to believe that the CIA is directly implicated,” and the “FBI 
refuses to help in the investigation and has sabotaged any efforts” by others to do 

A documentary film crew from the UK’s Yorkshire Television, working in con- 
junction with the Discovery Channel, worked for months investigating the case. 
The result of their efforts was a film entitled “Conspiracy of Silence,” which con- 
cluded that the child victims/witnesses were telling the truth. The documentary 
was scheduled to air on the Discovery Channel on May 3, 1994. Just days before 
the scheduled airing, the film was pulled without explanation and all copies were 
ordered destroyed. At least one production copy of the video survived the purge, 
however, and has been known to circulate among those derisively labeled as ‘con- 
spiracy theorists.’ For everyone else, the conspiracy of silence continues. 

The Omaha operation, described in the film as a “large ring of rich and pow- 
erful pedophiles,” appears to have been in business for several years — with the 
knowledge of, and for the perverse pleasure of, a variety of city, state and federal 
authorities. Jerry Lowe, the first investigator assigned to the case by the Franklin 


Programmed to Kill 

Committee, reported back: “The allegations regarding the exploitation of chil- 
dren are indeed disturbing. What appears to be documented cases of child abuse 
and sexual abuse dating back several years with no enforcement action being 
taken by the appropriate agencies is on its face, mind-boggling.” The investiga- 
tion revealed that many of the child victims had been recruited from one of 
Americas most revered charitable organizations — Boy’s Town, with which King 
had maintained close ties since 1979. Senator and committee member Loran 
Schmit has said that Boy’s Town was mentioned frequently during the investiga- 
tion, “but we found it difficult to get information about Boy’s Town.” So too did 
the film crew from Yorkshire Television. 

Republican state senator and Franklin Committee member John DeCamp, in 
his book The Franklin Cover-Up, presents a compelling body of evidence to doc- 
ument the charges made by the child victims and various others associated with 
the operation. Equally disturbing is the evidence presented of the massive cover- 
up that was perpetrated by the FBI, local police, a grand jury assigned to the case, 
and of course the ever-compliant media. The cover-up involved, according to 
DeCamp, the untimely deaths of at least fifteen key players in the scandal — 
including Franklin Committee investigator Gary Caradori, whose private plane 
was blown out of the sky on July 11,1 990 with Caradori and his eight-year-old 
son on board. Caradori had been threatened frequently, as had the witnesses from 
whom he was gathering information. His vehicle had also been repeatedly tam- 
pered with. His brother claimed that Gary had told him that he had recently 
come to possess a key piece of evidence (a book of addresses and phone numbers) 
that was so damaging, “if they knew he had it, they’d kill him.” 

The wreckage of Caradori’s plane, as a reporter on the scene noted, was 
“strewn over a % to 1 mile stretch.” A National Transportation Safety Board 
investigator acknowledged that the “fact that the wreckage is scattered over a large 
area certainly demonstrates that it did break up in flight.” Family members 
claimed that there were items missing from the plane’s wreckage, most signifi- 
cantly Caradori’s briefcase. Within twenty-four hours of the crash, all of his 
records had been impounded by the FBI. Nevertheless, the NTSB ruled that the 
crash had been accidental, with no evidence of sabotage. The Franklin 
Committee — led by Senator Schmit, who suspected sabotage — ordered a private 
investigation into the cause of the crash. Strangely enough, the man selected to 
conduct that inquiry was William Colby, a fifty-year veteran of intelligence oper- 
ations whose career began in the OSS during World War II. Colby’s hiring was 
urged by his protege, Senator DeCamp. 

In the 1950s, Colby served as the CIA station chief in Italy, overseeing the 
notorious Operation Gladio. In the 1960s, he ran the Phoenix Program, a cam- 
paign of assassination, torture and terror that claimed, by Colby’s own account, 

David McGowan • 37 

some 20,000 Vietnamese lives. The program was steeped in mind control opera- 
tions, including the use of prisoners-of-war as unwilling participants in terminal 
experiments. One of Colby’s top aides in Vietnam was none other than John 
DeCamp. After Vietnam, Colby served as the director of the CIA under President 
Nixon (Nixon’s appointed successor, Gerald Ford, replaced him with George 
Bush). Considering his past history, Colby was certainly an odd choice to lead an 
inquiry aimed at ascertaining the truth. Colby’s conclusion, according to the 
Omaha World Herald, was that although “the crash had some strange aspects, 
there was no specific evidence of sabotage.” 

Just as appalling as the trail of dead witnesses was the fact that the child vic- 
tims, rather than the perpetrators, were arrested and thrown in prison. One of 
them, a young female victim, achieved the rather dubious honor of spending 
more time in solitary confinement than any other woman in the history of the 
Nebraska penal system. She was sentenced to 9-25 years in prison for allegedly 
committing perjury. Her sentence was ten years longer than the one Larry King 
received for looting his financial institution of $40 million. DeCamp explained 
to the “Conspiracy of Silence” film crew that a message was being sent “to every 
kid who is a potential witness.” Senator Schmit, who told the filmmakers that his 
pursuit of the investigation had cost him his career and his financial security, 
believed that a clear signal was being sent to Nebraska politicians as well: a signal 
to not pursue the investigation any further. 

A visibly shaken and disillusioned Schmit explained to the film crew that he 
“used to be a firm believer that the system would work and that people who did 
things wrong would be punished. And we discovered victims who claimed to 
have been abused, and who the grand jury acknowledged had been abused, but 
they did not try to find out who had abused these individuals. Instead, they con- 
victed Alisha Owen of perjury. . .indefensible from my point of view.” It was a full 
decade before any of the victims received even a semblance of justice, and that 
came not from the criminal justice system, but from a civil court. In early 1999, 
a judgment was entered against defendant Larry King in favor of plaintiff Paul 
Bonacci, who was one of the most severely abused of the child victims. His abuse 
at the hands of King began when he was just six years old and included his forced 
collaboration in the production of child snuff films. The memorandum of the 
district court’s decision, issued on February 22, 1999, reads as follows: 

Between December 1980 and 1988, the complaint alleges, the 
defendant King continually subjected the plaintiff to repeated sexual 
assaults, false imprisonments, infliction of extreme emotional distress, 
organized and directed satanic rituals, forced the plaintiff to ‘scavenge’ 
for children to be a part of the defendant King’s sexual abuse and 


Programmed to Kill 

pornography ring, forced the plaintiff to engage in numerous sexual 
contacts with the defendant King and others and participate in deviate 
sexual games and masochistic orgies with other minor children. The 
defendant King’s default has made those allegations true as to him. . . 

The now uncontradicted evidence is that the plaintiff has suffered 
much. He has suffered burns, broken fingers, beatings of the head and 
face and other indignities by the wrongful actions of the defendant 
King. In addition to the misery of going through the experiences just 
related over a period of eight years, the plaintiff has suffered the linger- 
ing results to the present time. He is a victim of multiple personality 
disorder, involving as many as fourteen distinct personalities aside from 
his primary personality. He has given up a desired military career and 
received threats on his life. He suffers from sleeplessness, has bad 
dreams, has difficulty in holding a job, is fearful that others are follow- 
ing him, fears getting killed, has depressing flashbacks, and is verbally 
violent on occasion, all in connection with the multiple personality dis- 
order and caused by the wrongful activities of the defendant King. 

For the years of unspeakable abuse he suffered, Bonacci was awarded one mil- 
lion dollars. While a bittersweet victory at best, it was considerably more than 
most other victims of such abuse have gotten. The man primarily responsible for 
inflicting that abuse, Larry King, has been released from prison and is a free man 
at the time of this writing. 

Chapter 3 

Uncle Sam Wants Your 

“I cannot accept promotion in a system that at first refused to 
acknowledge and now refuses to deal with the victims of exten- 
sive child abuse that occurred at the West Point Child 
Development Center. ” 

— Army Captain Walter R. Grote, refusing 
a promotion to Major in June 1985 

O ne of the names that surfaced at the Bonacci trial was that of Michael 
Aquino, the ‘High Priest’ and chief executive of the Temple of Set, an overtly 
satanic cult that split off from the Church of Satan in 1975. Besides tending to 
those duties, Aquino has also been known to occupy his time serving as (accord- 
ing to his official biography, circulated by the Temple) a “Lieutenant Colonel, 
Military Intelligence, U.S. Army.” 

Aquino was identified in court, by the mother of a victim, as being a key 
player in a nationwide pedophile ring. Paul Bonacci himself has also positively 
identified Aquino as an associate of King who was known to Bonacci and the rest 
of the children only as the Colonel.’ King’s former personal photographer has 
identified Aquino as the man to whom he saw King hand over a suitcase full of 
cash and bonds. The photographer, Rusty Nelson, has also said that he was told 
by King that Aquino was part of the Contra guns and cocaine trafficking opera- 
tion run by George Bush and another notorious Lt. Col. named Oliver North. 
Aquino has also been linked to Offutt Air Force Base, a Strategic Air Command 
post near Omaha that was implicated in the investigation by the Franklin 
Committee (and that was also, strangely enough, where George W. Bush opted to 
hide out on the afternoon of September 11, 2001). Aquino was also claimed to 
have ordered the abduction of a Des Moines, Iowa paperboy. 



Programmed to Kill 

This was certainly not the first time that Aquino had been identified as a key 
figure in organized pedophile/child pornography rings. In July 1988, not long 
before the King and Spence cases broke, the San Jose Mercury News ran a lengthy 
expose on the Presidio Child Development Center run by the U.S. Army in San 
Francisco. Allegations of abuse being perpetrated at the center first emerged in 
November 1986. Alarmed by accusations made by her child, a parent had sought 
a medical examination that confirmed that her three-year-old boy had in fact 
been anally raped. The boy identified his rapist as ‘Mr. Gary,’ a teacher at the cen- 
ter named Gary Hambright. Even with this conclusive medical evidence, how- 
ever, “it took the Army almost a month to notify the parents of other children 
who had been in ‘Mr. Gary’s’ class that the incident had taken place.” 

Within a year, at least sixty additional victims had been identified, all between 
the ages of three and seven, and further “allegations would be made by parents 
that several more children were molested even after the investigation had begun.” 
Amazingly enough, the center remained open for more than a year after the first 
case of abuse was reported, although, as noted by the Mercury News, “day care 
centers under state jurisdiction are routinely closed when an abuse incident is 
confirmed.” And this was considerably more than a simple abuse incident that 
had been confirmed. The children told stories that implicated many other perpe- 
trators in addition to Hambright. They also told of being taken away from the 
center to be abused in private homes; at least three such houses were positively 
identified. And they told of being forced to play “poopoo baseball” and the “goo- 
goo” game — ‘games’ that involved the children being urinated and defecated 
upon, and being forced to ingest urine and feces. Many of the children also spoke 
of having guns pointed at them and of being told that they and/or their parents 
and siblings would be killed if they told anyone what had been done to them. 

Despite the mounting number of victim/witnesses, and the numerous crimes 
alleged by these children, only one suspect, Gary Hambright, was arrested — on 
January 5, 1987 — and he was charged with abusing just a single child. Even then 
the charges were dismissed just a few months later, in March 1987. 

There is little doubt that literally dozens of children were in fact severely 
abused at the center. There undeniably was medical evidence to document that 
fact. Five of the children had contracted chlamydia, a sexually transmitted dis- 
ease; many others showed clear signs of anal and genital trauma consistent with 
violent penetration. Authorities chose to ignore such evidence. One mother com- 
plained to the San Francisco Chronicle that the FBI never interviewed her or her 
son, even after doctors had confirmed the boy’s abuse. In addition to the medical 
symptoms, there were psychological symptoms as well. As The American Journal 
of Orthopsychiatry noted in April 1992, the “severity of the trauma for children at 
the Presidio was immediately manifest in clear cut symptoms. Before the abuse 

David McGowan • 41 

was exposed, parents had already noticed the following changes in their children: 
vaginal discharge, genital soreness, rashes, fear of the dark, sleep disturbances, 
nightmares, sexually provocative language, and sexually inappropriate behavior. 
In addition, the children were exhibiting other radical changes in behavior, 
including temper outbursts, sudden mood shifts, and poor impulse control. All 
these behavioral symptoms are to be expected in preschool children who have 
been molested.” 

The journal article, written by Diane Ehrensaft, Ph.D., also noted that the 
“Presidio case has confronted both the public at large and the mental health 
community with an extraordinary and abhorrent situation of grave psychological 
proportions: the willful molestation of young boys and girls by representatives of 
the most patriarchal and supposedly protective arm of the American govern- 
ment — the U.S. Army.” Ehrensaft observed that a nearly pathological hatred had 
manifest itself in the fathers of children abused in this way, particularly as they 
saw their children’s cases stonewalled and swept under the rug. One father was 
quoted as saying: “When something about the Presidio comes on TV, I want to 
blow someone away.” Another father echoed that sentiment: “I was ready to blow 
the army base away.” 

One of those who the fathers would have liked to blow away was Michael 
Aquino. One child positively identified Aquino and his wife, Lilith (known to the 
kids as ‘Mikey’ and ‘Shamby’), and was also able to identify the Aquinos’ private 
home and to describe with considerable accuracy the distinctively satanic interior 
decor of the house. The young witness claimed to have been photographed at the 
Aquinos’ home. On August 14, 1987, a search warrant was served on the house. 
Confiscated in the raid were numerous videotapes, photographs, photo albums, 
photographic negatives, cassette tapes, and name and address books. Also 
observed was what appeared to be a soundproof room. Neither of the Aquinos 
was charged with any crimes, nor have they been to this day — a fact that Aquino 
points to as proof of his innocence. 

A month after the raid, a fire — which the Army deemed to be accidental — 
destroyed the Army Community Services Building adjacent to the Presidio’s day- 
care center. Strangely enough, “the fire occurred on the autumnal equinox, a 
major event on the satanic calendar,” as the Mercury News noted. The fire also 
destroyed some of the Child Development Center’s records. “Three weeks later, 
fire struck again, this time at the day care center itself.” A building that housed 
four classrooms, one of which was Gary Elambright’s, was completely destroyed. 
Investigators from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms determined 
“both fires, contrary to the Army’s finding, had been arson.” In between the first 
and second fires (with evidence indicating that a third arson attempt had been 
made as well), Hambright was again indicted, this time charged with molesting 


Programmed to Kill 

ten children. In February 1988, all but one of the new charges were dropped. 
Shortly thereafter, the remaining count was dropped as well. No further charges 
were brought against him. 

In January 1988, Aquino filed suit against the Army to have it cleared from his 
record that he had been investigated as a suspected pedophile. According to court 
records, he also had the gall to charge “Captain Adams-Thompson [the father of 
a victim] with conduct unbecoming an officer because the Captain reported the 
allegations of child abuse to the San Francisco police.” In denying Aquino’s 
motion, the court concluded “there was probable cause to title Aquino with 
offenses of indecent acts with a child, sodomy, conspiracy, kidnapping, and false 
swearing,” despite the fact that “the San Francisco police department (SFPD) 
closed its investigation and filed no charges against the plaintiff or anyone else.” 

Aquino and some of his defenders have consistently claimed that no one was 
ever prosecuted in the case due to a lack of evidence. This is cited as proof that the 
entire affair was no more than a ‘witch hunt.’ Of course, the failure to prosecute 
the federal charges could have been due to the fact that, at the time, the U.S. 
Attorney in San Francisco handling the case was Joseph Russoniello. Russoniello 
would later be identified by reporter Gary Webb (of the San Jose Mercury News) as 
a player in the Contra cocaine smuggling operation led by Lt. Col. Oliver North 
and company, just as witnesses would later identify Lt. Col. Michael Aquino as 
an operative in the very same sordid affair. 

In May 1989, Aquino was again questioned in connection with child abuse 
investigations; this time, at least five children in three cities were making the 
accusations. The children had seen Aquino in newspaper and television coverage 
of the Presidio case and immediately recognized him as one of their abusers. 
Three of the children lived in Ukiah, California, where Police Chief Fred 
Keplinger was overseeing the investigation of the allegations. The Mercury News 
quoted the chief as saying “the children are believable. I have no doubt in my 
mind that something has occurred.” Aquino was also identified by children in 
Santa Rosa and Fort Bragg, California. In the Fort Bragg case, “allegations of rit- 
ual abuse erupted... in 1985 when several children at the Jubilation Day Care 
Center said they were sexually abused by a number of people at the day care cen- 
ter and at several locations away from the center, including at least two churches.” 
Aquino was identified as having been present at one of those churches. 

According to the Mercury News, there was clear evidence of satanic cult activ- 
ity on the grounds of the Presidio base, including an abundance of satanic graffiti, 
a satanic altar, and numerous artifacts of satanic rituals. A former MP at the base 
told the News “we’ve got a cult on the Presidio of San Francisco and nobody cares 
about it. . .We were told by the provost marshal to just forget about it.” On April 
19, 1988, the eve of Adolph Hitler’s birthday, an open house was held on the 

David McGowan • 43 

grounds of the Presidio heralding the opening of a new daycare facility built to 
replace the fire-damaged Child Development Center. Meanwhile, a report in the 
Marin Independent Journal revealed that Aquino owned a building in Marin 
County — inherited from his mother, Betty Ford- Aquino — that was jointly leased 
to the Marin County Child Abuse Council and Project Care for Children. The 
stated purpose of Project Care was, interestingly enough, to assist parents in 
locating daycare for their children. 

As disturbing as the Presidio case was, it was just one of many ritual abuse cases 
directly tied to one or more branches of the United States armed forces. As the 
Mercury News reported, “by November, 1987 the Army had received allegations of 
child abuse at 1 5 of its day care centers and several elementary schools. There were 
also at least two cases in Air Force day care centers,” and another in a center run by 
the U.S. Navy. In addition, “a special team of experts was sent to Panama [in June 
1988] to help determine if as many as 10 children at a Department of Defense ele- 
mentary school had been molested and possibly infected with AIDS.” Yet another 
case emerged in a U.S. -run facility in West Germany. 

These cases erupted at some of the country’s most esteemed military bases, 
including Fort Dix, Fort Leavenworth, Fort Jackson, and West Point. Many of 
those making the accusations were career military officers who had devoted their 
lives to unquestioned allegiance to the U.S. armed forces. Many would resign 
their posts in outraged protest. 

The West Point case, among others, was alleged to be linked to the Presidio 
case. As The Times Herald Record reported in June 1991, the “incidents [at the 
West Point Child Development Center] unfolded against a backdrop of satanic 
acts, animal sacrifices and cult-like behavior among the abusers, whose activities 
extended beyond the U.S. Military Academy borders to Orange County and a 
military base in San Francisco, parents charged.” The case first broke in July 
1984, when a three-year-old girl found herself in the emergency room of the 
West Point FFospital with a lacerated vagina. She told the examining physician 
that a teacher at the daycare center had hurt her. The next month, the parents of 
another child leveled accusations of abuse at the center. As the Mercury News 
reported, “by the end of the year, 50 children had been interviewed by investiga- 
tors. Children at West Point told stories that would become horrifyingly familiar. 
They said they had been ritually abused. They said they had had excrement 
smeared on their bodies and been forced to eat feces and drink urine. They said 
they were taken away from the day care center and photographed.” 

Despite abundant medical and psychological evidence and literally dozens of 
child witnesses, and despite “950 interviews by 60 FBI agents assigned to the 
investigation,” the investigation, “led by former U.S. Attorney [and future 
mayor] Rudolph Giuliani” produced “no federal grand jury indictments,” 


Programmed to Kill 

according to the Herald Record. “In 1987, Giuliani said his detailed investigation 
showed only one or two children were abused.” Giuliani’s contention was directly 
contradicted by an independent investigation, as the Herald report divulged: “a 
still-secret, independent report — produced by one of the nation’s top experts on 
child sexual abuse — confirms the children’s accusations of abuse.” 

This was not the first time that prestigious West Point had shown an appalling 
willingness to overlook military personnel directing extreme levels of abuse at 
children. A year before the abuse case broke, a 22-month-old child was murdered 
by an Army staff sergeant. The Mercury News reported that following “a court 
martial hearing, the sergeant was given an 1 8 month suspended sentence and dis- 
honorable discharge.” In other words, he was essentially given a free ride after 
murdering a child. With help from Giuliani, the FBI, the U.S. Army, and the 
grand jury, the abusers of dozens of children at the daycare center (which was, 
appropriately enough, building number 666 on the academy grounds) were like- 
wise given a free ride. 

As with the Franklin case, the children and their parents found justice only 
through the civil courts. The Herald Record revealed that, in a suit brought by the 
parents, “lawyers for both the government and the 1 1 child plaintiffs agreed that 
some children were sexually abused at the center two years ago.” The govern- 
ment, however, claimed that it could not be held responsible, due to the “assault 
exemption in the Federal Tort Claim Act.” As the New York Times explained, 
“under federal law the government cannot be held liable for assaults committed 
by its employees and thus cannot be sued for assault.” In other words, the Army 
did not dispute the allegations; it just rather cavalierly maintained that it was 
exempt from being sued for what had occurred at one of its daycare centers. The 
court saw otherwise, however, and awarded $2.7 million to nine of the child vic- 
tims — paltry compensation for their suffering, but a victory of sorts nonetheless. 
The Times opined that the settlement amount “was large for a child-abuse case in 
which no criminal charges were filed.” The article claimed that the case was not 
pursued because “the Federal Bureau of Investigation found ‘insufficient evidence 
to prosecute,”’ when in fact the Bureau appears to have deliberately ignored 
and/or covered- up that evidence. 

And so ended the West Point case, except that — as one mother noted — it was 
hardly over: “These people stole our children. She’s nothing like she used to be. 
She’s a very angry little girl. She doesn’t trust anyone. She’s nothing like she was 
before this happened. It’s never going to be over for them, or for us.” The 
mother of a Presidio victim had this to say: “People keep telling us we’ve got to 
let it go — just forget about it and go on. . .Three weeks ago, our youngest daugh- 
ter was having nightmares and our other daughter was closing out the whole 

David McGowan • 45 

world, going to her room and sitting there, with no radio, no TV, no nothing. 
Tell me it’s over.” 

Chapter 4 


If there is anyone who can relate to the sentiments expressed by the Presidio and 
West Point parents, it is the mothers and fathers of the children who attended the 
infamous McMartin Preschool. The McMartin case was, of course, the largest 
and most well publicized of the multi-victim, multi-perpetrator ritual abuse cases 
that captured headlines in the 1980s. It was also a case that was grotesquely mis- 
represented by the media, both mainstream and ‘alternative’ — perhaps nowhere 
more so than in the appalling writings of Nation columnist Alexander Cockburn, 
who went so far as to write an op-ed piece entitled “The McMartin Case: Indict 
the Children, Jail the Parents,” which ran in The Wall Street Journal on February 
8, 1990. 

Virtually everyone agrees that the children of McMartin were victimized. 
There is considerable debate, of course, over whether that victimization was by 
abusive caretakers, or by overzealous therapists and prosecutors. Either way, 
Cockburn’s stance on the case was unconscionable and should have sent a clear 
signal to the progressive community that there was considerably more to the 
McMartin allegations than met the eye. The harsh reality is that the McMartin 
Preschool, in conjunction with at least two other Manhattan Beach preschools 
and one babysitting service, was the center of a very large child prostitution and 
child pornography ring whose operations appear to have been protected and cov- 
ered up by any number of local, state and federal officials. 

A glimpse of the true nature and scale of the McMartin case is offered by an 
official correspondence from Sergeant Beth Dickerson of the Los Angeles County 
Sheriff’s Department to Agent Kenneth Lanning at the FBI Academy’s 
Behavioral Sciences Unit in Quantico, Virginia, dated February 10, 1985: 

In August 1983, the Manhattan Beach Police Department began an 
investigation regarding allegations of sexual abuse occurring at the 
McMartin Preschool... Altogether, approximately 400 children were 


David McGowan • 47 

evaluated by therapists at Children’s Institute International. All inter- 
views were videotaped and 350 children disclosed sexual behavior. . . 

In all, the victims named seven teachers (six women and one male) 
at the preschool as having molested them. These individuals are cur- 
rently charged with 209 counts of child molestation. Also named are 
about 30 other individuals still uncharged, as well as numerous 
unidentified ‘strangers.’ 

McMartin victims allege sexual abuse occurred on school grounds as 
well as at a local market, churches, a mortuary, various homes, a farm, 
a doctor’s office, other preschools and other unknown locations. . . 

Most children state they were photographed in the nude... They 
mention drinking a red or pink liquid that made them sleepy... 
Children disclose animal sacrificing (bunnies, ponies, turtles, etc.) and 
some of this occurred in churches. Victims describe sticks put in their 
vaginas and rectums and also being ‘pooped’ and ‘peed’ on. Children 
say that the adults sometimes dressed in black robes, formed a circle 
around them and chanted. 

In May 1984, another preschool investigation began in the same 
policing jurisdiction stemming from a McMartin victim who identi- 
fied the Manhattan Ranch Preschool as a place where he was taken and 
molested... additional children have begun disclosing sexual abuse 
(approximately 60) and they have named six or more additional sus- 
pects... These children talk of strangers coming to the school and 
molesting them, being taken off campus and molested, being pho- 
tographed nude and some talk of animals being abused. The children 
talk of being hit with sticks and of being ‘peed’ and ‘pooped’ on. . . 

[T]he resources of the police department and the District Attorney’s 
office were not sufficient in order to follow up on the multitude of 
uncharged suspects in both preschools. . .The Task Force became oper- 
ational on November 5, 1984. It should be noted that the Task Force 
has two other preschools under investigation for alleged sexual abuse in 
addition to McMartin and Manhattan Ranch. One, the Learning 
Game Preschool, is clearly linked to McMartin. 

An astounding 460 children reported being sexually abused at the three 
closely linked Manhattan Beach schools. Even more astounding, investigative 
author Michael Newton (among others) has noted that Children’s Institute 
International determined “a full eighty percent displayed physical symptoms, 
including vaginal or rectal scarring, anal bleeding, painful bowel movements, 
and the ‘anal wick reflex’ associated with violent penetration.” The stories told 


Programmed to Kill 

by the victim/witn esses were remarkably similar as to the nature of the abuse, the 
locations where the abuse took place, and the perpetrators of the abuse. And 
these were not, as is commonly believed, only preschool children telling such 
stories; some of the witnesses were former students in their teens and twenties, 
and their stories corroborated those of the children. 

The older witnesses were not allowed to testify at the McMartin trials, how- 
ever, as the statute of limitations for the crimes committed against them had 
expired. Many of the younger witnesses were unable to offer testimony as well, 
for various reasons — most notably because they were too severely traumatized. 
Even so, as author Jan Hollingsworth has pointed out, prosecutors had at their 
disposal “more than a hundred child witnesses as old as eleven and a truckload of 
medical reports bearing documentation of scarred genitals and anuses.” The sto- 
ries told by these children, it should be noted, were not fed to them by some dia- 
bolical team of therapists and headline-seeking journalists. Many of them were 
offered spontaneously to hundreds of parents and scores of childcare specialists. 
And many of the victims of the McMartin Preschool, all adults now, still tell the 
same stories today. 

Anyone suggesting that the allegations in the McMartin case were true and 
that a massive cover-up concealed the true nature and scope of the case is likely to 
be labeled a ‘conspiracy theorist.’ The most preposterous conspiracy theory sur- 
rounding McMartin, however, has always been the notion that some cabal of 
overzealous therapists was able to implant ‘false memories’ of heinous abuse in 
the minds of nearly 500 individuals, and have them persist to this day. 

Despite the vast number of eyewitnesses — most of them bearing physical evi- 
dence of abuse — and despite the fact that the judge who presided over more than 
a year of pre-trial testimony ruled that the state had more than enough evidence 
to proceed to trial, District Attorney Ira Reiner inexplicably dropped all charges 
against five of the seven McMartin defendants on January 17, 1986. Six days 
before that, he had summarily dismissed two prosecutors on the case. 

At least three-dozen suspects who had been independently identified by 
numerous witnesses were never indicted at all. One of these was a man named 
Robert Winkler, who was arrested in neighboring Torrance, California and 
charged with running a baby-sitting service out of the Coco Palms Motel that 
authorities described as a front for a sexual abuse ring. Children in the McMartin 
case recognized Winkler in news footage as the man they had known as the 
‘Wolfman.’ The kids described Winkler as being a frequent visitor to the school, 
who oftentimes delivered drugs for use in abusive rituals, which were sometimes 
conducted in churches, a cemetery, or a crematorium. The Wolfman, conve- 
niently enough, turned up dead on the eve of his trial, allegedly of a drug over- 

David McGowan • 49 

Winkler was not the only one to miss his day in court in conjunction with the 
McMartin case. Judy Johnson, the first McMartin parent to lodge a complaint, 
never delivered her scheduled testimony. Her body was found sprawled naked on 
the floor of her home, her death said to be due to complications from her chronic 
alcoholism. Before her death, she was regularly derided by defense attorneys and 
their media allies as a deranged crank. In truth, Johnson was not known to have 
any mental problems, or a drinking problem, before learning of the unthinkable 
abuse her child had suffered. Considered a key prosecution witness, Johnson 
received frequent threats before her death and she was followed when she ven- 
tured out in public. Many of the other McMartin parents were openly skeptical 
of Johnson’s stated cause of death. 

A former Hermosa Beach police officer named Paul Bynum, who had been 
hired by the parents of victims as a private investigator, turned up dead on the eve 
of his scheduled testimony as well. His death by gunshot was ruled a suicide, 
though those close to Bynum dispute that finding. Among other things, Bynum 
may have testified about his examination of the tunnel excavation project con- 
ducted at the school site. This was, of course, the object of much derision by the 
media. The fact that the children repeatedly told stories of tunnels under the 
property by which they could be secretly transported to and from the school, and 
in which they were subjected to horrific abuse in a secret room, was frequently 
cited as ‘proof’ that the children’s stories were fabrications. It was universally 
accepted that the tunnels did not actually exist, that being the consensus view of 
the media and law enforcement authorities. Nevertheless, while it is true that the 
investigation commissioned by the District Attorney’s office found no evidence of 
tunnels, another investigation, ignored by the media, certainly did. 

Many of the parents were not satisfied with the superficial examination by the 
DA’s office and commissioned another investigation of the site when the property 
was sold in April 1990. To lead the project, they hired E. Gary Stickel, Ph.D., a 
highly regarded archeologist recommended to them by the Chair of the 
Interdisciplinary Program of the Archeology Department at UCLA. Stickel’s 
resume included serving as a consultant to George Lucas on the Indiana Jones 
movies. Also brought on board were several other technical specialists. As Stickel 
wrote in his report on the excavation, “by engaging a highly recommended pro- 
fessional archeological team, [the parents] hoped to bring scientific authority to 
whatever might be found or a definitive resolution for whatever was not to be 
found.” And what the team found was precisely what the children, for the previ- 
ous seven years, had been telling them they would find: 


Programmed to Kill 

The project unearthed not one but two tunnel complexes as well as 
previously unrecognized structural features which defied logical expla- 
nation. Both tunnel complexes conformed to locations and functional 
descriptions established by children’s reports. One had been described 
as providing undetected access to an adjacent building on the east. The 
other provided outside access under the west wall of the building and 
contained within it an enlarged, cavernous artifact corresponding to 
children’s descriptions of a ‘secret room.’ 

Both the contour signature of the wails and the nature of recovered 
artifacts indicated that the tunnels had been dug by hand under the 
concrete slab floor after the construction of the building. ..Not only 
did the discovered features fulfill the research prequalifications as tun- 
nels designed for human traffic, there was also no alternative or natural 
explanation for the presence of such features. . . 

If the stories of the children were bogus fantasies, there is no excuse 
for the tunnels discovered under the school. If there really were tun- 
nels, there is no excuse for the glib dismissal of any and all of the com- 
plaints of the children and their parents. 

This investigation was completed before the McMartin trials concluded, and 
yet this devastating evidence was never presented in court by the prosecution 
team. The existence of this detailed report — complete with photographs and 
maps of the tunnel complex — was known to the local and national press, but it 
was never reported. To this day, it is denied that any tunnels ever existed under 
the McMartin Preschool. The denial of the tunnels is necessary to maintain the 
illusion that the children were not credible witnesses, that illusion being an essen- 
tial component of the cover-up. For if the children were credible, the implications 
run far deeper than the tunnels under the school. There are, for example, the sto- 
ries told by the children of being pimped out as child prostitutes in private homes 
and businesses ail over the community. They also spoke frequently of being pho- 
tographed and videotaped while being abused. District Attorney Robert 
Philibosian publicly declared the McMartin Preschool to be an elaborate front for 
a massive child pornography operation. Twenty-three parents filed a civil lawsuit 
making the very same claim. 

Other stories told repeatedly by the children were even more disturbing. They 
told of being forced to witness and participate in the ritual torture, killing and 
mutilation of animals and, on occasion, of human babies and children as well. 
They spoke of being forced to drink the blood and eat the flesh of the slaughtered 
corpses, of witnessing the beheading of infants, and of being forced to stab 
infants themselves. They told as well of being sealed in coffins with the mutilated 

David McGowan • 51 

corpses. And they spoke of being subjected to every sort of depraved sexual activ- 
ity imaginable, including necrophilia, coprophilia and bestiality. 1 5 The abuse was 
of such stunning brutality that it is almost beyond human comprehension that 
anyone could inflict such physical and psychological torture on children. And yet 
these stories were soon being told by thousands of other kids across the country as 
preschool abuse cases spread like wildfire. Young children from all walks of life, 
and from all parts of the country, were all telling remarkably similar stories of 
horrific ritual abuse. 

How was this possible? If they were all victims of ‘false memories,’ how vast a 
conspiracy would be required for therapists all across the country to implant the 
very same memories in all of these children? Experts have noted that the victim- 
ized children show a level of knowledge that defies rational explanation if the kids 
have not experienced what they claim to have experienced. For instance, these 
child victims can accurately describe the look, smell, texture and colors of human 
viscera. This is an ability, it has been argued, that very few adults possess, other 
than those who have been trained as surgeons or coroners. These children also 
display a remarkable level of knowledge of a wide variety of unconventional 
human sexual practices, including many acts that, again, most adults do not have 
knowledge or awareness of. If these children did not experience these things first- 
hand, then how did they gain such knowledge? 

In February 1985, officer Sandi Gallant of the San Francisco Police 
Department submitted a report to her superiors noting the similarities in numer- 
ous ritual abuse cases. She had gathered evidence from fellow officers and police 
departments across the country and summarized the evidence referenced in the 
police reports submitted to her. An excerpt from her report reads as follows: 

The information contained herein is distasteful and bizarre, to such a 
degree that one would choose to discredit it. However, research that I 
have done in this area has revealed that numerous cases of this type are 
surfacing around the country and in Canada. The similarities in the sto- 
ries of each child victim used in these crimes tend to give credibility to 
the information revealed by others. Additionally, the psychiatrists and 
therapists who have been treating the victims state that the consistency 

1 5 Barron’s Dictionary of Medical Terms defines necrophilia as a “morbid liking or desire 
for dead bodies, esp. the desire to have sexual contact with a dead body.” Bestiality is 
defined as “sexual involvement of a human with an animal.” Coprophilia is defined 
by The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language as “an abnormal, often 
obsessive interest in excrement, especially the use of feces for sexual excitement.” 


Programmed to Kill 

of the stories and the explicit details revealed cause them to believe that 
these children are telling the truth. It is also the belief of each law 
enforcement officer who submitted information for this report that the 
victims are being truthful and that, in fact, children would be unable to 
make such stories up. 

During my research, similarities began surfacing which indicate the 
strong probability that there exists a network of people in this country 
involved in the sexual abuse and possible homicides of young children. 
These cases appear to differ from isolated cases of abuse towards chil- 
dren in that the crimes mentioned here have been committed with one 
common goal in mind — that of mutilating and murdering children for 
ritualistic or sacrificial purposes. Many of the cases reported also reveal 
the possibility of child pornography beyond the normal type of ‘kiddie 
porn’ in that these children are photographed during rituals with some 
members in robes or other garb and candles, snakes, swords, altars and 
other types of ritualistic material being used. 

Gallant requested that the report be sent on to the chief of police for him to 
review and then forward to the FBI. Following his review, however, the chief 
declined to submit the report. Gallant next tried to get the U.S. Department of 
Justice to review the paperwork, but she was rebuffed there as well. 

As for the McMartin case, there has never been any question that the children 
there were horrifically abused. Though rarely noted in press reports, the jurors 
were clearly of the opinion that that was, in fact, the case. The hung juries and 
acquittals in the various proceedings were the result of the jury members’ inabil- 
ity to identify the perpetrators of the abuse, not the reflection of any belief that 
there wasn’t any abuse. The jurors attributed their inability to identify the perpe- 
trators to the inept presentation of the prosecution’s case. 

Also rarely noted in the reporting on the trials is that the matriarch of the 
McMartin family — Virginia McMartin — admitted on the stand that one of her 
own granddaughters believed that her own children had been molested at the 
school. Virginia McMartin, incidentally, was more than just your run-of-the-mill 
preschool operator. In the mid- 1 960s, she achieved a sort of semi-celebrity status 
in the childcare field, and traveled extensively as a consultant, including stops in 
New Zealand, Australia, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and England. 

Another notable aspect of the McMartin trials is that the defense team was 
allowed to subject the child witnesses to the longest pretrial hearing in the 
nation’s history. Facing a battery of as many as seven rabid defense attorneys, the 
already severely traumatized children were verbally assaulted for weeks on end in 

David McGowan • 53 

a deliberate attempt to break them. The state made little effort to protect these 
young victim/witnesses. 

In the final analysis, the logical conclusion to be drawn from the McMartin 
case is that 460 kids did not all conspire to lie about the abuse they suffered. They 
also did not likely lie about their involvement in child prostitution and child 
pornography. They certainly did not lie about the tunnels under the school. They 
probably did not lie about their forced involvement in satanic rituals, in which 
adults sheathed in black ceremonial robes uttered chants. In fact, at least one such 
robe was seized from the home of a defendant. And perhaps most tragically, there 
is good reason to believe that they did not lie about the blood sacrifices either. 

Chapter 5 

It Couldn’t Happen Here 

Prosecutor Dan Casey. - “Did you exercise any kind of mind con- 
trol over your wife in order to get her to have sexual contact?” 

Frank Fuster. - “If I had that power, you think I would use it 
against...? You know... I don’t... I have never. I’m a normal 
human being. ” 

On August 8, 1984, Bobby Dean stood on the front lawn of the Fuster home 
in the Country Walk housing development — a picture-perfect, planned commu- 
nity of relatively upscale, suburban homes in Dade County, Florida. By all 
appearances, this was a small slice of paradise, an oasis untouched by the grim 
realities of American society. On this day, however, Dean had a loaded gun 
tucked in his waistband, and he fully intended to use it. He was there to finish the 
job that someone else had failed to complete on December 18, 1980, when an 
unidentified assailant had confronted Francisco Fuster Escalona {aka Frank 
Fuster) at his place of business and shot him once in the side of the head. 

Fuster survived that attack, which he explained to the police as a botched rob- 
bery, though the officers thought it looked more like an attempted execution. 
Dean did not get the chance to make another attempt; police were on the scene 
in short order to arrest him. Fuster himself surrendered to police two days later in 
response to the issuance of an arrest warrant. He had been under investigation 
following accusations by neighborhood parents that Frank and his wife, Iliana, 
had been brutally abusing the children who were left in the trusted care of the 
Fuster’s babysitting service, which was run out of their Country Walk home. 

Fuster had, shall we say, rather questionable qualifications to run a daycare 
center. On January 16, 1969, Fuster fired two shots into the chest of a fellow 
motorist in New York City, killing him instantly. An off-duty police officer was, 
curiously enough, an eyewitness to the summary execution. Even more curiously, 


David McGowan • 55 

Fuster chambered another round and pointed his gun directly at the armed offi- 
cer — and yet was not shot. He was arrested though, and convicted and sentenced 
before the year was out. On Halloween day, he was sentenced to a ten-year prison 
term, but was back on the streets in less than four, receiving psychiatric care. In 
November 1982, he was convicted again, this time on charges of committing a 
lewd assault on a nine-year-old girl. Despite that being his second felony convic- 
tion, Fuster was sentenced to just two years probation. It was while on probation 
for the child molestation conviction that Fuster and his underage wife started the 
babysitting service. 

Fuster’s probation officer apparently had no problem with that business ven- 
ture, even though it violated the terms of Frank’s probation by bringing him into 
unsupervised contact with at least fifty kids, at least thirty of whom later reported 
being horrifically abused. Fuster’s probation officer also managed to overlook the 
fact that Frank had self-terminated his court-ordered psychiatric treatment in 
August 1983. No one really seems to have been too concerned about Fuster’s 
babysitting service, which — in addition to being run by a convicted murderer 
and child molester — was operating without proper licensing and in violation of 
local zoning laws, which stated that commercial enterprises were expressly forbid- 
den in the residential community. Nevertheless, the service operated with the full 
knowledge of the entity managing the complex. In fact, Fuster’s service used the 
name Country Walk Babysitting Service, implying that his was an officially sanc- 
tioned service provided by the management. 

After Frank’s past and present activities were exposed, the management com- 
pany, Arvida, denied that it had ever any official links to the Fuster operation. 
That, of course, was not surprising, given that Arvida was a subsidiary of the Walt 
Disney Company, which had little interest in being perceived as having connec- 
tions to a child molestation operation. The fact remains, however, that the com- 
pany took no actions against Fuster for the illegal expropriation of the ‘Country 
Walk’ name or for violating zoning regulations. Dade County also took a hands- 
off approach to the Fuster business enterprise. Despite the fact that Frank lacked 
other required licenses, he was issued an occupational license to run the babysit- 
ting service. 

Detective Donna Meznarich was the first police investigator sent to look into 
the allegations being made by the Country Walk parents. She was openly skepti- 
cal of the charges before she even knew what they actually were. The parents felt 
that she came calling with an unmistakable attitude of disbelief. Nevertheless, 
enough evidence was obtained to issue an arrest warrant for Frank Fuster for pro- 
bation violations. Considerably more evidence could have been gathered had 
police conducted a timely search of the Fuster home. Facing imminent arrest, 
Fuster was observed by his Country Walk neighbors hastily packing boxes into a 


Programmed to Kill 

white van. Fearing the loss of valuable physical evidence, parents contacted 
Detective Meznarich — who failed to respond. She did execute a search warrant 
the next day, on a home largely — though not entirely — cleansed of incriminating 

Once Fuster was safely in custody, the stories told by his child victims grew 
increasingly disturbing. They told of being forced to play “pee-pee” and “ca-ca” 
games. A photo was later produced at trial showing Fuster’s young son Jaime — 
one of the most severely abused of the victims — sitting in a bathroom smeared 
thickly with excrement. The children also told of being forced to drink “magic 
punch,” later revealed by Fuster’s wife to be a mixture of Gatorade, urine, and 
various drugs. It was revealed at trial that a close friend of the Fuster family 
owned a pharmacy, which provided a reliable source for drugs. This friend was 
particularly close to Fuster’s mother and uncle. 

The young victims also told of having their lives threatened repeatedly, and of 
having their parents’ and siblings’ lives threatened as well. They had been com- 
pelled to play a game, they said, called “who’s gonna lose their head?” This game 
frequently ended with the ritual decapitation of an animal, typically a bird. 
Finally, perhaps inevitably, the children claimed that they were frequently pho- 
tographed and videotaped, both while being sexually abused and during occult 
rituals. Fuster claimed to have never owned any video equipment, and none was 
found in the belated search of the Fuster home. Jaime Fuster though recalled see- 
ing video equipment — as well as guns — being packed into the boxes that were 
loaded into the van just before Fuster’s arrest. 

Some investigators have speculated that Fuster was in the business of produc- 
ing and selling custom, made-to-order, child pornography videos. Fie certainly 
lived quite well for a self-employed mini-blind installer. Fie had no problem, for 
example, coming up with the down payment for his Country Walk home, and he 
maintained no fewer than six bank accounts. Fie was in the habit of making lump 
sum deposits of as much as $20,000 in cash. Fuster apparently liked to screen 
home videos for the kids, one of which was said to be a snuff film that the chil- 
dren described as depicting two men butchering a woman in a bathtub and then 
eating her. Some of the kids also, as a side note, spoke of being hypnotized by 
Iliana Fuster, who they said wore a ‘hypnotized on a chain around her neck. 

The trial of Frank Fuster had notable parallels to the McMartin prosecutions, 
although it differed in significant ways as well. The Country Walk parents who 
actively and vocally worked to see Fuster brought to justice were subjected to 
death threats by phone, obscene messages in the mail, and dead chickens left on 
their doorsteps — similar to the harassment suffered by their counterparts in 
Manhattan Beach. Also like McMartin, the primary defense strategy was to bring 
in a hired-gun ‘expert’ of questionable qualifications to attempt to discredit the 

David McGowan • 57 

children’s testimony. The children had been brainwashed by the overzealous ther- 
apists, it was claimed, as the treacherous therapists were crucified as being the 
true guilty parties in what was cast as a ‘witch hunt.’ 

The man originally slated to play the starring role for the defense was Ralph 
Underwager, at the time a prominent mouthpiece for a group calling itself 
VOCAL, for Victims of Child Abuse Laws. As the name implies, this group was 
largely composed of indicted and/or convicted pedophiles. Underwager had been 
present at the birth of the organization. The defense suffered a bit of a setback 
when it was revealed at a pretrial deposition that Underwager’s credentials as an 
‘expert’ in the field of child development were nonexistent. He was quietly 
dropped by the defense and replaced with Lee Stewart Coleman, who also had 
close ties to VOCAL. Coleman had played a key role in the unsuccessful prose- 
cution of the defendants in one of the McMartin-linked preschools. 

Coleman did not succeed in his mission in the Country Walk case. Fuster was 
found guilty on all fourteen of the counts brought against him. One reason for 
that is that the children were protected from the abusive pretrial treatment 
received by the McMartin kids. In addition, police and prosecutors — with some 
notable exceptions — seem to have actually made an effort to win the case. Why 
was this prosecution not subverted as so many others were? That is difficult to say, 
although the answer may lie in the make-up of the parents seeking justice for 
their children; among them were a police sergeant, a police lieutenant, two for- 
mer state prosecutors, a former chief assistant state attorney, and a gun-toting vig- 
ilante named Bobby Dean. 

In the end, Frank Fuster — the man who appeared at his pretrial hearing in 
what was described as a “catatonic trance” — was sentenced to be imprisoned until 
the year 2150. Not even the Santeria priest who attended the trial with Fuster’s 
mother and uncle had the power to save him. And Arvida — which is to say, the 
Walt Disney Co. — paid $6 million to seven of his victims. Even so, justice was 
not necessarily served. According to the victims, at least two other adults were 
involved in the abuse. The state knew the identity of at least one of them, but he 
was never charged with any crimes. Had he been, there is no telling where the 
investigation might have led; his wife had once run her own babysitting service. 

With the heightened awareness of the issue of child abuse engendered by the 
high-profile Fuster case, a number of other cases surfaced in the Miami area. In the 
course of one investigation, police inadvertently stumbled upon a collection of 
hundreds of photographs of a convicted child pornographer engaged in sexual acts 
with young boys. The man was promptly arrested. Two days after his release on 
bond, he was found in a Miami hotel room with a bullet hole in his head. His 
death was, naturally, ruled a suicide. His timely suicide preempted an investigation 


Programmed to Kill 

that could, it seems reasonable to conclude, have led to the elementary school that 
was directly across from his home/studio. 

Another case that broke in the wake of Country Walk was that of Harold 
“Grant” Snowden, whose wife had also run a babysitting service. Dozens of kids 
had passed through her care over the course of a decade. It took two trials, but 
Snowden was ultimately convicted. In 1983, he had been named the South 
Miami Police Department’s “Officer of the Year.” Stepping up to handle the 
appeal of his conviction was F. Lee Bailey, who in the late 1 960s had represented 
a U.S. Air Force Captain in South Carolina accused of molesting multiple child 
victims. Bailey will be revisited later in this book. 

Years later, in August 2002, Florida authorities issued a warrant for the arrest 
of a former minister and radio evangelist named Troy Cecil Snowden. A search of 
his Cape Coral home had yielded weapons, child pornography and other unspec- 
ified items. 

Chapter 6 

Finders Keepers 

“People want to believe that I am at the centre of everything. 
They are mistaken. . .1 did things of which I was not the driving 
force. I was used as an instrument by others, who were them- 
selves used as instruments by others. ” 

— Marc Dutroux 

J ust a few years after the conviction of Frank Fuster, another child exploitation 
case surfaced briefly in the state of Florida. On February 7, 1987, not long before 
the Larry King and Craig Spence operations were exposed, the Washington Post 
ran an interesting story that, at the time, did not seem to have any particular 
national significance. The article concerned a case of possible kidnapping and 
child abuse, and read in part as follows: 

Authorities investigating the alleged abuse of six children found 
with two men in a Tallahassee, Fla., park discovered material yesterday 
in the Washington area that they say points to a 1960’s style commune 
called the Finders, described in a court document as a ‘cult that 
allegedly conducted ‘brainwashing’ and used children ‘in rituals.’ 

D.C. police, who searched a Northeast Washington warehouse 
linked to the group removed large plastic bags filled with color slides, 
photographs and photographic contact sheets. Some photos visible 
through a bag carried from the warehouse at 1307 Fourth St. NE were 
wallet-sized pictures of children, similar to school photos, and some 
were of naked children. 

D.C. police sources said some of the items seized yesterday showed 
pictures of children engaged in what appeared to be ‘cult rituals.’ 
Officials of the U.S. Customs Service, called in to aid in the investiga- 
tion, said that the material seized yesterday includes photos showing 



Programmed to Kill 

children involved in bloodletting ceremonies of animals and one pho- 
tograph of a child in chains. 

Customs officials said they were looking into whether a child 
pornography operation was being conducted. . .Their links to the D.C. 
area have led authorities into a far-reaching investigation that includes 
the Finders — a group of about 40 people that court documents allege is 
led by a man named Marion Pettie — and their various homes, includ- 
ing the duplex apartment building in Glover Park, the Northeast 
Washington warehouse and a 90 acre farm in rural Madison County, 

The children, identified in a court document only by the first 
names of Honeybee, John, Franklin, Bee Bee, Max and Mary, were 
described as ‘dirty, unkempt, hungry, disturbed and agitated.’ They 
had been living in the rear of the van for some time, the document 
said. Yesterday, police spokesman Hunt said one of the children, a 6 yr. 
old girl, ‘showed signs of sexual abuse’. . . 

Five of the children were uncommunicative, according to police, 
and none seemed to recognize objects such as typewriters and staplers. 
However, the oldest was able to give investigators some information. 

She said that the two men ‘were their teachers,’ according to Hunt. . . 

Before their arrests in the park, [the two adult caretakers] had told 
police that they were teachers from Washington ‘transporting these 
children to Mexico and a school for brilliant children,’ according to 
Hunt. When police asked the men where the children’s mothers were 
they said they were being weaned from their mothers. 

It was nearly seven years before the press revisited the Finders case, with the 
follow-up provided by U.S. News and World Report. Most likely, the strange saga 
of the Finders would have disappeared forever if not for the rumors surrounding 
the case that just would not seem to go away. These rumors were addressed in the 
U.S. News report as follows: 

One of the unresolved questions involves allegations that the 
Finders are somehow linked to the Central Intelligence Agency. 
Customs Service documents reveal that in 1 987, when Customs agents 
sought to examine the evidence gathered by Washington, D.C. police, 
they were told that the Finders investigation ‘had become an internal 

David McGowan • 61 

The police report on the case had been classified secret. Even now, 
Tallahassee police complain about the handling of the Finders investi- 
gation by D.C. police. ‘They dropped this case,’ one Tallahassee inves- 
tigator says, ‘like a hot rock.’ D.C. police will not comment on the 
matter. As for the CIA, ranking officials describe allegations about links 
between the intelligence agency and the Finders as ‘hogwash,’ perhaps 
the result of a simple mix up with D.C. police. The only connection, 
according to the CIA: A firm that provided computer training to CIA 
officers also employed several members of the Finders. 

It should probably be noted here that the firm that supplied the training to 
CIA officers didn’t just employ several members of the Finders, but appears to 
have in fact been a wholly owned subsidiary of the Finders organization. It should 
also be noted that the CIA does not, as a general rule-of-thumb, assign the train- 
ing of its officers to outside contractors, unless, that is, the ‘private’ firm utilized 
in such a capacity is a CIA front. In the last paragraph of the U.S. News report, 
more intriguing connections to Fangley are revealed: “the CIA’s interest in the 
Finders may stem from the fact that [group leader Marion Pettie’s] late wife once 
worked for the agency and that his son worked for a CIA proprietary firm, Air 
America.” Aside from acknowledging these by then widely known (in 
Washington) CIA connections, the U.S. News reporters did their very best to 
bury the Finders story once and for all: 

The case is almost seven years old now, but matters surrounding a 
mysterious group known as the Finders keep growing curiouser and 

In early February 1987, an anonymous tipster in Tallahassee, Fla, 
made a phone call to police. Two ‘well dressed men’ seemed to be 
‘supervising’ six disheveled and hungry children in a local park, the 
caller said. The cops went after the case like bloodhounds, at least at 
first. The two men were identified as members of the Finders. They 
were charged with child abuse in Florida. In Washington, D.C., police 
and U.S. Customs Service agents raided a duplex apartment building 
and a warehouse connected to the group. 

Among the evidence seized — detailed instructions on obtaining 
children for unknown purposes and several photographs of nude chil- 

According to a Customs Service memorandum obtained by U.S. 
News, one photo appeared ‘to accent the child’s genitals.’ The more the 


Programmed to Kill 

police learned about the Finders, the more bizarre they seemed: There 
were suggestions of child abuse, Satanism, dealing in pornography and 
ritualistic animal slaughter. 

None of the allegations was ever proved, however. The child abuse 
charges against the two men in Tallahassee were dropped; all six of the 
children were eventually returned to their mothers, though in the case 
of two, conditions were attached by a court. In Washington, D.C., 
police began backing away from the Finders investigation. The group’s 
practices, the police said, were eccentric — not illegal. 

The article closed by complaining, “some of the rumors can last an awfully 
long time.” Indeed they can, though they have had to circulate outside of the 
media, which has never again mentioned the case. That does not mean, however, 
that there is no additional information available on the subject. As the U.S. News 
reporters noted in their report, there is a certain Customs Service memorandum 
that was written at the time of the original 1987 investigation. As that document 
was in the hands of the News reporters at the time the story was written, as they 
readily acknowledged, it should logically follow that any pertinent information 
contained therein would have been faithfully reported. And as we know, the News 
concluded: “none of the allegations was ever proved.” Still, it might be instructive 
to review the document to see what kind of “eccentric — not illegal” practices it 
was that the group was involved in. 

The memo in question is actually a series of memos that were written by U.S. 
Customs Service Special Agent Ramon J. Martinez. In the officer’s own words, 
this is what he observed while participating in the investigation: 

On Thursday, February 5, 1987, this office was contacted via tele- 
phone by Sergeant JoAnn VanMeter of the Tallahassee Police 
Department, Juvenile Division. Sgt. VanMeter requested assistance in 
identifying two adult males and six minor children ages 7 years to 2 

The adult males were tentatively identified by TPD as Michael 
Houlihan and Douglas Ammerman, both of Washington, D.C. who 
were arrested the previous day on charges of child abuse. 

The police had received an anonymous telephone call relative two 
well-dressed white men wearing suits and ties in Myers Park, 
(Tallahassee), apparently watching six dirty and unkempt children in 
the playground area. Houlihan and Ammerman were near a 1980 Blue 
Dodge van bearing Virginia license number XHW-557, the inside of 

David McGowan • 63 

which was later described as foul-smelling, filled with maps, books, let- 
ters, with a mattress situated to the rear of the van which appeared as if 
it were used as a bed, and the overall appearance of the van gave the 
impression that all eight persons were living in it. 

The children were covered with insect bites, were very dirty, most of 
the children were not wearing underwear and all of the children had 
not been bathed in many days. 

The men were arrested and charged with multiple counts of child 
abuse and lodged in the Leon County Jail. Once in custody the men 
were somewhat evasive in their answers to the police regarding the chil- 
dren and stated only that they both were the children’s teachers and 
that all were enroute to Mexico to establish a school for brilliant chil- 

U.S. Customs was contacted because the police officers involved 
suspected the adults of being involved in child pornography and knew 
the Customs Service to have a network of child pornography investiga- 
tors, and of the existence of the Child Pornography and Protection 
Unit. SS/A Krietlow stated the two adults were well dressed white 
males. They had custody of six white children (boys and girls), ages 
three to six years. The children were observed to be poorly dressed, 
bruised, dirty, and behaving like wild animals in a public park in 
Tallahassee... SS/A Krietlow was further advised the children were 
unaware of the function and purpose of telephones, televisions and toi- 
lets, and that the children had stated they were not allowed to live 
indoors and were only given food as a reward. . . 

Upon contacting Detective Bradley, I learned that he had initiated 
an investigation on the two addresses provided by the Tallahassee 
Police Dept, during December of 1986. An informant had given him 
information regarding a cult, known as the ‘Finders’ operating various 
businesses out of a warehouse located at 1307 4th St., N.E., and were 
supposed to be housing children at 3918/3920 W St., N.W. The infor- 
mation was specific in describing ‘blood rituals’ and sexual orgies 
involving children, and an as yet unsolved murder in which the Finders 
may be involved. With the information provided by the informant, 
Detective Bradley was able to match some of the children in 
Tallahassee with names of children known or alleged to be in the cus- 
tody of the Finders. Furthermore, Bradley was able to match the tenta- 
tive ID of the adults with known members of the Finders. I stood by 
while Bradley consulted with AUSA Plarry Benner and obtained search 
warrants for the two premises. I advised acting RAC SS/A Tim 


Programmed to Kill 

Halloran of my intention to accompany MPD on the execution of the 
warrants, received his permission, and was joined by SS/A Harrold. 
SS/A Harrold accompanied the team which went to 1307 4th St., and 
I went to 3918/20 W St. 

During the execution of the warrant at 3918/20 W St., I was able to 
observe and access the entire building. . .There were several subjects on 
the premises. Only one was deemed to be connected with the Finders. 
[He] was located in a room equipped with several computers, printers, 
and numerous documents. Cursory examination of the documents 
revealed detailed instructions for obtaining children for unspecified 
purposes. The instructions included the impregnation of female mem- 
bers of the community known as the Finders, purchasing children, 
trading, and kidnapping. There were telex messages using MCI 
account numbers between a computer terminal believed to be located 
in the same room, and others located across the country and in foreign 
locations. One such telex specifically ordered the purchase of two chil- 
dren in Hong Kong to be arranged through a contact in the Chinese 
Embassy there. Another telex expressed interest in ‘bank secrecy’ situa- 
tions. Other documents identified interests in high-tech transfers to 
the United Kingdom, numerous properties under the control of the 
Finders, a keen interest in terrorism, explosives, and the evasion of law 
enforcement. Also found in the ‘computer room’ was a detailed sum- 
mary of the events surrounding the arrest and taking into custody of 
the two adults and six children in Tallahassee the previous night. There 
were also a set of instructions which appeared to be broadcast via a 
computer network which advised the participants to move ‘the chil- 
dren’ and keep them moving through different jurisdictions, and 
instructions on how to avoid police attention. . . 

On Friday, 2/6/87, 1 met Detective Bradley at the warehouse on 4th 
Street, N.E. I duly advised my acting group supervisor, SS/A Don 
Bludworth. I was again granted unlimited access to the premises. I was 
able to observe numerous documents which described explicit sexual 
conduct between the members of the community known as Finders. I 
also saw a large collection of photographs of unidentified persons. 
Some of the photographs were nudes, believed to be of members of the 
Finders. There were numerous photos of children, some nude, at least 
one of which was a photo of a child ‘on display and appearing to 
accent the child’s genitals. I was only able to examine a very small 
amount of the photos at this time. However, one of the officers pre- 
sented me with a photo album for my review. The album contained a 

David McGowan • 65 

series of photos of adults and children dressed in white sheets partici- 
pating in a ‘blood ritual.’ The ritual centered around the execution of 
at least two goats. The photos portrayed the execution, disembowel- 
ment, skinning and dismemberment of the goats at the hands of the 
children. This included the removal of the testes of a male goat, the dis- 
covery of a female goat’s ‘womb’ and the ‘baby goats’ inside the womb, 
and the presentation of a goat’s head to one of the children. 

Further inspection of the premises disclosed numerous files relating 
to activities of the organization in different parts of the world. 
Locations I observed are as follows: London, Germany, the Bahamas, 
Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Africa, Costa Rica, and ‘Europe.’ There 
was also a file identified as ‘Palestinian.’ Other files were identified by 
member name or ‘project’ name. The projects appearing to be operated 
for commercial purposes under front names for the Finders. There was 
one file entitled ‘Pentagon Break-In,’ and others referring to members 
operating in foreign countries. Not observed by me but related by an 
MPD officer were intelligence files on private families not related to 
the Finders. The process undertaken appears to be have been a system- 
atic response to local newspaper advertisements for babysitters, tutors, 
etc. A member of the Finders would respond and gather as much infor- 
mation as possible about the habits, identity, occupation, etc., of the 
family. The use to which this information was to be put is still 
unknown. There was also a large amount of data collected on various 
child care organizations. 

The warehouse contained a large library, two kitchens, a sauna, hot- 
tub, and a ‘video room.’ The video room seemed to be set up as an 
indoctrination center. It also appeared that the organization had the 
capability to produce its own videos. There were what appeared to be 
training areas for children and what appeared to be an altar set up in a 
residential area of the warehouse. Many jars of urine and feces were 
located in this area. 

Contrary to the claims of U.S. News, running an international terrorist organ- 
ization specializing in the trafficking of children is definitely more than just 
“eccentric.” Unless, that is, the organization doing the trafficking is run by the 
Central Intelligence Agency. Group leader Marion Pettie shed additional light on 
his non-connections to the agency in an interview with Steamshovel Press in 1998. 
Recounting the history of his group, Pettie reminisced: “Going back to World 
War II, I kept open house mainly to intelligence people in Washington. OSS peo- 
ple passing through, things like that.” Pettie was not, mind you, an intelligence 


Programmed to Kill 

asset himself. In fact, he has spent his entire life serving as a counter-spy. As a pri- 
vate citizen, he has taken on the job of monitoring the agency. As for his wife, 
Pettie claims that he sent her “in as a spy, to spy on the CIA for me. She was very 
happy about it, happy to tell me everything she found out. She was in a key place, 
you know with the records, and she could find out things for me.” Presumably, 
the same applies to Pettie’s son. 

Pettie sums up his relationship with CIA by acknowledging that there “are 
some connections, but not to me personally.” Interestingly enough though, the 
group that claimed no direct connection to the intelligence community quite 
obviously had very powerful people within that community protecting it. As the 
final Customs Service memo reveals: 

On Thursday, February 5, 1987, Senior Special Agent Harrold and 
I assisted the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Police Department 
(MPD) with two search warrants involving the possible sexual 
exploitation of children. During the course of the search warrants, 
numerous documents were discovered which appeared to be concerned 
with international trafficking in children, high tech transfer to the 
United Kingdom, and international transfer of currency. 

On March 31, 1987, I contacted Detective Jim Bradley of the 
Washington, DC Metropolitan Police Department (MPD). I was to 
meet with Detective Bradley to review the documents seized pursuant 
to two search warrants executed in January, 1987. The meeting was to 
take place on April 2 or 3, 1987. 

On April 2, 1987, I arrived at MPD at approximately 9:00 a.m. 
Detective Bradley was not available. I spoke to a third party who was 
willing to discuss the case with me on a strictly ‘off the record’ basis. 

I was advised that all the passport data had been turned over to the 
State Department for their investigation. The State Department, in 
turn, advised the MPD that all travel and use of the passports by the 
holders of the passports was within the law and no action would be 
taken. This included travel to Moscow, North Korea, and North 
Vietnam from the late 1950s to mid 1970s. 

The individual further advised me of circumstances which indicated 
that the investigation into the activity of the Finders had become a CIA 
internal matter. The MPD report has been classified SECRET and was 
not available for review. I was advised that the FBI had withdrawn 
from the investigation several weeks prior and that the FBI Foreign 
Counter Intelligence Division had directed MPD not to advise the FBI 
Washington Field Office of anything that had transpired. 

David McGowan • 67 

The initial arrest of the Finders in Tallahassee went almost completely unno- 
ticed by the media. So too did another arrest in that same state in August 2000, 
just before Florida gained newfound fame as the land of the ‘hanging chads.’ The 
arrested man was Wayne Camolli, and the charge was operating an on-line child 
pornography site. The Los Angeles Times reported that the West Palm Beach home 
in which Camolli was arrested, not unlike the Finders’ van, “was filled with so 
much rotting garbage, trash and cat feces that the agents had to borrow oxygen 
masks and hazardous materials suits from the county fire department to carry out 
the search.” Seized in the raid were numerous videotapes and a computer. What 
makes Camolli’s arrest of significance here is that, as the Times noted, it was initi- 
ated by police “investigating Belgium’s most notorious pedophile murder case.” It 
seems that Camolli had close connections to “Felix DeConinck, a suspect in the 
kidnapping and molestation of a 1 4-year-old girl. . . [and] DeConinck in turn had 
links to Marc Dutroux.” 

And so it is that we end up right back where we began, with the case of the 
‘Belgian Beast.’ The brief Times report closed with these words: “U.S. officials 
couldn’t elaborate on the connection between DeConinck and Dutroux, but said 
they were part of the same ‘child pornography, molestation and murder investiga- 
tion.’” It is unlikely that the press will ever revisit the case of Wayne Camolli. 
Tellingly, the L.A. Times article quickly disappeared from the newspaper’s online 
archives. As with so many other cases, the final words of the U.S. Customs 
Service memorandum on the Finders investigation will likely provide the epitaph 
for this case as well: 

No further information will be available. No further action will be 

The Guardian reported in January 200 1 that Interpol, the international police 
agency, “has agreed to set up an electronic library of child sex victims at its head- 
quarters in Lyon, France.” The first images that were to be processed into that 
database were 750,000 photos seized by British authorities in the Wonderland 
raids. In April 2003, Britain’s The Register reported that the U.S. Justice 
Department was setting up an even larger database: 

A huge database system designed to find sexually abused children is 
under development in the US... The US Justice Department’s Child 
Victim Identification Program will include a catalogue of thousands of 
illicit pictures seized from suspects and collected from the Web. This 


Programmed to Kill 

could make the Justice Department the “owner of the world’s largest 
collection of child pornography,” AP reports. 

According to that AP report, child pornography investigators in several coun- 
tries had already contributed images to the database, as had “the FBI, Secret 
Service, Postal Inspection Service and exploited-children groups.” The goal is for 
the system to “eventually include most of the illicit photographs in circulation on 
the Internet.” Advanced image recognition software will be utilized in an attempt 
match and identify the children in the photographic images, which will, as The 
Register noted, make it easier “to identify and locate sexually abused children.” 
That is certainly an encouraging development, if, that is, it represents a sincere 
effort by law enforcement personnel to gather evidence against the child exploita- 
tion rings and aid the physically and emotionally ravaged victims. 

However, there could also be a very sinister goal being pursued. Researcher 
Arlene Tyner, who has spent a considerable amount of time interviewing and cor- 
responding with victims of mind control operations, noted in a Probe magazine 
article that some of these victims “were turned over to military/CLA doctors by 
pedophile fathers or other sexually abusive relatives. CIA officials also black- 
mailed family members known to produce ‘kiddie porn’ in order to gain control 
of their already abused and psychologically fragmented children.” It is certainly 
within the realm of possibility that the high profile child pornography raids in 
recent years, which invariably result in relatively few arrests and even fewer pros- 
ecutions and convictions, are not intended to punish the victimizers, but to iden- 
tify and compromise them. And is it not inconceivable that the databases being 
compiled will be utilized as something of a recruitment list to identify those per- 
sons who have been ‘preconditioned,’ so to speak, for future mind control opera- 

One thing can be stated with certainty about the thousands of victims of 
today’s child pornography and child prostitution rings: some day, many of them 
will come forward to tell harrowing stories of their early childhood abuse. They 
will speak of acts of depravity committed against children that are so heinous as 
to be almost beyond human comprehension. And yet, as difficult as their stories 
will be to believe, they will be documented by the images stored in Interpol’s 
computers, and in the U.S. Justice Department’s computers. 

But how many of these victims will be believed? 



“ You don’t understand me. You are not expected to. You are not 
capable of it. Iam beyond good and evil. Legions of the night, night 
breed, repeat not the errors of the Night Prowler and show no 
mercy. ” 

— Richard “The Night Stalker” Ramirez 

“There are other ‘Sons’ out there — God help the world. ” 

— David “Son of Sam” Berkowitz 

“What about your children? You say there are just a few? There are 
many, many more, coming in the same direction. They are running 
in the streets — and they are coming right at you!” 

— Charles Milles Manson 

“The really scary thing is that there are a lot of people who are not 
in prison, a lot of people who are not in prison, who were far more 
successful than I. ” 

— Theodore Robert Bundy 

“All across the country, there’s people just like me, who set out to 
destroy human life. ” 

— Henry Lee Lucas 

Chapter 7 

Sympathy for the Devil 

“Henry is an unusual prisoner. He’s been given a high security 
cell and a few special amenities. . . ” 

— Jim Boutwell, Sheriff of Williamson County, Texas 

On June 30, 1998, Henry Lee Lucas — arguably the most prolific and certainly 
one of the most sadistic serial killers in the annals of American crime — was sched- 
uled for execution by the state of Texas. Given the advocacy of the death penalty 
by then-Governor George W. Bush, things were not looking good for Henry. 
Bush had not granted clemency to any condemned man throughout his tenure as 
governor. In fact, no governor of any state at any time in the history of the coun- 
try had carried out more judicial executions than Governor Bush. So Texas was 
definitely not the place to be for a man in Henry’s position. And considering the 
nature of Lucas’ crimes, it seemed a certainty that nothing would stand in the way 
of his scheduled execution. 

Henry did not attract any high-profile supporters, the way that Karla Faye 
Tucker did. Then again, even personal appeals to Bush from the likes of Pat 
Robertson failed to dissuade the governor from proceeding on schedule with 
Miss Tucker’s execution. There was nothing to indicate that Henry would fare 
any better, particularly since his crimes were of a particularly brutal nature, 
involving rape, torture, mutilation, dismemberment, necrophilia, cannibalism, 
and pedophilia. His tally of victims ran as high as 300-600 by some accounts — 
including Henry’s own, at times — though such figures are likely inflated. What 
seems certain is that Lucas — frequently working with erstwhile partner Ottis 
Toole, a self-described arsonist and cannibal — savagely murdered dozens of vic- 
tims of various ages, races, and genders. All indications were then that Henry’s 
execution was a foregone conclusion. 

Then a most remarkable thing happened. On June 18, just twelve days before 
Henry’s scheduled demise, Governor Bush made a special request that the Texas 



Programmed to Kill 

State Board of Pardons and Paroles, whose members were all Bush appointees, to 
review Henry’s case. Strangely enough, eight days later the Board uncharacteristi- 
cally issued a recommendation that Henry’s execution not take place. The next 
day, just three days short of Henry’s scheduled exit from this world, Lucas became 
the first — and ultimately the only — recipient of Governor Bush’s ‘compassionate 
conservatism.’ The official rationale for this act of mercy was that the evidence on 
which Lucas was sentenced did not support his conviction. There was a possibil- 
ity, said the Board, that Henry was in fact innocent of the crime for which he was 

The problem here is that many of the 150+ death-row inmates who did not 
receive special gubernatorial attention prior to their executions had evidence sup- 
porting their claims of innocence, and yet their appeals to the governor were met 
with scorn and mockery. So why had Bush suddenly developed a keen interest in 
not executing innocent convicts? And why, once Henry’s life was spared, did he 
promptly lose this passing interest and begin once again rubber-stamping every 
execution order that crossed his desk — including one for a great-grandmother in 
her sixties who was convicted of killing her chronically abusive husband? And 
why is it that Henry was granted full clemency, rather than a temporary stay dur- 
ing which his case could have been reviewed? That is exactly what Bush did in the 
case of convicted murderer Ricky Nolen McGinn. Tellingly, the proliferation of 
press reports on the McGinn case made no mention of the governor’s earlier 
actions on behalf of Lucas. 

And what if Lucas was in fact falsely convicted, and what if his innocence was 
so obvious that the governor had no choice but to commute Henry’s sentence? 
What then does that say about the Texas criminal justice system and the ease with 
which it sends innocent men to their deaths? Are we to believe that Henry’s case 
was an isolated one and that none of the other men put to death during Bush’s 
reign had equally credible claims of innocence? And what are we to make of the 
rather peculiar fact that while Henry has been convicted of no fewer than eleven 
homicides, the only death sentence he ever received was the one that the governor 
had no problem setting aside? Maybe Henry just had uncannily good luck. He 
had at one time been scheduled to stand trial for four additional homicides — 
crimes for which his partner had already been convicted. The trial, however, was 
canceled on economic grounds, said to be a waste of taxpayer money since Henry 
was already scheduled to die. 

Was Henry just extraordinarily lucky to have his only death sentence set aside 
by a governor who handed out but one commutation? Or was there something 
more at work in the Lucas case? Surely there had to be some reason why Bush 
would take uncharacteristic actions to spare the life of a man who had led a life of 
such brutality. And this was certainly not the first time the criminal justice system 

David McGowan • 73 

had shown such inexplicable leniency towards Lucas. The first big break for 
Henry came in June 1970, when he was released early from a sentence he was 
then serving following his first murder conviction. Sentenced to 20—40 years, 
Henry was released after serving ten, just after he appeared before the parole 
board and explained to them that he was not ready to return to society and would 
surely kill again if released. As Henry told it, the questioning went something like 
this: “Now, Mr. Lucas, I must ask you, if we grant your parole, will you kill 
again?” Henry: “Yes, sir! If you release me now, I will kill again.” 

Nevertheless, the board decided that ten years was an adequate amount of 
time to serve for the crime of killing his mother. Within a year of his release, 
Henry found himself back in prison after attempting to abduct a young girl. 
Despite his prior criminal record — which began long before the killing of his 
mother — Lucas served just four years before again being granted an early release, 
this time in August 1975. Beginning shortly thereafter, and continuing for nearly 
eight years, Henry and his new friend, Ottis, committed an untold number of 
lurid murders. Henry was finally arrested in October 1982 on suspicion of com- 
mitting two murders, but he was promptly released. He was not arrested again, 
for the last time, until June 1983. 

After the final arrest, Henry was taken on tour, so to speak, by various law 
enforcement officials around the country, during which time he confessed to 
committing some 600 murders in 26 states. There were various charges made at 
the time that Henry was being used by his escorts to clear troublesome, unsolved 
murders in places he had never even been. That quite likely was the case. Henry 
seemed to have a very chummy relationship with his captors, particularly the 
Texas Rangers, and provided a valuable service to them by taking the rap for an 
amazing array of murders. That alone, however, does not explain the personal 
attention given to Henry’s case by Governor Bush. 

For that, we need to look at some of the more infrequently noted details of 
Henry’s life history, many of which have been provided by Lucas himself. Henry, 
as it turns out, has some interesting tales to tell. Just a couple years into his incar- 
ceration, he told his story in a book written for him by a sympathetic author. The 
book, entitled The Hand of Death: The Henry Lee Lucas Story, tells of Henry’s 
indoctrination into a nationwide satanic cult. Lucas claimed that he was trained 
by the cult in a mobile paramilitary training camp in the Florida Everglades. His 
training, he said, included instruction in abduction and arson techniques, as well 
as in the fine art of killing, up close and personal. Henry further claimed that 
leaders of the camp were so impressed with his handling of a knife that he was 
allowed to serve as an instructor. Following his training, Henry claimed that he 
served the cult in various ways, including as a contract killer and as an abductor 
of children, whom he delivered to a ranch in Mexico near Juarez. Once there, 


Programmed to Kill 

they were used in the production of child pornography and for ritual sacrifices. 
Henry has said that this cult’s operations were based in Texas, and included traf- 
ficking in children and drugs, among other illegal pursuits. 

What Henry claimed, essentially, is that what appeared to be the random work 
of a serial killer was in fact a planned series of crimes often committed for specific 
purposes. Some of the murders were political hits, according to Henry, including 
assassinations of foreign dignitaries, local politicians and wealthy businessmen. 
This was not true for all of Henry’s crimes. Some he did just because that is what 
he liked to do. And it was the one thing that he was really good at. The beauty of 
this arrangement was that it allowed Henry to conceal the true motive for many 
of his crimes. Those performed as contract hits looked like all of his murders — 
senseless and random acts of violence. 

In Henry’s version of events, it was Toole who was responsible for Henry’s 
recruitment and training by the cult, and for many of the pair’s exploits there- 
after. Interestingly, in ail the standard biographies of the pair, Toole is said to have 
been Henry’s severely retarded, and decidedly junior, partner. It is quite clear 
though from reading an interview granted by Toole to a journalist (of sorts) that 
he was not by any means retarded. Uneducated, no doubt, but certainly not 
severely retarded. Ottis was able to express himself quite clearly, though per- 
versely, and displayed a substantial level of knowledge about the practices of 
Satanism — which isn’t really surprising given that he was, as Joel Norris has writ- 
ten, “raised as the Devil’s child’ by his Satanist grandmother.” 

Toole has described a childhood that was complete with all the trappings of 
satanic ritual abuse. He has told of being forced to have sex with numerous fam- 
ily members and others — including his father, his stepfather, his stepfather’s 
friends, and his older sister Drusilla. His grandmother, who lived with Ottis’ 
father as man and wife, although they were actually mother and son, is said to 
have been a member of a multi-generational death cult. Toole once explained to 
an interviewer how he had “been involved in all this since I was a child, through 
the cult, you know.” He has spoken of having urine poured on him, of eating dog 
meat, and of watching two cats fight to their death while their blood dripped 
down upon him. Ottis also had this to say of his childhood years: “I used to go 
with my grandmother into graveyards — we used to dig up all kinds of bones — 
and she used to take the bones and do devil worship.” He has also told of once 
being forced into a grave to pluck the bones from a freshly rotting corpse. Young 
Ottis was also frequently dosed with barbiturates, and he has said that he “used to 
hear voices.” 

Toole’s older sister, Drusilla, spent time in a mental hospital, after which she 
reportedly committed suicide. Her children were placed in the care of their Uncle 
Ottis and his friend Henry Lee Lucas. Two of them, Frieda and Frank Powell, 

David McGowan • 75 

accompanied the pair on their homicidal wanderings and were forced to witness, 
and at times participate in, the rape, killing and mutilation of the victims. Frieda 
{aka Becky) ended up scattered in a field after suffering years of sexual abuse at 
the hands of Henry and Ottis. Frank fared slightly better; he was committed to a 
mental hospital. A third sibling, Sarah Pierce, who shared with her Uncle Ottis a 
passion for arson, was convicted and imprisoned for indulging her passion. 

Lucas also suffered through an incomprehensibly abusive childhood. In fact, 
when it comes to early childhood abuse, there are few parents of future serial 
killers who can compare to Viola Lucas, Henry’s mother. So severe was her phys- 
ical abuse of young Henry that he once slipped into a coma for a day following a 
particularly brutal beating. On another occasion — through a combination of 
abuse and neglect — Henry lost one of his eyes. Viola was, as is the case with the 
mothers of many serial killers, a prostitute. She routinely entertained her cus- 
tomers in the presence of Henry, who was compelled to watch. Viola also dressed 
young Henry up as a girl for the first seven years of his life and prostituted him 
out to her customers. Toole has also spoken of being forced to dress as a girl. 

Though Henry and Ottis may represent extreme cases, their horrific child- 
hoods should not come as much of a surprise to most readers. That serial killers 
have suffered abusive childhoods has become something of a cliche. It is a fact 
that is acknowledged in most serial killer biographies, though it is usually fol- 
lowed by the caveat that such a childhood history does not excuse subsequent 
actions. Western society preaches that we are ultimately responsible for our own 
actions. Scapegoating society, or a horrendously abusive childhood, is simply not 
acceptable. Do we not all, after all, act of our own free will, regardless of our past? 

That is certainly what we have been conditioned to believe. But what if we do 
not all act of our own free will? What if a lifetime of being bombarded with prop- 
aganda has, to some extent, deprived us all of that ability? And what if some of us 
have been completely robbed of the ability to exercise free will? And what if suf- 
fering through a chronically abusive childhood lays the groundwork for that to 
occur? What if Viola Lucas was right when she told young Henry; “I’m going to 
teach you the beauty of pain and you’re going to be my slave for the rest of your 
life.” And what if Henry could only break the bonds of that slavery by killing dear 
old mom? And, finally, what if by killing her, Lucas only succeeded in acquiring a 
new slave-master? 

What are we to make of Henry’s bizarre tale of being a contract killer? And 
what of Henry’s other stories, including the one about being a close friend of Jim 
Jones of the People’s Temple? Henry claimed on numerous occasions that it was 
he who was taken on a chartered plane to Guyana to personally deliver the 
cyanide to Jones that was allegedly used in the now infamous Jonestown mas- 
sacre. What are we to make of such stories? Could Henry have been telling the 


Programmed to Kill 

truth about being a contract killer? And if so, did the contracts he was receiving 
have some kind of government connection? Though Henry did not address the 
subject in his book, the training camp, as he described it, clearly had military 
connections. And Henry has explicitly stated that the cult included among its 
members various socially prominent individuals, including high-level politicians. 

Could that be the reason for the actions taken by Governor George W. Bush 
in June 1998? 

“They think I’m stupid, but before all this is over everyone will 

know who’s really stupid. And we’ll see who the real criminals 


— Henry Lee Lucas 

Chapter 8 

Henry: Portrait of 
an MK-ULTRA Assassin? 

“[It is] being like a movie star. . .you’re just playing the part. ” 

— Henry Lee Lucas, describing what it is 
like to be a serial killer 

A. U.S. Navy psychologist. . .claims that the Office of Naval Intelligence 
had taken convicted murderers from military prisons, used behavior 
modification techniques on them, and then relocated them in American 
embassies throughout the world... The Navy psychologist was Lt. 
Commander Thomas Narut of the U.S. Regional Medical Center in 
Naples, Italy. The information was divulged at an Oslo NATO confer- 
ence of 120 psychologists from the eleven nation alliance. . .The Navy 
provided all the funding necessary, according to Narut. 

Dr. Narut, in a question and answer session with reporters from 
many nations, revealed how the Navy was secretly programming large 
numbers of assassins. He said that the men he had worked with for the 
Navy were being prepared for commando-type operations, as well as 
covert operations in U.S. embassies worldwide. He described the men 
who went through his program as ‘hit men and assassins’ who could 
kill on command. 

Careful screening of the subjects was accomplished by Navy psy- 
chologists through the military records. . .and many were convicted 
murderers serving military prison sentences. 

So said the Napa Sentinel, in a series of articles published in August-November, 
1991. Anyone familiar with the intelligence community’s long-standing obsession 



Programmed to Kill 

with the concept of mind control will immediately recognize what Dr. Narut was 
describing as an MK- ULTRA project. The existence of this particular manifesta- 
tion of the project was first reported by British journalist Peter Watson of the 
Sunday Times, who attended the conference and interviewed Dr. Narut, who told 
him that they looked for candidates who had shown a proclivity for violence. This 
was at a time when numerous pseudo-investigations of the intelligence commu- 
nity were being undertaken, including those by the Rockefeller, Pike, and Church 
Committees. Narut told Watson that he was revealing what was obviously highly 
classified information only because he assumed that it was about to surface any- 

As it turned out, Narut seriously overestimated the interest of the various 
committees in practicing full disclosure. After making his unauthorized com- 
ments, Narut promptly disappeared from public view. He reappeared briefly to 
make a feeble attempt at retracting his prior statements, but at that point, it was 
a little too late. Watson went on to expand upon his initial research to produce a 
book, War on the Mind, which was one of the better books from the late 1970s on 
the subject of mind control and psychological warfare research by the intelligence 
community. Walter Bowart referenced Watson’s work as well, in his difficult-to- 
find Operation Mind Control. So this cat, once let out of the bag, proved rather 
difficult to stuff back inside. 

The intelligence community, it seemed, was recruiting from prisons to make 
use of the natural talents of convicted killers to produce the fabled ‘Manchurian 
Candidates’ — otherwise known as mind controlled assassins. The operation 
described by Narut involved killers drawn from military prisons, though there is 
a good possibility that parallel programs were being conducted in civilian prisons 
as well. Prisons, after all, have provided fertile ground for any number of MK- 
ULTRA sub-projects for decades. As the Napa Sentinel article noted, “Mind con- 
trol experiments... permeate mental institutions and prisons.” That was 
particularly true in the 1960s and 1970s. 

The NATO conference at which Dr. Narut dropped his bombshell was held in 
July 1975. Strangely enough, the very next month, August 1975, Henry Lee 
Lucas was released early from prison to begin his eight-year reign of terror. 
Strangely enough, during his prior ten-year prison stay, Henry spent four-and-a- 
halfoi those years in a mental ward. Throughout that time, he received intensive 
drug and electroshock treatments. He later described that period of incarceration 
as a “nightmare that would not end.” During that time, he complained con- 
stantly about hearing voices in his head, taunting him day and night. This was 
ostensibly the reason for his confinement in the mental ward, though it could just 
as well have been the result of his confinement and treatment. Henry later spent 
additional time in an institution in 1980, in the midst of his killing spree. 

David McGowan • 79 

Is it possible that Henry was recruited and programmed while in prison, so 
that he could later be used by the so-called Hand of Death cult? Lucas himself 
said that he emerged from prison a changed man: before his incarceration, he 
killed only in the heat of the moment, but when he re-entered society it was with 
a cold-blooded determination and the professed desire to kill as many people as 
possible. And he certainly had shown a voracious appetite for violence, enough so 
to make him a very attractive candidate for an assassin-training program. Indeed, 
Henry is just the kind of man who would be considered a valuable asset by the 
intelligence community. 

For anyone who doubts that the CIA (or any other of the numerous inter- 
woven intelligence agencies) would recruit such a man, it is important to remem- 
ber that we are talking here about the same agencies that recruited some of the 
most notorious war criminals of the Third Reich — men like Klaus Barbie, Joseph 
Mengele, Adolph Eichmann, Otto Skorzeny, and Reinhard Gehlen. Henry’s 
depravity pales in the shadows of men such as those. Lucas probably couldn’t even 
hold his own against some of the organized crime figures — like Lucky Luciano, 
Meyer Lansky and Santos Trafficante — who were likewise recruited by the U.S. 
intelligence community. Or against the numerous thugs that the CIA has 
propped up as dictators around the world — men such as Somoza, Pinochet, 
Duvalier and Pahlavi, to name just a few. 

In the company of such men, Henry would be just one of the boys — no less 
valuable an asset than, say, Dan Mitrione, the CIA torture aficionado who was a 
boyhood friend of the infamous Jim Jones. Mitrione — known for having home- 
less persons kidnapped for the purpose of giving torture demonstrations to South 
American security forces in his sound-proof, underground chamber of horrors — 
was hailed as a hero and martyr when he himself was tortured and killed. Frank 
Sinatra and Jerry Lewis even flew into his hometown and performed a benefit 
show to raise money for the widow of such a great American. So in the world of 
spooks, Henry would be in good company, as would his partner, Ottis Toole, 
who would not even have the distinction of being the only cannibal recruited by 
the CIA. As Douglas Valentine revealed in The Phoenix Program (the CIA’s assas- 
sination, torture and terror program waged against the people of Vietnam), the 
Phoenix teams consisted of U.S. Navy SEALs working with “CTs,” described by 
one participant as “a combination of ARVN deserters, VC turncoats, and bad 
motherfucker criminals the South Vietnamese couldn’t deal with in prison, so 
they turned them over to us.” The spooks were only too happy to employ the 
services of these men, who “taught [their] SEAL comrades the secrets of the psy- 
war campaign.” So depraved were the agency recruits that some of them “would 
actually devour their enemies’ vital organs.” All in a days work for America’s pre- 
mier intelligence agency. 


Programmed to Kill 

Also included in the CIA rogues’ gallery of distinguished alumni, according to 
a number of researchers, is Lucas’ self-described “close friend,” the aforemen- 
tioned Jim Jones. What then are we to make of Henry’s professed connection to 
the tragic People’s Temple? Several investigators have documented that the 
Jonestown massacre was not by any means a case of mass suicide, as was reported 
by the U.S. press. It was in fact a case of mass murder. The Guyanese coroner, Dr. 
C. Leslie Mootoo, concluded that only a handful of the 913 victims at Jonestown 
died by means of suicide on that fateful day. All of the rest were summarily exe- 
cuted, some by lethal injection, some by strangulation, and some simply shot 
through the head. It is apparent then that if Lucas was in fact at Jonestown at the 
time of the mass murder, he was quite likely doing considerably more than just 
serving as a delivery boy. A man of Henry’s talents would be an invaluable asset in 
a clean-up operation of that type. And what was being cleaned up was, of course, 
itself an MK-ULTRA project — complete with vast stockpiles of drugs, sensory 
deprivation equipment, and a band of zombie -like assassins who gunned down 
Congressman Leo Ryan’s entourage just before the massacre (thus necessitating 
the clean-up operation). 

It is strange then that Henry would claim a connection to a man whose oper- 
ation was notable primarily for being a breeding ground for mind control, assas- 
sins, and mass murder. 

Several years after the publication of Henry’s book, journalist Maury Terry 
told a story with chilling parallels to the one told by Henry and Ottis. What Terry 
revealed, in The Ultimate Evil, is that the murders attributed to the Son of Sam 
and the Manson Family, as well as numerous other interconnected killings, 
including possibly the Zodiac murders, were not what they appeared to be. 
Rather than the random work of serial/mass murderers, many were actually con- 
tract hits carried out for specific purposes by an interlocking network of Satanic 
cults. In other words, they were professional hits orchestrated and disguised to 
look like the work of yet another ‘lone nut’ serial killer. That is, of course, exactly 
what Henry claimed his crimes to be, several years before Terry published his 
compellingly documented work. 

Terry’s book has been unfairly maligned by much of the media His con- 
tention is that David Berkowitz had nothing to do with the planning of the 
killings; he was just one of several gunmen. Berkowitz was essentially a patsy 
who took the fall to protect the rest of the cult, particularly those members who 
travel in the upper strata of society. That scenario has been roundly ridiculed. 
Many of Terry’s critics have pointed to the fact that Ed Sanders’ The Family, 
which in a sense laid the groundwork for Terry’s later work, was recalled by its 
publisher and reissued sans two crucial chapters. That is purported to be proof 
that the allegations both authors make, particularly the allegations regarding the 

David McGowan • 81 

Process Church, are without substance. What such critics unerringly fail to men- 
tion is that it was only the U.S. publisher that bowed to pressure to recall the 
book. The book’s publisher in the UK, on the other hand, stood behind the 
book and its author — a decision that withstood legal challenges. 

Terry’s numerous critics also unerringly fail to mention that Queens’ District 
Attorney John Santucci reopened the Son of Sam case in 1979 after concluding 
that Berkowitz did not act alone: “I believe David Berkowitz did not act alone — 
that in fact others did cooperate, aid and abet him in the commission of these 
crimes.” Among other things, Santucci pointed out “the sketches of the individu- 
als — the composites — were at wide divergence from Berkowitz.” And indeed, 
they were. In fact, the sketches were “at wide divergence” from one another; as the 
New York Post noted, “the identikit drawings of the NYPD, which some say are 
better than photographs, give seven different looks to the killer.” Santucci also 
noted, as did the Post, that “an unusual number of people” who were connected 
to the case, and who were identified by Berkowitz as being complicit in the 
crimes, “are no longer living.” Berkowitz, by the way, had a number of interesting 
connections. Police found numerous telephone numbers scrawled on the walls of 
his apartment, including: the unlisted, private home numbers of prominent doc- 
tors living on Long Island; the number for a large Scientology training center in 
Florida; and the number for the Montauk Golf and Racquet Club, an exclusive 
country club on Long Island that lies adjacent to a purportedly closed military 
base that has been tenuously linked by researchers to ongoing mind control oper- 

A more recent case, unreported in the American press, closely mirrors the sce- 
nario portrayed by Terry — complete with a patsy taking the fall for the crimes of 
the socially prominent and a trail of dead witnesses/accomplices. In 1994, a farm- 
hand named Pietro Pacciani was convicted of fourteen serial killings committed 
in Italy’s Tuscan woods. In April 2001, the UK’s The Times reported that the case 
had “returned to haunt Italy — and in a new, even more sinister guise... police in 
Florence have reopened the case ‘in the light of new evidence.’ And the evidence 
suggests that while Pacciani may indeed have carried out the murders, or some of 
them, the real masterminds behind the gruesome killings were a group of ‘high 
society satanists’ who carried out — and perhaps still carry out — ‘weird rituals that 
beggar belief’ behind the respectable facades of their Tuscan villas, led by a ‘dis- 
tinguished doctor’ with a ‘sick and twisted mind.’” 

In August 2001, the Guardian added: “Police now believe that a group of 
between 10 and 12 wealthy, sophisticated Italians orchestrated ritualised murders 
over the course of three decades and got away with it, allowing their careers and 
reputations to blossom to this day.” These unidentified suspects were described as 
an “occult group which directed the... murders.” The Times article noted that 


Programmed to Kill 

Pacciani’s “conviction was overturned on appeal, but he was about to be retried — 
which is possible under Italian law — when he died, supposedly of a heart attack.” 
According to the investigating magistrate on the case, Paolo Canessa, Pacciani’s 
death was definitely not due to natural causes: “Someone was prescribing medi- 
cine that killed rather than cured Pacciani.” 

Pacciani’s defense attorney, Carmelo Lavorino, has noted that, at the time of 
Pacciani’s death, “he wasn’t in any danger.” He has also said that evidence at the 
scene suggested that Pacciani had been dragged by his feet after his death. The 
most likely explanation is obviously that Pacciani was eliminated, as the Guardian 
put it, “lest he reveal the real monster, or monsters.” According to the Times, a 
number of other suspicious deaths have surrounded the case: “Renato Malatesta, 
Pacciani’s close friend, was found hanging in a stable with his feet still resting 
firmly on the ground. . .Malatesta’s daughter Milva was found dead with her 
three-year-old son in a burnt-out Fiat Panda... another burnt-out car was found 
containing the body of Milva Malatesta’s lover, Francesco Vinci, another Pacciani 
acquaintance. . .A year later came the murder of Anna Milva Mettei, a local pros- 
titute who had had an affair with Vinci’s son, whose body was also burnt.” 

Investigators have now come to the belated realization that a large network of 
people were involved in the killings, some “studying the most likely spots in 
which to strike,” while others served “as lookouts. They all took orders from one 
person who... then took part himself in the actual killings and mutilations.” 
Investigators also now believe “the female body parts [the left breasts and the gen- 
itals] were used in black masses at night in remote Tuscan farmhouses.” Among 
those now being sought by authorities is a ‘“mystery woman,’ perhaps a member 
of the doctor’s circle, who beat up Pacciani’s elderly wife in January 1996, 
knocked her out with sleeping pills and searched the house from top to bottom.” 
Also sought is an artist who Pacciani worked for as a gardener, and whose home 
was found to contain incriminating evidence. He disappeared just days before the 
trial began and he is believed to be hiding out in, of all places, Belgium. 

By September, yet more of the cover-up was unraveling. The Observer dropped 
a bombshell: “The “Monster of Florence may have been a Satanic sect bankrolled 
by the secret service.” Suspects by then included “a doctor, ambassador and an 
artist.” Pacciani’s death was “being treated as a murder,” and questions were being 
raised about his unexplained wealth — which included two houses and more than 
$75,000 in cash. Michele Giuttari, the investigating magistrate on the case, who 
has received death threats, has said that the Monster of Florence was not Pacciani, 
but a “cultured man of great professional success, esteemed and powerful, but 
with psychopathic hidden impulses. It makes you wonder how many Jekylls and 
Hydes there are in civilised cities like Florence.” Indeed, it does. 

David McGowan • 83 

Consider the “civilised” city of Auxerre, France. In late March 2002, the 
Guardian ran a brief report by correspondent Jon Henley that began as follows: 

The French justice ministry took disciplinary action yesterday 
against three prosecutors involved in the case of an alleged serial killer 
who escaped prosecution for more than 20 years. 

The justice minister, Marylise Lebranchu, sacked one prosecutor, 
Daniel Stilinovic, and transferred another, Jacques Cazals, from his 
post in the Paris public prosecutor’s office, for their negligence in the 
case of Emile Louis. . . 

A third, retired, prosecutor, Rene Meyer, was stripped of his hon- 
orary title. All three magistrates worked in the northern Burgundy city 
of Auxerre in the 1980s and 1990s and were found guilty by a discipli- 
nary panel of a range of serious errors, including “lack of professional 

Fifteen months before that report, Emile Louis had confessed to murdering 
seven mentally handicapped women who had disappeared without a trace 
between 1977 and 1979. He had subsequently withdrawn his confession and 
asserted that the girls had been “abused, abducted and finally killed by a ring of 
high-ranking local men.” At the time of the women’s disappearances, investiga- 
tions had been hastily dropped and the missing women listed as runaways. It was 
not until more than two decades later, following Louis’ confession, that a serious 
inquiry was made into the fate of the missing girls. That inquiry led to what the 
Guardian referred to as “further, even more disturbing discoveries”: 

The chief prosecutor in Auxerre, Suzanne le Queau, said late last 
year that almost all the inquiries into the cases of about 30 young 
women who vanished in Burgundy over the past 30 years had been 
either mysteriously shelved or deliberately mishandled. 

Moreover, the files relating to most of the criminal inquiries shelved 
in Auxerre between 1958 and 1982 — including 17 missing young 
women — had been either stolen or destroyed, and a dozen post- 1982 
inquiries involving missing young women for which the files still 
remained had all been inexplicably dropped. 

Lawyers for the victims’ families are talking of a sex ring which 
abducted, raped and murdered up to 30 girls in the 70s and 80s and 
was powerful enough to stifle any subsequent investigation. A full 


Programmed to Kill 

inquiry into what may prove the biggest cover-up in French legal his- 
tory is under way. 

In July 2002, the Monster of Florence case was in the news once again. A 
series of profaned corpses were turning up, and there were indications that these 
crimes, committed against the corpses of the elderly, were linked to the case. The 
first such corpse had been discovered the previous month, on the summer sol- 
stice. A report in the Sunday Herald indicated that the satanic rites performed in 
conjunction with the Monster of Florence killings had been conducted at a sen- 
ior citizen’s home where Pacciani had once worked as a gardener. Resident’s at the 
home at that time included the father of Florence’s deputy attorney. Some of the 
profaned corpses surfacing in the summer of 2002 were also connected to the 

Also revealed in the Herald report was that, in 2001, police had raided the 
home of Aurelio Mattei, a psychiatrist for the French secret services. In 1992, 
Mattei authored a book that alluded to evidence in the Monster case that was not 
uncovered by investigators until a decade later. The home of Francisco Bruno, a 
criminologist and prominent television talking-head, was also raided. Bruno’s 
name was on one of the drug prescriptions that killed Pacciani. Any additional 
information on the case may be difficult to obtain, since the Herald report also 
noted that police had issued a news blackout on the ongoing investigation. It 
seems quite likely, however, based on the evidence that has surfaced, that Pacciani 
was in fact a fall-guy for a cult of powerful individuals. 

In May 2003, the UK’s Guardian reported that convicted French serial killer 
Patrice Alegre was “not the lone psychopath he was made out to be at his trial last 
year,” according to the sworn statements of former prostitutes. “Fie is alleged to 
have acted for most of the 1 990s as the leader of a sado-masochistic sex ring, sup- 
plying women and drugs for debauched, and at times violent, evenings fre- 
quented by senior policemen, judges, businessmen, sports personalities and 
politicians.” The claims surfaced “during a police investigation into allegations 
that Patrice Alegre, a serial killer who is serving a life sentence for killing five 
women, was for years offered illegal protection by corrupt police and magistrates 
in the south-western city ofToulouse.” 

According to a BBC report, Alegre, a policeman’s son and an employee of the 
police department’s cafeteria, “is also under investigation in connection with a 
criminal network in Toulouse said to have involved minors and cocaine.” Other 
allegations, as recounted by the Observer , involved “white slavery, sado- 
masochism, rapes, sex with minors, drug dealing and appalling brutality — all in 
the heart of the government of one of France’s most historic and most civilised 
cities.” It is alleged that these crimes were committed at “Toulouse’s Palais de 

David McGowan • 85 

Justice and... at a chateau owned by Toulouse council.” Toulouse’s prosecutor- 
general, Jean Volff, was fired for “covering up links between senior officials and 
the exploitation of vulnerable girls.” Three judges were scheduled for questioning 
about “acts of torture and barbaric acts, pimping and rapes of under-age girls.” 

Alegre claimed that at least some of rhe murders he committed were ordered 
by some of Toulouse’s most prominent citizens. The killings, he said, served to 
silence witnesses and eliminate blackmail threats arising from what the Guardian 
described as “sadomasochistic orgies involving politicians, judges and police.” 
Two former prostitutes who had been recruited by Alegre for some of those par- 
ties corroborated his allegations. One judge admitted that there was “some truth” 
to the story told by the two women of “an official cover-up of Alegre’s crimes.” 
Another judge “has admitted to drinking with Alegre,” who is known to have run 
Toulouse’s prostitution business in the early 1990s. 

As the investigation progressed, Dominique Baudis, a former television host, 
found himself at the center of the scandal. He was perhaps the most prominent 
politician in Toulouse, having served as mayor from 1983 to 2001, preceded by 
his father from 1971 to 1983. Baudis was named as one of the four powerful fig- 
ures that reportedly ordered the murders. The other three were not named, but 
one was said to be a high-ranking police officer, and another a senior magistrate. 
Baudis reportedly owned a lake house, equipped with hidden cameras, where 
sadomasochistic orgies were held. The French periodical Le Monde sought to 
assure readers that the accusations arising from the orgies were “not about simu- 
lated acts of torture and erotic games among consenting adults. This was real tor- 
ture, accompanied by other degrading acts, committed against prostitutes, some 
of whom were under age.” 

By early June 2003, the Sunday Herald was fretting over the potential fallout 
from the investigation: “Such is the damage to the police, the judicial system and 
the municipal administration that some have suggested the underpinnings of the 
state and its democratic institutions are under threat... Magistrates, politicians, 
journalists, businessmen, policemen and sportsmen are lining up to be ques- 
tioned as part of the inquiry.” Police were under fire, scrambling to explain why 
many of Alegre’s murder victims had been officially listed as suicides. The investi- 
gation was being expanded to include twenty additional cases. And a French 
magazine, as the Guardian reported, had “revealed allegations that the former 
mayor, Dominique Baudis, had a sexual relationship with the murderer, Patrice 

Also in June 2003, Michel Barrau was appointed as the prosecutor-general for 
the case. His appointment immediately raised concerns among lawyers, according 
to the Observer, owing to the fact that Barrau had previously been “credited with 
stopping an investigation into corruption among senior right-wing politicians in 


Programmed to Kill 

Paris before last year’s general election.” Barrau was, in other words, no stranger to 
political cover-ups. Before the month was out, the evidence in the case, according 
to a Reuters headline, had “evaporated.” Alegre reneged on his confession after one 
of the prostitute witnesses purportedly admitted lying about seeing senior officials 
at S&M orgies. She was promptly jailed, recalling the jailing of witnesses in the 
Franklin case: “one of two prostitutes who accused Alegre of procuring young 
women for politicians to chain to walls and abuse in sadomasochistic orgies has 
been placed behind bars as judges investigate the authenticity of her story.” With 
the cover-up firmly in place, the European media moved on to other things. 

Henry Lee Lucas’ story then, as bizarre as it may initially appear to be, is cer- 
tainly not without precedents or parallels. Other events that have transpired since 
Henry first began telling his tales of The Hand of Death lend further credence to 
various aspects of his story. For example, the ‘Finders’ case, discussed in Chapter 
6, illustrated that there are in fact coordinated efforts by networks of individuals 
to transport abducted children to clandestine locations in Mexico. Of course, 
Henry could have just been making lucky guesses when he talked about the net- 
works of satanic cults running murder-for-hire operations and child abduction 
rings. And there could be nothing to the fact that Toole, who was convicted in 
the state of Florida, shared with Henry the fate of having his death sentence com- 
muted. Florida is, of course, a state that is also overly zealous in its application of 
the death penalty, although not zealous enough to execute the likes of Ottis 

In any event, it’s interesting to note that both of these men had their death 
sentences set aside in a state that was, until January 200 1 , run by a member of the 
Bush family. It is interesting also to take note of the case of the man known as the 
“Railroad Killer,” Rafael Resendez- Ramirez. On July 13, 1999, Ramirez was 
reported to have walked across a bridge from Juarez, Mexico into El Paso, Texas 
and turned himself in. At the time, he was wanted for a string of nine alleged 
serial killings. Mirroring the circumstances surrounding Henry’s final arrest, 
Ramirez had been taken into custody several weeks prior by the U.S. Border 
Patrol, only to be promptly released — despite his presence on FBI most-wanted 
lists, and despite the issuing of alerts to the immigration service, and despite the 
fact that a nationwide manhunt was underway. 

Between this detainment and his surrender, Ramirez claimed four more vic- 
tims. Apparently, he still had a little work left to complete. Having done so, 
Ramirez then made the incomprehensible decision to surrender to Texas authori- 
ties. Crossing the border into Texas, Ramirez left a country with no death penalty 
and entered the execution capital of the Western world. The Los Angeles Times, in 
reporting on his surrender, noted he was “adamant he wanted to surrender to a 
Texas Ranger,” and “he had not requested an attorney and was cooperating with 

David McGowan • 87 

detectives.” In the same article, it is noted that authorities say Ramirez is “strik- 
ingly intelligent.” 

Strikingly intelligent? Not based on the actions he took on July 13, 1999. But 
then again, perhaps Ramirez knows something about the Texas criminal justice 
system that the rest of us do not. Interestingly enough, Lucas was reportedly fas- 
cinated by the Ramirez case. While the manhunt was underway, he told the 
Houston Post-. “I follow his case on the TV. . .I’d like to meet him.” They presum- 
ably would have much to talk about. 

Ramirez, by the way, was born in Matamoros, Mexico and, according to his 
mother, was raised there outside of the home by non-family members. 

“At some time I have start(ed) to hear funny voices, like a person 
calling me, but no one call me. ” 

— Rafael Resendez- Ramirez, in a letter to a reporter 
in Houston following his surrender to authorities 

“Can I tell you who really I am, with all the secrecy that’s in the 
family? I only have one purpose in life, and that’s to express some 
of my views and some of the views that I have been instructed — 
anything that can put down Christianity, anything that can put 
down democracy, anything that can put down freedom. ” 

— Rafael Resendez- Ramirez, delivering his closing 
argument to a jury in St. Louis, March 1989 

Chapter 9 

Rancho Diablo 

“No one wants to believe the cult story. The TV people cut it out. 
The writers don’t write about it. ” 

— Henry Lee Lucas 

O ne of the more compelling aspects of Henry’s story was his contention that he 
had ties to cult-run ranches just south of the U.S. border. In 1989, just such a 
ranch was excavated in Matamoros, Mexico — just south of Brownsville, Texas — 
yielding the remains of fifteen ritual sacrifice victims. The Matamoros case so 
closely paralleled the stories told years earlier by Lucas that some law enforcement 
personnel in Texas chose to take a closer look at Henry’s professed cult connec- 
tions. In fact, Jim Boutwell — the sheriff of Williamson County, Texas — later told 
a reporter that investigators had verified that Lucas was indeed involved in cult 

Following the discovery in Matamoros, Clemmie Schroeder — identified as 
Henry’s spiritual adviser — sent to the state attorney general a map Lucas had 
drawn for her in 1985 that identified locations where murder, kidnapping and 
drug-running operations were conducted. She told a reporter for the Brownsville 
Herald : “Henry told me there were a lot of different cults in Mexico who were 
involved in satanic worship and everything. I found the map and realized he had 
marked this cult and drug ring near Brownsville.” The attorney general’s office 
chose not to take any action. In an interview conducted following the exposure of 
the Matamoros cult, Ottis Toole claimed that it was not the specific ranch with 
which he and Henry were associated, but he also emphasized that there were 
many such interconnected operations along the Texas/Mexico border. 

Though downplayed in most press reports, the Matamoros cult was largely an 
American entity. Its leader was Adolfo Constanzo, a Cuban-American born in 
Miami, Florida and raised in Miami and San Juan, Puerto Rico. Its ‘high priest- 
ess’ was Sara Aldrete, an honor student at Southmost Texas College in 


David McGowan • 89 

Brownsville. One of the cult’s top lieutenants, Serafin Hernandez Garcia, also 
lived in Brownsville and attended Southmost — as a law-enforcement major. 
Serafin’s grandfather was the owner of Rancho Santa Elena, where the cult per- 
formed its ritual sacrifices and buried many of its victims. Another cult member, 
drug baron Elio Hernandez Rivera, also hailed from Brownsville. Yet another 
lived in Weslaco, Texas. 

Constanzo has been described by chronicler Clifford Linedecker as a “thor- 
oughly ruthless and malevolent genius with a messianic ability to command the 
loyalty and blind obedience of followers who joined him, zombie-like, in a loath- 
some blood feast of dope dealing, terror, torture, and human sacrifice” — a 
description that sounds as though it were written with Charles Manson in mind. 
Born November 1, 1962 to a fifteen-year-old Cuban immigrant (likely an under- 
age prostitute), Constanzo was blessed by a Palo Mayombe high priest at the age 
of six months and declared “the chosen one.” Until the age of ten, he was trained 
by satanists in San Juan and Haiti, before returning to Miami in 1972. Back in 
Florida, Constanzo was mentored by another satanic high priest who taught him, 
among other things, the art of grave robbing. His mother, meanwhile, busied her- 
self with being arrested some thirty times. But as Michael Newton has written, 
the “charges never seemed to stick, and she always escaped with probation.” Dade 
County neighbors considered Constanzo’s mother to be a “witch” or a “sorceress.” 
Authorities once found her living in a vacant, dilapidated apartment that was 
heavily smeared with blood, feces and urine. She was charged with trespassing 
and child neglect. 

By mid- 1984, Adolfo had moved to Mexico City, where he served as some- 
thing of a ‘psychic to the stars,’ earning extravagant fees and living quite lavishly. 
His fastidiously neat and orderly home in a high-dollar suburb of Mexico’s capi- 
tal city was, interestingly enough, located directly across from an elementary 
school. Described as having a magnetic personality, Constanzo attracted an array 
of famous and colorful people — including entertainment stars, fashion models, 
transsexual nightclub performers, politicians, businessmen, crime lords, police 
officials and civil servants. One of his followers was Irma Serrano — a 
singer/ actress and the high-profile mistress of a former president of Mexico. 
Another admirer was Florentino Ventura, the head of the Mexican branch of 
Interpol. Ventura was such a devoted disciple that he considered himself to be 
Constanzo’s ‘godson.’ He allegedly killed himself in Mexico City on September 
17, 1988, after killing his wife and another woman. Strangely though, all three 
were killed with the same burst of gunfire. 

The Matamoros cult was first exposed in early April 1989. Police searching the 
ranch on April 1 discovered drugs and occult paraphernalia. Returning on April 
9, authorities arrested four members of the cult, all of who were members of the 


Programmed to Kill 

Hernandez drug family. Two days later, the first bodies were exhumed from 
Rancho Santa Elena. Some of the victims had been beheaded, while others had 
been grotesquely disfigured by machete blows to the head. Brains, hearts, lungs 
and other internal organs had been cut or torn from many of the bodies, and 
some of these were found stewing in cauldrons in a shed at the ranch. Spines had 
been ripped from the decomposing corpses to fashion ceremonial necklaces. One 
victim was reportedly boiled alive, another skinned alive; all were mutilated to 
varying degrees. 

These victims included the owner and secretary of a company that served as a 
front for a cocaine-processing lab, an informant for the Federales and his mistress, 
two federal narcotics officers, three former police officers, and the American 
nephew of a U.S. Customs agent. There were also a number of law enforcement 
personnel within the cult, including Salvador Vidal Garcia, a Mexico City 
Federal Judicial Police agent who was in charge of narcotics investigations. Juan 
Benitez, the Commandante of the Federal Judicial Police, claimed that there 
“were another six agents involved, but we have no proof at this time to bring 
charges.” In addition to the victims found at the ranch, the cult was also said to 
be responsible for the deaths of at least seven members of a drug trafficking fam- 
ily who were killed in a mass slaughter because they had evidence of police com- 
plicity in the drug trade that they had threatened to expose. That massacre 
occurred on, of all days, Walpurgisnacht of 1987. The victims’ bodies showed 
clear signs of sadistic torture. Fingers, toes and ears had been removed and geni- 
tals had been excised. Two brains were missing and a portion of a spine had been 
ripped from one of the bodies. 

On April 17, Serafin Hernandez Rivera — said to be the patriarch of the cult — 
was arrested in Houston, Texas. The next day, just two days shy of Hitler’s birth- 
day, a U.S. grand jury issued indictments for the still-at-large Constanzo and ten 
of his followers on various drug trafficking charges. Three days later, on April 21, 
Mexican authorities formally charged the four captured cultists with multiple 
counts of murder, kidnapping and drug trafficking. Just two days after that, a 
large contingent of heavily armed Mexican Federales burned down the death shed 
at Rancho Santa Elena, destroying a wealth of valuable evidence. Constanzo and 
most of his followers remained in hiding and the subjects of a massive manhunt. 
On May 6, police searching for a missing child are said to have inadvertently 
stumbled upon the apartment hideaway of Constanzo and four of his followers in 
Mexico City. Shots were allegedly fired from the apartment, which resulted in 
nearly 200 police officers virtually instantaneously surrounding the building. 

A ferocious gun battle ensued, with thousands of rounds fired in a forty-five- 
minute exchange. Amazingly though, none of the cultists were shot and only one 
officer was wounded — and that was in the initial gunfire that came from the 

David McGowan • 91 

apartment. Constanzo and his male lover were reportedly executed in a closet on 
the orders of the high priest himself. The three survivors were captured alive and 
charged with a multitude of crimes. Reports immediately surfaced claiming that 
Constanzo had faked his death, by substituting the body of another cultist. The 
two bodies in the closet had been riddled with automatic weapon fire, making 
identification difficult. Mexico City newspapers carried reports of witnesses 
claiming that two men had been seen fleeing the scene of the shoot-out. The 
body identified as Constanzo’s was claimed by U.S. consular officials — allegedly 
acting on behalf of Constanzo’s mother — and flown to Miami to be promptly 

As the investigation proceeded, reports on the case grew more disturbing. 
Police reported finding blood-spattered altars in the homes of many of the sus- 
pected cultists, and Mexico City newspapers openly speculated that human 
infants had been ritually sacrificed by the group. Some reporters opined that 
babies might even have been bred specifically for that purpose. Michael Newton 
has reported that from 1897-1989, there were seventy-four unsolved ritual 
homicides in Mexico City; fourteen of those victims were infants. Other reports 
noted that in custody, high priestess Sara Aldrete displayed what Linedecker 
described as “signs of a split personality. As the days wore on, three separate per- 
sonas became evident.” A U.S. Customs agent told the Houston Chronicle that she 
clearly had a “dual personality.” Like most of the other cultists, Aldrete, who had 
married on Halloween day, 1983, had links to the Hernandez drug family. A par- 
ticularly compelling report in the Brownsville Herald revealed that the drug traf- 
ficking Matamoros cult was part of a massive, hemisphere-wide, drug trafficking 
network; “federal agents have established a pattern of drug trafficking from the 
Hernandez family in Matamoros to top Chicago mob bosses.” Interestingly 
enough, Constanzo was reportedly sighted in Chicago during the time that he 
was the focus of the manhunt, but those reports were scoffed at by authorities. 

In the wake of the Matamoros case, two members of the Texas state legislature, 
Senator J.E. Brown and Representative Sam Johnson, introduced a bill aimed at 
combating cult-related ritual crime, which they asserted was a burgeoning prob- 
lem in Texas and elsewhere in the country. After a decade had passed, the prob- 
lem had not abated, as became evident when yet another excavation was begun, 
at a ranch near Juarez, Mexico. That property was, strangely enough, located pre- 
cisely where Henry Lee Lucas had claimed that the ‘Hand of Death’ cult main- 
tained a ranch. The first reports on the Juarez ranch surfaced on December 1, 
1999, less than five months after Resendez- Ramirez had surrendered to U.S. 
authorities at a location on the U.S. border very near the ranch; a Los Angeles 
Times report noted that the “clandestine burial grounds [were] practically within 
sight of the U.S. border.” 


Programmed to Kill 

Early reports indicated that authorities anticipated exhuming between 100 
and 300 bodies from mass graves on the ranch, including twenty-two missing 
U.S. citizens and a number of former FBI and DEA informants. The investiga- 
tion was quickly expanded to include at least three more possible burial grounds 
in the area. U.S. authorities, perhaps having learned a lesson from the well-publi- 
cized Matamoros case, immediately moved in to take charge of the investigation. 
The brazen violation of Mexico’s sovereignty was roundly condemned by the 
Mexican press. A group of irate Mexican Senators grilled the country’s foreign 
minister on the FBI’s aggressive role in the investigation and loudly denounced 
the fact that exhumed bodies were being transferred to the U.S. for forensic 
examination. By mid-December, with the U.S. firmly in control of the case and 
with all evidence being clandestinely transferred onto U.S. soil, Mexico’s attorney 
general was claiming that the early reports had been wildly off the mark. The new 
reports claimed that only nine bodies had been found at the three separate burial 
sites and no more were expected to be uncovered. Press coverage of the case 
almost immediately ceased, after the media had assured everyone that there’s 
nothing to see here, folks.’ 

The final report carried by the Los Angeles Times maintained that some victims 
had “reportedly disappeared after being detained by men in Mexican police uni- 
forms, raising questions about the extent of police corruption in Mexican law 
enforcement.” Peter Smith, the director of Latin American studies at UC San 
Diego, echoed that sentiment: “The clandestinity raises the issue of potential 
complicity on the part of local or state authorities.” Not surprisingly, reports 
made no mention of the extent of police corruption in American law enforce- 

Officials were quick to claim that there was no connection between the bodies 
exhumed at the ranch and the unsolved murders of hundreds of young women in 
the Juarez area. There is no consensus on the number of women that have been 
brutally raped, tortured and murdered since the killings began in 1993, but esti- 
mates run as high as 500, with hundreds more reportedly missing and possibly 

As the website recalled, “Free trade supporters once claimed the 
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) would turn Ciudad Juarez into 
the city of the future.” And perhaps that is exactly what the city has become — a 
city where NAFTA’s ‘free trade’ rules ensure that “a company’s right to profit 
trumps the rights of government and the protection of citizens.” 

In the 1960s, the Mexican government offered Western corporations a sweet- 
heart deal: build factories on the Mexican side of the border to manufacture 
and/or assemble goods, operate with wanton disregard for environmental and 
labor laws, and, to top it off, pay no local taxes. So-called maquiladoras, which 

David McGowan • 93 

had previously been known as sweatshops, soon began to dot the U.S. /Mexico 
border. Before long, they numbered in the hundreds. The highest concentration 
of those maquiladoras is in Juarez, which currently is home to about 500 factories 
employing 200,000 workers. About 80% of the factories in Juarez are American 

As the labor-intensive maquiladoras proliferated, the populations of border 
cities like Juarez quickly swelled. But as the population grew, there was no corre- 
sponding investment in the cities. As the Observer noted, there has been “no 
attempt to create infrastructure — no roads or housing. Taxation is voluntary for 
companies, and most pay none.” According to official estimates, the population 
of Ciudad Juarez has tripled, to 1,200,000; unofficial estimates run as high as 
2,000,000. Many of the new arrivals are young women, since the workforce 
employed by the maquiladoras is 70% female. Most of these young women end 
up living in the shantytown neighborhoods that have sprung up in cities like 
Juarez. These neighborhoods have no real roads, no street names, no addresses, 
no utilities, and no public services. Violence is endemic. Drug lords rule the 
streets. According to La Prensa, life in Juarez is “punctuated by narco-related exe- 
cutions and kidnappings in broad daylight committed by death squads working 
for the lords of the lucrative trade.” The Guardian described Juarez as “a city asso- 
ciated with grinding poverty and home to one of Mexico’s foremost drug traffick- 
ing organizations.” 

It is against this backdrop that the murders have been committed. Most of the 
victims have been maquiladora workers. Some of them have disappeared while 
traveling alone late at night, after having their work shifts changed at the last 
minute, of after being locked out for arriving at work late. Recent reports reveal 
that eerily similar murders are now occurring in other maquiladora towns along 
the U.S. /Mexico border, including Chihuahua City, Nueva Laredo and 
Matamoros. Many of the Juarez victims have had ‘modeling’ photographs taken 
of them while they were at work in the factories. Some circumstantial evidence 
suggests a disturbing scenario: the photographs, taken by ‘recruiters’ working 
within the maquiladoras, are arranged in albums that are then used as catalogues 
from which victims are selected. 

The first Juarez victim’s body, by most accounts, was found on January 23, 
1993. The first suspect, Abdel Latif Sharif Sharif, was arrested two years later, in 
1995. Sharif had an interesting history — one with close parallels to many other 
alleged serial killers, as will be seen in later chapters. 

Born in Egypt in 1947, Sharif was reportedly sexually abused as a child, 
including being frequently sodomized by his father and other male relatives. In 
his early twenties, Sharif immigrated to the United States, landing first in New 
York City and then in New Hope, Pennsylvania. By 1981, he was living in Palm 


Programmed to Kill 

Beach, Florida, where he worked as a chemist and engineer. In May of that year, 
Sharif beat and repeatedly raped an unidentified 23-year-old woman. For those 
offenses, he received only probation. In August of the same year, he was charged 
with another rape. Fie was again convicted, but he served just 45 days. The next 
year, he was married briefly in Gainesville, Florida, until he beat his bride uncon- 
scious. She divorced him shortly after that. In March 1983, Sharif beat and 
repeatedly raped yet another victim. In January 1984, while awaiting sentencing, 
he managed to escape, but he was soon recaptured and, on January 3 1 , sentenced 
to serve twelve years. Not quite six years later, in October 1989, Sharif was 
paroled. At that time, he was to be deported, but instead he was allowed, for 
unexplained reasons, to remain in the country. 

Sharif quickly found work in Midland, Texas at Benchmark Research and 
Technology. While employed and living in Texas, the thrice-convicted rapist was 
photographed shaking hands with Senator Phil Gramm, in addition to being sin- 
gled out for praise by the U.S. Department of Energy. In 1991, while still on 
parole, Sharif was arrested for drunk driving. Fie suffered no apparent repercus- 
sions for that offense. By 1993, he was once again facing charges of holding a 
woman captive and raping her repeatedly. In May of the following year, the state 
of Texas inexplicably agreed to drop all charges against the repeat offender if 
Sharif voluntarily left the country. Fie promptly moved to an exclusive residential 
neighborhood in Juarez and went to work at Benchmark’s maquiladora. In 
October 1995, Sharif was arrested by Mexican authorities and charged with rape. 
He was convicted and given a thirty-year sentence, but the bodies of young 
women continued to pile up in and around Juarez. 

Next to be arrested were a gang of nightclub workers known as The Rebels, 
who were allegedly being paid by Sharif to continue the killings. The gang was 
led by Armendariz Diaz, also known as El Diablo. All members of the gang later 
claimed that they had been tortured by police to coerce their confessions. In early 
1999, five members of another gang — The Toltecs, led by Jesus Guardado 
Marquez, also known as El Dracula — were arrested and accused of collaborating 
with Sharif. The gang confessed to fifteen of the murders, but later recanted, 
claiming that torture by the police had produced the confessions. The arrests of 
the two gangs failed to slow the pace of the killings and disappearances. 

After the arrest of The Toltecs, the FBI sent some of its famed ‘profilers’ to 
Juarez. Among them was Robert Ressler, who advanced the dubious theory that 
the murders were the work of Resendez-Ramirez. The arrest of Ramirez in July 
1999, however, had not put a stop to the killings. Before the year was out, more 
young women would go missing, more bodies would surface, and the mass graves 
at the ranch would be discovered. 

David McGowan • 95 

On November 6 and 7, 200 1 , eight bodies were discovered in a vacant lot just 
300 yards from the headquarters of the Association of Maquiladoras. Confessions 
were quickly obtained from two bus drivers, Victor Javier Garcia and Gustavo 
Gonzalez Meza, also known as El Cerillo and La Foca. Following the pattern set 
with previous suspects, police reportedly obtained the confessions through the 
use of torture. The two men had visible burn marks on their bodies, marks that 
Oscar Maynez Grijalva, the chief forensic investigator on the case, determined 
had been made with stun guns used by the police. 

Maynez thoroughly searched a van that the bus drivers had purportedly used 
to abduct women, and he found no evidence to support the allegations. 
According to Maynez, he was then asked “to help plant evidence against two bus 
drivers who were charged with the murders. A couple of police officers brought 
us items for us to put in the van they said was used to abduct the women.” 
Maynez refused to take part in the framing of the suspects, and, in January 2002, 
he resigned in protest over the handling of the case. He has said that he now 
believes that some police are involved in the murders. The outspoken Maynez has 
reported receiving death threats intended to silence him. 

Also in January 2002, Jorge Campos Murillo, a federal deputy attorney in 
Mexico City, told reporters that “juniors” — the sons of wealthy, powerful 
Mexican families — were connected to the killings. Campos was promptly trans- 
ferred and he now refuses to discuss the Juarez case, which next landed in the lap 
of Irma Rodriguez Galarza. Rodriguez’ daughter and husband were gunned down 
on the family’s porch with AK-47 assault rifles. 

Campos is not alone in linking the Juarez murders to the sons of the rich and 
powerful. The UK’s Observer has reported that those involved in the killings 
come from prominent families that “include landowners, major drug dealers, 
construction barons, energy suppliers — and officials in both government and the 
police.” A spokeswoman for a victim’s group noted that the killers “take no trou- 
ble to cover up evidence, like most murders. With these, the evidence is brazen, 
right there, every time.” The killers, in other words, have no fear of the police. 
The El Paso Times alleged that the guilty parties are “prominent men who cross 
the border regularly, are involved in major businesses, are associates of drug car- 
tels and have ties to politicians in President Vicente Fox’s administration.” 
According to some Mexican officials, six people from the Juarez-El Paso area are 
having the women abducted for orgies, after which (or perhaps during which) 
they are killed. 

On February 5, 2002, Mario Escobedo, Jr., the attorney representing 
Gonzalez (one of the two truck drivers), was killed by police. Escobedo was 
reportedly pursued at night by police in unmarked vehicles, until the attorney 
lost control of his car and crashed. He was then cut down in a hail of police 


Programmed to Kill 

gunfire. Escobedo’s partner, Dante Almarez, reported that he was advised to 
“drop the case, [or] we’ll kill you the same way we did Escobedo.” 

In August 2002, PBS aired the documentary film “Senorita Extraviada,” pro- 
duced by Lourdes Portillo. The film revealed that some of the victims were miss- 
ing for long periods before their deaths. Some of the their bodies display evidence 
of ritual sacrifice. In many cases, the only remains that are ever found are clothes 
and bones, and the bones are often mismatched. Frequently these bones are 
found in far less time that it would take a corpse to be reduced to a skeleton. 
Sometimes these skeletal remains show up in areas that have just recently been 
searched. Juarez police have refused to investigate a number of viable leads, and 
they have deliberately destroyed evidence, including more than 1 ,000 pounds of 
victims’ clothing that was burned. One female witness, who was arrested and 
then raped in prison, told the filmmakers that her captors had showed her photos 
of a woman being gang-raped and beaten, and then doused in gasoline and 
burned alive. 

Some of the victims have indeed been burned alive. Others have been stran- 
gled, stabbed, bludgeoned and/or shot. According to, “When they’re 
not skeletal remains, most of the women’s bodies are found in the nearby desert 
with evidence of torture and gang rape. Forensics evidence shows many are kept 
alive during this for days or longer. The bodies are usually mutilated, laid out in 
cross formation, and branded with signature carvings on various parts of their 
bodies.” Some reports hold that many of the recovered bodies exhibit similar 
slashing wounds to the breasts. A March 2002 report in the Guardian claimed 
“there are patterns of mutilation that have not been publicly released that could 
indicate narco-satanic rituals.” 

In October 2002, the bodies of two more victims surfaced. Three months 
later, in January 2003, three more were discovered. Not long after that, on 
February 8, almost a year to the day after his attorney had been gunned down, 
Gustavo Gonzalez Meza died in custody following a relatively routine hernia 
operation. Both Gonzalez and his wife had reported receiving death threats. Just 
over a week after his death, four more bodies were discovered. Police refused to 
acknowledge one of the bodies, despite the fact that reporters and other witnesses 
viewed it. 

In May 2003, the Juarez murders, which had been almost entirely ignored by 
the Western media for a full decade, were suddenly in the news. A flurry of 
reports pitched the theory that the killings were the work of an organ trafficking 
ring, possibly with cult connections. New Zealand’s One News reported that as 
many as 90 women may have been killed by the ring. Some of their organs, it was 
claimed, were brought to the States by an unidentified American. The Atlanta 
Journal-Constitution told of federal investigators “looking into claims that some 

David McGowan • 97 

of the dozens of women slain in the border city of Ciudad Juarez over the last 
decade may have been killed for their internal organs.” A Reuters report listed the 
following as possible motives for the murders: “Satanic rituals, organ trafficking 
and snuff movies where women are kidnapped, sexually assaulted and then mur- 
dered on camera.” The Guardian spoke of “evidence indicating the women may 
have been victims of an international organ trafficking ring. . .Police also were 
investigating the possibility that certain mutilations — breasts were cut off on a 
few of the victims, and some had scars cut in designs — might indicate the 
involvement of a religious cult.” 

Skepticism of those theories, however, was expressed by Oscar Maynez, the 
former head of the Ciudad Juarez forensics office and one of the very few voices 
of conscience in this story. According to the Journal-Constitution report, Maynez 
“said he never saw any evidence of missing organs in the bodies he examined 
when he worked on the case.” Whether accurate or not, the official proclama- 
tions, and the accompanying news reports, served to federalize the investigation 
of the Juarez murders for the first time. Before that, federal officials had stead- 
fastly maintained that the killings were a state matter. 

It is unclear whether the federalization of the investigation represents a sincere 
effort to stop the killings, bring the responsible parties to justice and root out 
local corruption, or whether it is just a continuation of the cover-up. The latter 
seems far more likely. As of this writing, in April 2004, women continue to dis- 
appear and incongruous piles of bones continue to surface, while residents con- 
tinue to discover evidence at crime scenes after police have declared that 
thorough searches have been conducted. Though there have been numerous 
arrests over the years, no one has been formally charged with any of the hundreds 
of unsolved homicides. 

Meanwhile, in February 2004, Mexican federal police arrested two drug cartel 
members who they said might have been involved in the mass murder of twelve 
people in a home in Juarez. Also detained were thirteen state police officers sus- 
pected of complicity. In the “city of the future,” life is cheap and ‘justice’ is for 
sale to the highest bidder. 

On the U.S. side of the border, in 1985, a ranch of a slightly different variety 
was uncovered in Kerrville, Texas, not far from Johnson City, Texas, the birth- 
place and childhood home of President Lyndon Baines Johnson. The ranch, run 
by a family of German immigrants, was found to be holding seventy-five human 
slaves, many of them acquired when they were young teenagers. The property was 


Programmed to Kill 

patrolled by armed guards who kept the slaves chained together and routinely 
tortured them by applying electric cattle prods to their tongues and genitals. 
Whenever one of the slaves was killed, the body was burned to dispose of the evi- 
dence. The Texas Rangers (who maintain a museum in Johnson City) eventually 
raided the property, after routinely ignoring steady reports of strange happenings 
at the ranch. It took the state of Texas almost two full years to bring the case to 
trial. When it was all over with, the rancher and one of his sons received extraor- 
dinarily light sentences for their crimes: fifteen years for one, and fourteen for the 
other. Another indicted son was acquitted and walked away a free man. A media 
disinformation campaign portrayed the entire sordid affair as a trumped-up case, 
but investigative journalist Gordon Thomas noted that the trial transcript indi- 
cated that it was nothing of the sort. 

Thomas has also written of another ranch, in Southern California, that evi- 
dence collected from a variety of sources indicates caters to powerful pedophiles. 
The ranch is located immediately adjacent to one of the numerous U.S. military 
bases that pepper the southern half of the state. The property has a rather omi- 
nous history, having previously served as a concentration camp for Japanese- 
Americans during World War II, and later as a ‘deprogramming’ center for 
returning Korean War veterans who it was said had been brainwashed. According 
to witness statements, children from around the country have been abducted and 
transported to the covert location, never to be heard from again. Once there, they 
are held as slaves to feed the depraved desires of powerful, well-connected 
pedophiles who torture, abuse, and at times kill their young victims. One man 
who may have worked at the ranch, according to reports cited by Thomas, was 
serial killer Leonard Lake. 

Chapter 10 

The Myth of the Serial Killer 

“It’s more of a shadow than anything else. You know it’s a 
human being, but yet you can’t accept it. The killin’ itself, it’s like 
say, you’re walkin’ down the road. Half of me will go this way 
and the other half goes that way. The right-hand side didn’t 
know what the left-hand side was going to do. ” 

— Henry Lee Lucas, describing how he perceived 
his victims before killing them 

Most Americans are probably familiar with what is considered the classic serial 
killer ‘profile.’ This was a notion first put forth by the venerable FBI, which 
coined the term ‘serial killer,’ and pioneered the concept of ‘profiling,’ in an 
alleged attempt to understand the phenomenon of mass murder. It appears to be 
the case though that the concept of the ‘serial killer profile’ was put forth largely 
to misinform the public. 

In the case of Henry Lee Lucas, few if any of the elements of the serial killer 
profile apply. For instance, serial killers are said to act alone, driven to do so only 
by their own private demons. So far removed from ordinary human behavior are 
their actions that they would not, indeed could not, share their private passions 
with others. In Henry’s case, this is a patently false notion. It has been officially 
acknowledged that Lucas worked with not just one, but at times as many as three 
accomplices (as previously noted, Toole’s pre-teen niece and nephew were fre- 
quently brought along to witness — and at times participate in — the crimes of 
Henry and Ottis). It is also claimed that serial killers target a particular type of 
victim, similar in age, gender, race, hairstyle, attractiveness, and other physical 
attributes. Again, in Henry’s case, this simply does not fit the known facts. 
Henry’s victims in fact had little, if anything, in common with one another. The 
victims’ ages ranged from children to the elderly. Both genders and all races were 



Programmed to Kill 

also well represented. As Lucas himself once stated: “They’s been a mixed breed of 
people, as far as the killings themselves.” 

It is further claimed that serial killers follow a readily identifiable modus 
operandi, with the means of obtaining victims and the trajectory of the crime fol- 
lowing a well-defined pattern. Again, that was clearly not the case with Lucas, 
whose victims were obtained in a variety of ways, and who inflicted death by a 
variety of means — including bludgeoning, stabbing, strangulation, shooting, and 
suffocation. Some were killed in their homes, while others were abducted and 
taken to remote locations. Some were sexually abused, both before and after 
death, while others were not. Some were cannibalized. Some were left on dis- 
play — for maximum impact upon their discovery — while others were left so as 
not to be discovered at all. In other ways as well, Henry Lee — the consummate 
serial killer — did not even come close to matching the profile of what he was sup- 
posed to be. Strangely enough though, perhaps the most remarkable aspect of the 
Henry Lee Lucas story is that it is not actually remarkable at all. In reviewing the 
case histories of more than two-dozen other alleged serial killers, it becomes read- 
ily apparent that few — if any — fit the supposed profile. 

The victims of Resendez-Ramirez, for instance, ranged in age from 21 to 88 
years, with a mix of males and females. The cause of death varied as well, with 
most being bludgeoned, though one was shot in the head, another stabbed, and 
yet another had a pick-ax buried in her head. Though not readily apparent, 
almost all of the weapons used for inflicting death — by both Lucas and 
Ramirez — had one thing in common: they are what are termed “weapons of 
opportunity.” In other words, they are weapons that were acquired at the crime 
scene immediately before the murders were committed. Notably, this precisely 
mirrors the means by which the CIA has historically taught its assassins to kill. A 
CIA training manual entitled A Study of Assassination advises the would-be killer: 
“the simplest local tools are often the most efficient means of assassination. A 
hammer, axe, wrench, screwdriver, fire poker, kitchen knife, lamp stand, or any- 
thing hard, heavy and handy will suffice. . .All such improvised weapons have the 
important advantage of availability and apparent innocence... the assassin may 
accidentally be searched before the act and should not carry an incriminating 
device if any sort of lethal weapon can be improvised at or near the site.” This 
advice has been taken to heart by a good number of ‘serial killers.’ 

The Mafia assassination service known as Murder, Inc. — the brainchild of the 
Lansky/Luciano syndicate, which had extensive connections to U.S. intelligence 
agencies — had a remarkably similar philosophy. As Jay Robert Nash notes in 
Bloodletters and Bad Mem “Like most of Murder, Inc.’s assassins, Pittsburgh Phil 
never carried a weapon in case the local police picked him up on suspicion. He 
would cast about, once he had selected his murder spot, for any tool handy that 

Da vid McGo wan • 101 

would do the job.” It should probably be noted here, while we’re on the subject, 
that the man identified as Pittsburgh Phil, whose real name was Harry Strauss, 
was credited with killing at least 500 people in this manner from the late 1920s 
through 1940. This feat should put him at or near the top of any self-respecting 
serial killer list. 

Henry Lee recounts in The Hand of Death that his training by the Hand of 
Death cult followed the same time-honored tradition. Of course, the FBI assures 
us that satanic cults and satanic crime do not exist in modern-day America. To 
put this assertion in its proper context, however, it is important to remember that 
this is the very same FBI that, during the reign of Murder, Inc., and for several 
decades thereafter, refused to acknowledge the existence of organized crime in 
America. It is also the same FBI that for years ignored and denied the resurgence 
of the Ku Klux Klan in the early part of the twentieth century. The FBI, in other 
words, has a long history of denying the existence of indigenous groups devoted 
to terrorizing American society. 

Other than utilizing weapons of opportunity, the most common means by 
which professional assassins carry out their ‘contracts’ is with a small caliber bul- 
let fired at point-blank range to the head — typically with either a .22 or .25 cal- 
iber handgun. Inflicting such a wound is quick, efficient, relatively quiet, 
reasonably clean and, most importantly, highly lethal. Contrary to conventional 
wisdom, a small caliber round to the head is more often fatal than a larger caliber 
bullet, because the smaller projectile has enough velocity to make the initial pen- 
etration into the dense skull bones, but not enough to make an exit wound. Once 
inside the brain cavity then, the slug will tend to ricochet around the curved 
inner bone surfaces, causing considerable damage to the brain in the process. A 
larger caliber round, on the other hand, is much more likely to penetrate clean 
through the skull, making much more of a mess, though doing less damage to the 
brain. The smaller weapon then, when fired from very close range, is a much 
more efficient killing device. Such weapons are also very easy to conceal and are 
the easiest weapons to silence. And even without a silencer, the report from a .22 
automatic is relatively quiet. Especially to a generation raised on a steady diet of 
sensationalized and highly stylized violence in the media — where every gun 
sounds like a cannon — a small-caliber gun report can easily be mistaken for any 
of a number of everyday big-city sounds. 

There is another reason that these are often the weapons of choice for contract 
‘hits.’ Small caliber slugs, particularly those from a .22 caliber weapon — are vir- 
tually impossible to trace or to match up to any particular gun. Literally millions 
of .22 caliber weapons are in homes all across the country, and it is far-and-away 
the most popular, mass-produced ammunition on the market. And a .22 caliber 
bullet that has punched through the skull and careened around the skull cavity is 


Programmed to Kill 

virtually guaranteed to be deformed to such an extent that a ballistics match will 
be impossible. Matching a flattened slug dug out of some victim’s head to any 
particular gun then is something akin to finding the proverbial needle in the 
haystack. For this reason, and for those previously cited, a small caliber contact 
wound to the head — usually to the side of the head — has long been the mark of 
a professional assassin. 

It is a most remarkable fact then that the vast majority of the victims of the 
‘serial killers’ profiled herein were killed either by means of a weapon of opportu- 
nity, or they were shot in the head with a small caliber weapon — execution style. 
And far more often than not, there is no specific type of victim that is targeted, 
nor is there a pattern as to how the killings are carried out. 

Take, for example, the other serial killing Ramirez — Los Angeles’ famed 
“Night Stalker.” Most of the Night Stalker victims were killed with contact 
wounds from a small caliber handgun to the left side of the head while they slept. 
Both .22 and .25 caliber weapons were used. The remaining victims were bludg- 
eoned or stabbed to death with household items — including a hammer and a 
lamp/vase. Some of the victims were mutilated to varying degrees, including two 
that were hacked with machetes. Others were subjected to electrical torture. 
Their ages ranged from young adults to a pair of octogenarians, with both men 
and women well represented. And there was certainly no discrimination shown as 
to the race/ethnicity of the victims. 

In what were dubbed the ‘Sunset Strip Murders,’ also in Los Angeles, the vic- 
tims were also dispatched with a .25 caliber contact wound to the head — except 
for one victim who was shot in the chest and sliced open. Two of the victims were 
also beheaded. One of the dead — who had likely been an accomplice — was male, 
with the rest females of various ethnicities. 

Santa Cruz’s Herb Mullin must surely have been — if he was actually guilty of 
the murders attributed to him — the most creative serial killer in the annals of 
modern crime. The seemingly randomly assembled set of crimes credited to 
Mullin stands as perhaps the most ludicrous use of the term ‘serial killer’ on 
record. The first victim was a homeless man beaten to death with a baseball bat, 
for no apparent reason, on a lonely stretch of road. The next was a girl who was 
repeatedly stabbed, then sliced open, mutilated, and generally made a mess of — 
in what most people would think of as a typical serial killing. The next five vic- 
tims were all killed in a single night at two different residences — both occupied 
by known drug traffickers and their families. In one house, all three victims, two 
of whom were children, were shot once in the head with a .22 and then stabbed a 
few times for good measure. At the other home, a slightly less professional job 
was done. The two victims at that address, who were close friends of the victims 
at the other crime scene, were shot multiple times with a .22 in various parts of 

David McGowan • 103 

the body, and then stabbed. The next four victims were a group of teenage boys 
on a camping trip, who were each shot once in the head and multiple times in the 
body. Interestingly enough, the boys had their own .22 caliber rifle, within arm’s 
reach of where they were killed. All four were allegedly killed by a lone assailant 
before they could reach for the gun, despite the fact that Mullin would have had 
to reload his six-shot .22 automatic at least once to complete the slaughter. 
Following the mass execution of the teenagers, Mullin next allegedly decided to 
test his skills as a sniper, picking off an ex-boxer as the victim strolled across his 
front yard. 

In nearby Sacramento, California, Richard Chase got his sniper killing out of 
the way right off the bat. His first victim was dropped in front of his home with 
a .22 round fired from a parked car, just the way Mullin had allegedly done it. 
The rest of the Sacramento victims were killed with a .22 caliber contact wound 
to the left side of the head, sometimes followed by a second shot. Some were then 
mutilated. Ages ranged from twenty months to fifty-one years, with both males 
and females targeted. 

Chicago’s ‘Ripper Crew’ killed a string of women, both black and white, by a 
variety of means before then adding something new to the serial killer reper- 
toire — a gang-style drive-by shooting of known drug dealers. It is always good 
practice, for any aspiring serial killer, to throw at least one obvious drug ‘hit’ into 
the mix. Charles Manson and Richard Ramirez understood that, as did various 
other serial killers, although such troublesome facts are routinely ignored in most 
press accounts, lest anyone catch on that ‘serial killings’ are not necessarily ran- 
dom acts of violence. Consider, for example, the case of Charles Ng and Leonard 
Lake. At least a few of their known victims were deeply involved in drug traffick- 
ing. Other than that, the victims had little in common. Excavated from the pair’s 
compound were the remains of seven men, five women, and two babies — though 
there were likely many more undiscovered victims. 

How the pair’s victims were killed was impossible to determine, as was largely 
true of the cases of other killers who fall into the ‘Collectors’ category — including 
Jeffrey Dahmer, John Wayne Gacy, Bob Berdella, Gary Heidnik and Herb 
Baumeister. In all these cases, all that remained of the unfortunate victims were 
various bones and, in some cases, genitalia, internal organs and slabs of flesh. It is 
within this group that the most consistency is shown in the targeting of victims. 
The known victims of Gacy, Berdella, Baumeister and Dahmer were all young 
men — frequently gay or bisexual men. Even so, there was not necessarily a spe- 
cific victim profile in all these cases; Dahmer’s victims, for instance, ranged in age 
from fourteen to thirty-one and were of various races. 

Even in those cases where the alleged killer is given a catchy moniker that sup- 
posedly reflects a distinctive ‘signature’ to the slayings, there is rarely a consistent 

104 • Programmed to Kill 

MO that is followed. The victims of the ‘Boston Strangler,’ for instance, ranged in 
age from nineteen to seventy-five, were both black and white, and varied consid- 
erably in physical attractiveness. And they were not, contrary to popular mythol- 
ogy, all strangled in the same manner. In some cases, it was done manually, in 
others with ligatures acquired at the scene. In addition, some were stabbed, muti- 
lated and/or sexually assaulted as well. Most of them were left on display, though 
one was discretely covered with a blanket. 

In the other strangler case — Los Angeles’ ‘Hillside Stranglers’ — victims ranged 
in age from twelve to twenty-eight, and varied considerably by height, weight, 
race, skin tone and hair color. In addition to strangulation, various other tech- 
niques were utilized, including electrocution, lethal injection and lethal gas — all 
methods improvised with materials at hand and, strangely enough, all methods 
used by the state to perform judicial executions. 

Though Edmund Kemper was dubbed the ‘Coed Killer,’ his victims were def- 
initely not all coeds. Two of them were his grandparents, and another was his 
mother. Yet another was several years too young to be a coed. His victims were 
killed with a combination of point-blank bullet wounds to the head, and stab- 
bing, strangulation, suffocation and bludgeoning with weapons of opportunity. 

In the case of Ted Bundy, it is frequently claimed that all of his purported vic- 
tims were remarkably similar in appearance. Many of the books chronicling 
Bundy’s alleged exploits reinforce this notion by including a carefully selected set 
of photos of the slain women who did resemble one another to a limited degree. 
Overall though, the victims varied widely in height, weight, build, attractiveness, 
hair color and style, and various other physical attributes. As for the manner in 
which they were abducted and killed, that is largely a matter of speculation. 
Many were never found, and of those that were, frequently only the skull was 
recovered. In those cases where the cause of death could be determined, it was by 
means of weapons of opportunity. In the infamous attack at the Chi Omega 
sorority house, for instance, the crimes were committed with a club acquired 
immediately before entering the property. The Chi Omega bloodbath, by the 
way, was in marked contrast to Bundy’s previous alleged crimes, which involved 
the abductions and killings of single victims. This crime instead seemed to bor- 
row heavily from the rampage allegedly perpetrated by Richard Speck. Bundy’s 
final alleged murder before his capture, the killing of a twelve-year- old child, also 
did not match his supposed modus operandi. 

As for Richard Speck, he showed no consistency in the means by which his 
victims were killed, other than that all died from wounds inflicted with weapons 
improvised at the scene. Death came by way of various combinations of strangu- 
lation, stabbing, slashing of the throat, and breaking of the neck. And so it goes 
for virtually all serial killer cases. New York’s ‘Son of Sam’ targeted men and 

David McGowan • 105 

women of various ages. Arthur Shawcross, the ‘Genesee River Killer,’ killed two 
young children — one a boy — along with a string of women of various ages. Most 
were strangled and/or bludgeoned with weapons acquired at the scene, though 
one was drowned. Most were mutilated, cannibalized and sexually assaulted. The 
‘Gainesville Ripper’ — purportedly Danny Rolling — included one male among 
his five victims. All were stabbed and slashed to death; some were posed and one 
was beheaded. Finally, lest we forget, the Manson Family’s victims ranged in age 
from teenaged Steven Parent to middle-aged Leno LaBianca and included both 
men and women killed with various weapons, including a .22 caliber handgun. 

Clearly then there are any number of serial killer cases in which there is no 
defining modus operandi, and in which the deceased don’t fit any kind of specific 
‘victim profile.’ In fact, it is difficult to find a case study of any serial killer who 
does leave a distinct ‘signature’ at each crime scene. 

And what of the notion of the serial killer as a lone predator? Was Flenry and 
Ottis’ partnership an aberration? Not at all. There are any number of serial killer 
cases where it is officially acknowledged that there was more than one perpetra- 
tor. The Manson Family, of course, is probably the most well known case of mul- 
tiple-perpetrator ‘serial killing.’ Less well known is the case of the ‘Ripper Crew’ 
in Chicago in the early 1980s. Described by authorities as a four-man satanic 
cult, the Rippers — led by charismatic Robin Gecht — allegedly killed as many as 
seventeen women in as many months. Then there is the case of Charles Ng. 
Though Ng was the only one to stand trial for the series of killings in Northern 
California, it is acknowledged that the crimes were committed with the assistance 
of Leonard Lake, who committed suicide upon his arrest. And evidence strongly 
suggests that there were others involved as well, most notably Lake’s ex-wife. 

Many other serial killers have worked in pairs, including the Hillside Strangler 
team of Kenneth Bianchi and Angelo Buono. Working the same Los Angeles-area 
turf just one year after the Stranglers were stopped was the team of Roy Norris 
and Lawrence ‘Pliers’ Bittaker. And a few years after they were caught, the team of 
Douglas Clark and Carol Bundy was working the very same L.A. streets commit- 
ting a series of killings dubbed the ‘Sunset Strip Murders.’ The year after they 
were caught, another serial killer took over the L.A. market — the notorious 
‘Night Stalker.’ Media coverage to the contrary, evidence in that case clearly 
pointed to multiple perpetrators. It also strongly suggested that some of the 
killings were contract hits. As implied earlier in this chapter, much the same can 
be said of the evidence in the Llerb Mullin case. 

As will be seen as we take a more in-depth look at our illustrious roster of serial 
killers, evidence almost always indicates multiple assailants. With very few excep- 
tions, that evidence is routinely ignored or rather improbably explained away by 
law enforcement authorities and those who chronicle the exploits of high-profile 

106 • Programmed to Kill 

criminals. Maury Terry, as previously mentioned, has done an excellent job of 
arguing the case that the ‘Son of Sam’ killings were carried out by multiple cult 
members, despite the media portrait of David Berkowitz as the proverbial lone 
killer. Susan Kelly has likewise done a great job of exposing the ‘Boston Strangler’ 
killings as the work of several killers. Even before the release of Kelly’s The Boston 
Stranglers, there had long been speculation that the killings were not the work of 
one man. Most of the officials involved in the investigation, in fact, never 
believed that a single killer was responsible. Of the eight members of the psychi- 
atric panel convened to develop a ‘profile,’ seven believed that there were at least 
two perpetrators. 

Even in those cases that seem to come closest to matching the classic serial 
killer profile, such as the John Wayne Gacy and Jeffrey Dahmer cases, there is a 
compelling case to be made that there were others involved. That evidence will be 
examined in later chapters. First, we will look at the cases of two high-profile, 
alleged serial killers/mass murderers who were said to have acted alone. The first 
is a very recent case, that of Yosemite killer Cary Stayner. The other dates all the 
way back to 1966, the year Richard Speck allegedly went berserk in a home filled 
with young nursing students in Chicago, becoming the first mass murderer of the 
television age. 

Chapter 11 

Lone Nuts? 

“I must have done it, if everybody says I did. ” 

— Richard Speck 

The case of Cary Stayner stands out — in a very crowded field — as one of the 
most bizarre serial killer cases on record. Though the crimes ultimately attributed 
to him were not committed until the early months of 1999, the strange saga of 
the Stayner family began long before that, though exactly how long before is not 
entirely clear. As a friend of Cary’s told Esquire magazine: “There’s just some- 
thing, you know, off with that whole family.” Since as far back as 1972, there has 
been some serious weirdness going on in the Stayner house. On December 4 of 
that year, Cary’s younger brother Steven was purportedly abducted by a male 
pedophile (working with an accomplice) who proceeded to hold him as a sex 
slave for more than seven years. 

His abductor was Ken Parnell, a Texas native who is said to have been 
extremely self-destructive as a child. He had reportedly damaged his eyes by star- 
ing into a bright light, attempted to pull his own teeth out, set numerous fires, 
and attempted suicide on a number of occasions. He had also, perhaps not sur- 
prisingly, spent a fair amount of time institutionalized in both prisons and men- 
tal hospitals — including spending much of his teen years in California juvenile 

Stayner was not his first victim. Parnell had previously been convicted in 1951 
of kidnapping and sexually assaulting an eight-year-old boy. He was back on the 
streets by 1955, but then incarcerated again before year’s end for a parole viola- 
tion. He was soon released again, only to be convicted of armed robbery a few 
years later. For that crime, he served some seven years. Five years after his release 
from that prison term, Parnell met up with Steven Stayner. It was not a chance 
meeting. As Parnell indicated to his accomplice, Ervin Murphy, Stayner had been 
selected prior to the time of his kidnapping. Following the abduction, Parnell and 



Programmed to Kill 

Stayner lived for a time in Yosemite, where Parnell worked at the Yosemite 
Lodge — which happened to be located just a few hundred yards from the home 
of Cary and Steven’s grandfather, who was universally described as an exception- 
ally cruel man. Following their stay in Yosemite, Parnell and Stayner moved to 
Santa Rosa, and then to Ukiah, from where Jim Jones’ People’s Temple had 
recently departed for San Francisco, and where Michael Aquino would later be 
accused of child exploitation. 

In February 1980, Stayner escaped — which is to say that he broke free, to 
some extent, from Parnell’s psychological control. There was nothing that physi- 
cally prevented him from escaping at any time. When he did leave, it was 
prompted by his desire to spare five -year-old Timmy White, whom Parnell had 
just abducted on Valentines’ Day, the fate that awaited him. Stayner brought 
White along with him on his escape, and became something of a hero in the 
process. Fie returned to the Stayner home, though he was said to feel closer to the 
man who had sexually assaulted him for seven years than to his estranged family. 
The family reportedly never talked about his ordeal. As Cary’s friend remarked: 
“It was like it never happened, like he was never kidnapped or anything.” 
Strangely, the Stayner parents would not allow Steven to get therapy to help deal 
with his shattered childhood. By the age of sixteen, he had dropped out of high 
school and moved out on his own. 

As for Parnell, described as an accomplished manipulator, he was charged with 
the kidnapping and false imprisonment of both Stayner and White, as well as 
with sexual molestation of Steven. Investigators on the case discovered that 
Parnell had also molested a number of Stayner’s friends (Stayner attended school 
under a name given to him by Parnell, and outwardly lived a normal life with his 
‘father’). One of Steven’s friends reportedly served as Parnell’s accomplice in the 
White abduction. Also discovered was that Parnell was fond of taking Polaroid 
photos of his captive sex slave, and possibly other victims as well. For unexplained 
reasons, his bail was set at just $20,000, which allowed him to walk free after 
posting a mere $2,000 bond. Fie was tried in separate proceedings for the crimes 
committed against White and Stayner. Parnell was convicted in both proceed- 
ings, but he received remarkably lenient sentences for his crimes. For the multi- 
tude of offenses he committed against Steven Stayner, he received just a 
twenty-month sentence. 

Things were relatively quiet in the Stayner home for the next nine years, until 
May 1989 when Steven was thrust back into the limelight owing to the airing of 
a television movie about his case entitled “I Know My First Name is Steven.” The 
media’s reopening of the case was followed just weeks later by the untimely 
demise of young Steven Stayner, who was killed instantly when an unidentified 
car turned abruptly into the path of his speeding motorcycle. The car and its 

David McGowan • 109 

driver promptly disappeared. Steven left behind a wife and two young kids. 
Parnell was by that time already out of prison and a free man once again, after 
serving just five years for his crimes — less time than Steven Stayner had spent as 
his prisoner. The following year, Jesse Stayner — Cary and Steven’s uncle — was 
found shot to death in his Merced home. Jesse — or as he was more commonly 
known, Jerry — was perhaps the family member closest to the alleged serial killer. 
In his youth, Cary spent more time at Uncle Jerry’s home than he did at his own; 
the two even lived together for a brief time. Jesse was killed with a shotgun blast 
to the head fired from his own gun, allegedly by an intruder he had surprised in 
his home. 

Following the two deaths, the Stayner family again managed to stay out of the 
news for nearly a decade, until Cary — the Stayner son who hadn’t been held for 
seven years as a mind controlled sex slave, and who the Los Angeles Times 
described as a “man who had been a passive and kind presence for 37 years” — 
decided, for no apparent reason, to become a serial killer. That, anyway, is the 
official story. 

In the early morning hours of February 16, 1999, three women allegedly were 
abducted from their room at the Cedar Lodge, which lies just outside the west 
gate to Yosemite National Park. Strangely, though, there was no indication that 
any abduction had taken place. There were damp towels in the bathroom, indi- 
cating that at least one of the three had showered. Other than that, the room was 
neat and orderly, with the beds made and the key left out. There was no blood 
and certainly no sign of a struggle. The three were scheduled to check out later 
that morning anyway, in order to catch a flight out that day, and it looked as 
though the women had simply decided to check out early in the morning with- 
out going to the front desk. 

Jens Sund — father of Juli Sund and husband of Carole Sund, two of the three 
missing women — did not bother to report his wife and daughter missing when 
they failed to depart from their scheduled flight and also failed to contact him 
with an explanation for the scheduling change. In fact, Jens Sund did not bother 
to report his wife and daughter missing until the next day, and only then after he 
had played a round of golf. 

All three of the missing women came from extremely wealthy families. The 
Sunds are a branch of the dynastic Carrington family, and the third woman — Juli 
Sund’s friend, Silvina Pelosso — was from a wealthy, well-connected family in 
Argentina. Perhaps that is why the FBI was immediately called in to assist in what 
was, in the beginning, a simple missing-persons case. Just ten days after the 
reported disappearances, the FBI announced that it was bringing in two profilers, 
despite the fact that there was not yet any hard evidence that the women had met 
with foul play. It was another three weeks before the women’s car was found, 


Programmed to Kill 

yielding the unrecognizable remains of Carole Sund and Silvina Pelosso. Only 
then did it become a homicide case. 

The vehicle, which was over 100 miles from the alleged abduction site, was 
thoroughly and, by all appearances, quite professionally burned, obliterating all 
forensics evidence. So badly were the bodies burned that it was difficult to even 
determine their gender. They were found in the trunk of the car, which the FBI 
did not bother to open until the day after the car was found and identified — a 
rather odd fact considering that the back seat was burned away, leaving the 
remains visible to the hunter who discovered the vehicle. Carole Sund’s wallet 
rather incongruously turned up in Modesto, also over 1 00 miles from the abduc- 
tion site, though in another direction. Juli Sund’s nearly decapitated body was 
later found at yet another location, roughly midway between the Cedar Lodge 
and the location of the car and the other bodies. Juli’s discovery was precipitated 
by the receipt of an anonymous, taunting letter sent to the FBI tipping them off 
to the whereabouts of the body. 

Due to the complexities of the crime, many investigators on the case assumed 
that multiple perpetrators were involved. During the course of the investigation, 
at least a dozen people were implicated in the murders; all of them were part of a 
drug-trafficking network operating in the area. One of these was a man named, 
perhaps appropriately, Billy Joe Strange. Like Cary Stayner, Billy Joe worked at 
the Cedar Lodge. Strange was the night clean-up man at the lodge’s restaurant, 
above which lived handyman Cary Stayner. Strange’s girlfriend, another suspect, 
also worked at the lodge, as a night clerk. Also implicated was a man named 
Darrell Stephens, who occasionally roomed with Strange and his girlfriend. 
Stephens had a lengthy arrest record, as did another suspect, Michael Larwick. 1 ^ 
Larwick’s rap sheet included arrests for attempted manslaughter, rape, kidnap- 
ping, child stealing, assault with a deadly weapon, and various drug offenses. 

When police came to arrest Larwick, he led his would-be apprehenders on a 
high-speed chase, in which one officer was shot, before barricading himself in a 
house and initiating a fourteen-hour standoff. Lie was eventually driven out with 
tear gas. When he was brought to court for his arraignment, the courtroom doors 
were locked to the press and public. This was improbably claimed to have been 
an accidental oversight. Jeff Keeney, another suspect in the women’s murders, also 
led officers on a car and foot chase, leaving a trail of drugs in his wake. His home 
was found to contain three portable methamphetamine labs. 

16 As a rather odd side-note to this story, Larwick’s father, Leroy, attained a certain 
amount of notoriety in the late 1960s by creating a much-debated film clip of a pur- 
ported ‘Bigfoot.’ Cary Stayner had a lifelong fascination with the mythical creatures, 
which he has claimed to have once encountered. 

David McGowan • 111 

Larry Utley, a convicted sex offender and an associate of Michael Larwick, was 
also deeply involved in the meth trade, and quite possibly in the murders as well. 
Utley was also an associate of Eugene Earl “Rufus” Dykes, Larwick’s half-brother 
and yet another suspect. Once in custody, Dykes claimed that Larwick had 
admitted to playing a role in the kidnappings. Lie also admitted that he had 
received from Larwick checks and jewelry that had belonged to the victims. A 
friend of Dykes’ acknowledged being asked to forge identification to access 
Carole Sund’s bank account, and another friend admitted to having taken her 
wallet to Modesto. Dykes, whose ex-convict father was also implicated, agreed to 
take a polygraph examination, which seemed to confirm that he was being truth- 
ful about his involvement in the kidnappings/murders. His girlfriend admitted to 
investigators that Rufus had confided to her that he and another man had killed 
the trio by slitting their throats. Dykes himself ultimately confessed, first to help- 
ing transport the bodies, and then to the murders themselves. 

That he had transported at least one of the bodies was apparent from the fact 
that pink fibers found on Juli’s corpse, probably from a blanket her body was 
wrapped in, matched fibers recovered from a Jeep used by Dykes. These same 
fibers were also found on Dykes’ jacket, in a truck owned by a friend of his, and 
in Michael Larwick’s Corvette. Other fibers, which appeared to come from 
Sund’s clothing, were also found in the suspects’ vehicles. Though fiber evidence 
is inherently problematic, it should probably be noted here that several alleged 
serial killers have been convicted, and even condemned to die, on less substantial 
fiber evidence cases than the one assembled against this group of individuals. And 
the incriminating fibers certainly were not the only evidence that investigators 
had. Rachel Lou Campbell, an associate of both Dykes and Larwick, was discov- 
ered to have in her possession Carole Sund’s checking account and ATM num- 
bers. Investigators believed that she was likely the unidentified female who had 
twice called the bank in the week after the disappearances to inquire about the 
status of the account. Another woman testified before a grand jury that she had 
received a ring from Larwick that two members of the Carrington clan identified 
as having very likely belonged to Juli Sund 

With all of these suspects in jail — on other, unrelated charges — and with the 
evidence against them continuing to mount, most investigators considered the 
case to be essentially solved. It was widely anticipated that indictments would be 
handed down soon. Media coverage of the case dropped off appreciably and 
police began directing their attention elsewhere. But then a most amazing thing 

On July 21, 1999, Joie Armstrong — a naturalist living in Yosemite Park — was 
beheaded in a brutal murder case that brought the earlier triple slaying roaring 
back into the headlines. Other than geographic proximity, there was nothing 


Programmed to Kill 

linking the two cases. This time, there was only one victim, and she was not 
abducted. Her body was quickly and easily found. And there was, allegedly at 
least, a clear evidence trail leading to a sole assailant: happy-go-lucky handyman 
Cary Stayner. Armstrong’s murder was immediately declared to be connected to 
the previous case, although it is anyone’s guess how investigators came to that 

On July 23, Stayner was questioned and then released. Almost immediately 
after his release, a warrant was issued for his arrest and a manhunt reportedly 
ensued. Stayner appears to have made little effort to flee or to conceal his identity, 
and he was arrested the next day, at the Laguna del Sole nudist colony, by three 
FBI agents and two sheriff’s deputies. Waiving both his right to an attorney and 
to remain silent, he is said to have promptly launched into a full confession — 
reportedly in a detached, emotionless voice. Within a couple of days, Stayner had 
also given his confession to a television reporter. He took sole credit for all four 
murders. The reporter, Ted Rowlands, promptly made the rounds of national 
news shows with his ‘scoop,’ and all the evidence implicating the drug trafficking 
ring was quickly forgotten. Apart from his confession, however, there was no evi- 
dence to support Stayner’s claims. 

According to his version of events, Stayner single-handedly got the jump on 
the three women in their room and was able to bind them all with duct tape. He 
allegedly used a gun, although no gun has ever been produced and none of the 
victims were shot. Two of the women were purportedly killed in the room. All 
three were then carried out, one-at-a-time, and loaded into their car. One was still 
very much alive and most likely resisting the efforts of her abductor. No one at 
the lodge saw or heard any of this activity. Stayner then allegedly cleaned up the 
hotel room in which the first two murders occurred, successfully removing all 
traces of a struggle. Stayner then drove for miles before stopping to kill the third 
victim, Juli Sund, and dump her body. He then supposedly drove many more 
miles to another remote location, which happened to be very near Michael 
Larwick’s childhood home, and abandoned the car with the other two bodies still 
in the trunk. He then took a taxi back to Yosemite Valley, incurring a fare of 
$125. Two days later, he returned to the abandoned car in an unidentified vehi- 
cle, and at that time he set Carole Sund’s abandoned car afire, with the two bod- 
ies still inside. After that, he allegedly drove to Modesto to dump Sund’s billfold, 
which for some bizarre reason he did not destroy with the rest of the evidence in 
the fire. 

Even with this rather convoluted story, authorities have not been able to 
explain away all of the incongruous evidence. For example, the taunting letter 
sent by the killer revealing the location of Juli’s body was sealed with someone 
else’s saliva. The FBI reluctantly acknowledged that DNA tests verified that fact. 

David McGowan • 113 

Spokesmen for the Bureau had an explanation, however: their theory was that 
Stayner had “tricked an unsuspecting male” into supplying the saliva to seal the 
envelope. How exactly that would be done was left to the imagination. Cary had 
initially given an alibi for the night of the murders: he said he had been visiting a 
female friend. The woman in question confirmed that fact. Then there is the 
rather troubling fact that evidence strongly indicates that the women were not 
killed that morning at the lodge, but later at an unknown location. That, needless 
to say, casts serious doubt on Cary Stayner’s confession. 

Any number of credible witnesses came forward, or at least attempted to come 
forward, to attest to the fact that the three were very much alive long after the 
time they were allegedly killed. A private investigator working on the case discov- 
ered credit card slips for purchases Carole made at the Yosemite Lodge — former 
employer of Ken Parnell — after she allegedly disappeared. Carole had signed for 
the purchases. Yosemite Valley’s postmistress reported selling stamps to the trio 
on February 16, many hours after they had allegedly been kidnapped and killed. 
In Sierra Village, far away from the Cedar Lodge, and very close to where Carole’s 
car was later found, at least three witnesses reported seeing the women that after- 
noon. A gas station owner remembered selling them gas, and a gift shop owner 
remembered them stopping in her place of business as well. Both of them 
attempted to contact the FBI. One failed to get through despite several attempts, 
and messages left by the other went unanswered. The Bureau later reluctantly 
acknowledged that there were several credible sightings of the women, not just on 
February 16 but on February 17 as well. 

When exactly the women disappeared remains largely a mystery, as does why 
the women changed plans, if indeed they did, without contacting friends or fam- 
ily. They were almost certainly not killed in the early morning hours of February 
1 6 — by Cary Stayner, or anyone else. One witness claimed that Juli was kept alive 
for several days, during which time she was held in a Modesto home and repeat- 
edly raped. The relatives of a man found drowned in early April of 1 999 claimed 
that the drowned man had witnessed the assaults on Sund in Modesto. 

There was never any question that the Sund/Pelosso killings were the work of 
multiple assailants. As Nick Rossi of the FBI said early on, “the assumption is that 
more than one person is involved.” James Maddock, the FBI’s lead investigator 
on the case, added that they were “operating under the assumption this was a very 
difficult crime for one person to commit.” Nevertheless, on September 6, 2000, 
Stayner and his defense attorney accepted the terms of a federal plea-bargain 
agreement that had the unmistakable stench of a cover-up. Stayner professed his 
sole guilt in the death of Joie Armstrong and he was sentenced to life in prison 
without the possibility of parole, though he was spared a death sentence. The 
guilty plea eliminated the need for a highly publicized trial, and the agreement 

114 • Programmed to Kill 

contained a very unusual provision: “After the entry of judgement in this case 
until his death he [Stayner] will not speak to anyone, write to anyone, or com- 
municate to anyone about the death of Joie Ruth Armstrong.” No one, in other 
words, will hear Stayner’s side of the story. Ever. 

The federal courts were done with Stayner, but the state of California still had 
the option of prosecuting the triple murder. Two years later, it decided to exercise 
that option. The state case was presided over by Judge Thomas Hastings, who 
had earlier reigned over the Richard Allen Davis/Polly Klaas case. Stayner was 
represented by Marcia Morrisey and Michael Burt, a San Francisco-based attor- 
ney whose clientele has included Richard Ramirez and Charles Ng. As the Los 
Angeles Times reported, this defense team “conceded from the beginning that 
Stayner had killed the three tourists.” That is not generally a very effective defense 
strategy, but it is one that is employed in a number of serial killer cases. The 
Times also noted that, while the case had at one time received massive press cov- 
erage, the “criminal court fight has trundled on in front of scant spectators and 
only a handful of newspaper reporters.” 

The trial consisted primarily of mental health professionals detailing for the 
jury Cary Stayner’s troubled childhood. These witnesses described a family tree 
“littered with relatives who suffered from mental illnesses, including depression 
and pedophilia.” They spoke of a family that considered displays of emotion to be 
taboo. They talked of Cary, in his youth, being molested by his uncle. They dis- 
cussed Cary’s fondness for child pornography, which he bartered with his FBI 
interrogators for in exchange for a full confession. They said that he had suffered 
from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder his whole life, and had taken psychiatric 
drugs in the 1980s. And they said that Cary Stayner suffered from uncontrollable 
violent impulses. 

If so, then only the four victims had ever seen that side of him. To everyone 
else, he seemed to be a gentle soul. A local nudist/naturalist, calling herself 
“Sunshine,” to\&ABCs “20/20” that she had known Cary Stayner for years as a 
fellow free spirit. She spoke of frequently being alone with Stayner, skinny-dip- 
ping in secluded spots along the Merced River. She could not recall him ever act- 
ing inappropriately, and never observed any hint that Stayner might be hiding a 
dark side. 

On August 26, 2002, the jury returned guilty verdicts on nine separate counts, 
including three of first-degree murder and one of kidnapping. They had deliber- 
ated less than six hours. On October 9, 2002, following the penalty phase of the 
trial, the jury returned with the recommendation that Cary Stayner be put to 
death. They had again deliberated for less than six hours. Three months after the 

David McGowan • 115 

verdict was rendered, Ken Parnell was arrested in Berkeley, California after 
allegedly attempting to purchase a child. 

If the available evidence in the Stayner case leaves doubts about the sole guilt 
of the accused, that is all the more true in the case of the infamous Richard Speck. 
If veteran criminal investigators are puzzled as to how Stayner was able to subdue 
and control three women, then it truly boggles the mind how one man was able 
to single-handedly subdue nine women, bind them all, and then systematically 
kill all but one of them. 

According to the sole survivor, Cora Amurao, she answered the door in the 
early morning hours of July 14, 1966, allowing Speck entry into the house. She 
claimed he was brandishing a gun, though none of the victims were shot that 
night and no evidence was ever found indicating that a gun was used at the crime 
scene. Authorities claimed that Speck stole the gun from a rape victim on the very 
day of the slaughter, and then used it to quickly corral Amurao and five other 
women in the house into a room. He then proceeded to tear a sheet into strips, 
which he then used to tie the women up, one by one. How he was able to accom- 
plish this while keeping all the rest at bay — and allegedly while keeping a knife in 
his hand at all times — is anyone’s guess. Three more women arrived home after 
Speck’s alleged entry into the house. All three were quickly bound and forced into 
the room with the others. 

Speck then allegedly began dragging the women off one at a time and slaugh- 
tering them, spending twenty minutes or more with each victim. After he fin- 
ished with one, according to Amurao, he would go into the bathroom to wash up 
and then return for another. This scene played out over the course of some four- 
and-a-half hours. During that time, the young women waiting their turn tried to 
hide under the beds, hoping to elude their assailant. They were, of course, found 
and killed. All of them, that is, except Cora Amurao, who claims that she alone 
avoided detection by Speck. It has been suggested that Speck lost count of his vic- 
tims and falsely concluded that all the girls were dead, thereby making the crucial 
error of leaving behind a living witness. 

That part of the story is problematic in a number of ways. The first question 
raised is: why did the young women choose to remain in the room in which they 
had been herded? If, despite their bindings, they were able to move about within 
the room — which they clearly were or they would not have been able to get under 
the beds — then why would they not leave the room altogether? And once out of 
the room, why not get completely out of the house? And what was to prevent the 

116 • Programmed to Kill 

women from untying each other? After all, the pattern was set early on; after the 
first couple of slayings, it had to be abundantly clear to the women that their lives 
were about to come to an abrupt end. For despite the claims that Speck cleaned 
himself up after each killing, it is ridiculous to suggest that Speck could have con- 
cealed the fresh blood that would have covered his clothes, assuming that he did- 
n’t bring eight changes of clothing with him. It also had to be quite clear to the 
awaiting victims that the selection of each new victim signaled that there would 
be a 20-30 minute window of opportunity to attempt an escape. And what was 
there to lose? It seems inconceivable that the women, facing certain death, would 
have passively awaited their fate. 

But what of the survivor’s story? It should be quite clear to anyone that an 
adult simply cannot avoid detection by hiding underneath a bed. That was amply 
illustrated by the fact that all but one of those attempting to do so were discov- 
ered. And yet one survived. Flow is it possible that Speck could have searched 
under the beds to locate the others, and yet failed to see Cora Amurao hiding 
there as well? And does it really seem likely that Speck was unable to count to 

If not for the existence of the sole survivor, police investigators would have 
immediately assumed that multiple perpetrators were responsible for the mass 
carnage. No theorizing was necessary, however, since an eyewitness was on the 
scene to provide the unlikely ‘sole assailant’ scenario that was later refined to 
become the official story. Interestingly though, the composite drawing (a crude, 
two-dimensional rendering that was seriously lacking in detail) of the suspect that 
was released by police, purportedly based on Amurao’s description, did not 
resemble Richard Speck. 

Since the trial of the man fingered by police hinged primarily on Amurao’s 
eyewitness testimony — and very little else — the star witness was zealously pro- 
tected, although if the imprisoned Richard Speck was indeed the sole assailant, 
then it is difficult to see how the witness was in any danger. Amurao was moved 
to a resort where four guards were posted around the clock, and she was held 
there incommunicado for months while being prepped extensively for the testi- 
mony that she was to deliver. Before being hidden away, Amurao allegedly iden- 
tified the suspect, albeit in a most unusual manner. 

While Speck in a hospital recovering from a failed suicide attempt, just days 
after the killings, Amurao was allegedly sent in to his room, dressed as a nurse, to 
gat a good look at the suspect. From this encounter, she positively identified 
Speck as the killer. Leaving aside the obvious fact that this was a brazenly illegiti- 
mate means of identifying a suspect — one which would have invalidated any sub- 
sequent attempts by Ms. Amurao to pick Speck out of a police line-up — the real 
question here is: what caliber of police official would send a severely traumatized 

David McGowan • 117 

crime victim, who just days before had witnessed the slaughter of eight of her 
friends and experienced the sheer terror of knowing that she could well be next, 
into a room, unprotected, to face the man who had put her through such torture? 
And what victim would be able to handle such an encounter, with the memories 
so fresh? And what guarantee was there that Speck would not recognize his 
accuser, given that hers was the first face he had seen as he entered the house that 

Amurao’s dramatic identification of Speck was just a warm-up exercise for 
what was to come; when the time came for her to deliver her critical testimony to 
a packed courtroom, she delivered a bravura performance. Amurao recited a end- 
lessly rehearsed version of the events of July 14, and then, when the time came to 
identify the suspect in court, she played her trump card: rising from her seat — 
allegedly without any prompting or rehearsal — she calmly stepped out of the wit- 
ness box, walked casually over to where Speck sat at the defense table, stood 
directly in front of him while looking him in the eye, and told the court, “This is 
the man.” That was the clincher; Speck was found guilty after just forty-nine 
minutes of jury deliberations and sentenced to death. 

There are indications though that this was hardly a foregone conclusion. 
Prosecutors clearly had doubts about their visibly shaky case, and they appear to 
have made every effort to stack the deck in the state’s favor. One indication of 
that is the fact that the jury selection process was — as defense attorney James 
Gramenos has noted — “illegal and unfair.” Gramenos objected strenuously to the 
blatant violation of his client’s due process rights, but was overruled. Another 
indication was the remarkable fact that, even though the case was moved some 
three hours outside of Chicago — the first time any trial had ever been moved out 
of Cook County due to pre-trial publicity — the judge opted to stay on in the new 
venue. That same judge slapped a gag order on the press, guaranteeing that no 
news would get back to Chicago — or to anywhere else in the country. Coupled 
with the blocking of any interviews with Amurao, this gag order shut the public 
out from learning the weakness of the case against Speck. 

City officials and the press had already assured everyone that he was guilty. 
Chicago’s Police Commissioner had gone so far as to publicly declare Speck the 
killer even as he was releasing his photo to the media. Before even being arrested 
or formally charged with any crimes, Speck was already being presented to the 
public as a convicted mass murderer. And the public was hungry for a culprit to 
hang this heinous crime on. Never mind that the motive claimed by the state, 
robbery, was as ridiculous as it had been when claimed as the motive for the 
slaughter of the Clutter family in Kansas. Never mind that there are much easier 
ways to acquire $23.00 than by savagely murdering eight women with one’s bare 
hands. Someone had to pay for this assault on society, regardless of why the crime 


Programmed to Kill 

was really perpetrated. Speck would do just fine. Many of the more thoughtful 
citizens of Chicago, however, are still waiting to learn what really happened in 
that house on that fateful night. 

The most likely explanation? The ‘survivor’ and star witness was not actually a 
survivor at all; she was quite possibly an accomplice to a cult of individuals who 
perpetrated this slaughter. She could well have been the ‘inside man,’ so to speak. 
And it was not likely an accident that she was left alive; it was essential that she 
remain alive to sell the single assailant scenario and thereby derail an investigation 
before it ever began. After all, authorities noted from the beginning that the 
house was not highly visible and immediately assumed that the killer was familiar 
with the surroundings. Speck did not have that familiarity, but Amurao certainly 
did. And it is a rather odd fact that Amurao admitted to being the one to let the 
killer (or killers) into the house. 

And what of Speck? He was likely little more than a patsy or fall-guy who may 
have been involved to some extent in the killings, but he certainly was not the 
sole assailant. And he might not have been in the house at all that night. He had 
no memory of ever leaving the bar that he had been drinking in earlier that 
evening, but he did remember receiving an injection from a man he did not 
know. There is no question that Speck was drinking in a bar that night; a number 
of witnesses placed him there, though most were unsure of when Speck had left. 
Two of the witnesses though, a husband and wife, placed him at the bar during at 
least a portion of the timeframe when the killings occurred. These witnesses were 
neither friends nor acquaintances of the accused, and they had no known reason 
to provide Speck with a false alibi. 

It is possible that Richard Speck, like David Berkowitz and Pietro Pacciani, 
took the fall to protect others. That would certainly help explain the preposter- 
ously lax treatment of Speck during his confinement, as evidenced by that home 
videotape — produced circa 1988 — that depicted Speck snorting huge piles of 
cocaine and flashing rolls of money, not to mention sporting a rather large and 
quite unattractive pair of breasts. No explanation has been forthcoming as to how 
it was possible for one of America’s most notorious killers, while residing in what 
is reputedly one of the toughest prisons in the country, was able to obtain copious 
quantities of drugs and money, and gain access to video equipment and hormone 
treatments. It could be that Speck was rewarded in prison for being such a stand- 
up guy. 

Speck had previously caught a number of breaks from the criminal justice sys- 
tem in his native Texas, where he grew up in the violently abusive home of his 
stepfather — named, strangely enough, Carl August Lindbergh. Just the year 
before the carnage in Chicago, he had been convicted of savagely attacking a girl 
with a knife and nearly killing her. Despite the seriousness of the crime, and 

David McGowan • 119 

despite having a lengthy police record that included forty-one arrests in a dozen 
years, Speck served just five months. This act of judicial leniency was attributed 
to a bureaucratic error. 

Speck caught another break in 1972 when his death sentence was voided by 
the U.S. Supreme Court and he was resentenced to a term of 400-1200 years, 
with the possibility of parole — which was still a pretty harsh sentence for a man 
who quite likely was — as he maintained for over a decade — innocent. Not long 
after producing his infamous videotape, Speck’s luck ran out. At the relatively 
young age of forty-nine, he died in prison, allegedly of a heart attack. A few years 
later, Cora Amurao made an appearance on the Oprah Winfrey show to speak 
publicly about the killings for the first time in twenty-seven years. 

Just days after Richard Speck — whose crudely tattooed arm declared him 
“Born to Raise Hell” — was arrested in Chicago, Charles Whitman — a former 
U.S. Marine sharpshooter who had received training by the Naval Enlisted 
Science Education Program (NESEP), an intelligence entity — ascended the 
Tower at the University of Texas at Austin and unleashed a barrage of firepower 
on the unsuspecting campus. By the time it was over, Whitman and fourteen oth- 
ers lay dead and another thirty-one victims were wounded. 

To ascend to his perch, Whitman purportedly dragged a heavy footlocker — 
loaded with three rifles, three handguns, a sawed-off shotgun, 700 rounds of 
ammunition, two knives, enough food and water to last for several days, gasoline, 
an alarm clock, a radio, a compass, a hammer, a hatchet, and various other 
items — up the final three flights of stairs, unnoticed and unassisted. Once there, 
his shooting spree lasted for more than an-hour-and-a-half. Firing with uncanny 
accuracy, he picked off fifteen victims in the first thirty-five minutes alone, with 
shots coming at various times from all four sides of the clock tower. So many 
shots were pouring out of the sniper’s nest at times that many witnesses on the 
ground assumed that there were multiple gunmen. The night before the rampage, 
Charles had killed his wife and his mother, although it was his violently abusive 
father for whom he was said to have had an intense hatred. Whitman had also left 
a note, which read in part: “I don’t quite understand what is compelling me to 
type this note. I have been to a psychiatrist. I have been having fears and violent 
impulses.” Along with the note, he reportedly left a roll of exposed film with 
instructions to develop it after his death. 

Both of these mass murders, one in Chicago, Illinois and one in Austin, Texas, 
took place just weeks after Anton LaVey had formally established the Church of 


Programmed to Kill 

Satan and declared April 30, 1966 to be the first day of the Age of Satan. 
Whitman’s rampage occurred on August 1 — Lammas on the occult calendar. Just 
three weeks prior to LaVey’s pronouncement, long-time CIA asset Henry Luce’s 
venerable Time magazine had asked its readers the symbolic question: “Is God 

The face of a particularly brutal criminal enterprise, masquerading as a reli- 
gion, was beginning to emerge from the shadows, and its effect on American soci- 
ety would be profound. As the New York Times observed 33 years later, on the 
occasion of the reopening of the Tower’s observation deck, “the Whitman attack 
marked a new and different terror — that anyone anywhere could be killed at ran- 
dom.” As the Times also noted, this new — and wholly manufactured — threat 
“prompted many police departments to develop the first SWAT teams.” 

America was under siege. 

“Our goal was to create an atmosphere where there’s lawlessness 
and disorder everywhere. ” 

— David “Son of Sam” Berkowitz 

Chapter 12 

Satan’s Family Tree 

“The Devil can get into people and cause them to do things they 
wouldn’t do otherwise. ” 

— Herbert Mullin, speaking to a Bible study class 

In New York City in 1875, Madame Helena Petrovina Blavatsky founded the 
Theosophical Society, an occult-based group that survives to this day and that 
supplied much of the ideology of Hitler’s Third Reich. Over the course of the 
next decade-and-a-half, Blavatsky published Isis Unveiled and The Secret Doctrine, 
two literary works that have proven to be hugely influential with many succeed- 
ing generations of modern Satanists and white supremacists. As author Peter 
Levenda has written, Blavatsky “popularized the notion of a spiritual struggle 
between various ‘races,’ and of the inherent superiority of the ‘Aryan’ race, hypo- 
thetically the latest in the line of spiritual evolution.” This belief in Aryan 
supremacy was echoed by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, who during the same 
timeframe posited the existence of an Aryan Superman’ and advocated racial 
genocide. Nietzsche’s work was also liberally borrowed from by the architects of 
Nazi Germany. 

One of Blavatsky’s most devout followers was instrumental in introducing to 
Western Europe the infamous Protocols of the Elders of Zion. This notorious docu- 
ment, which more-or-less accurately identified the existence of an ultra-secret 
cabal bent on global domination and the subjugation of the world’s people, iden- 
tified this game-plan as a grand Jewish conspiracy, thereby fueling the rabid anti- 
Semitism that served to stabilize the fascist states of Europe. Blavatsky also wrote 
of the importance of ancient alphabets, particularly what are referred to as 
‘runes.’ Many of these runes would later show up prominently in the symbolism 
of the Nazi Party, including the SS lightning bolts and the swastika, which had 
been identified by Blavatsky as having supreme occult significance. 


122 • Programmed to Kill 

With the founding of the Theosophical Society in 1875, Blavatsky was essen- 
tially being passed the torch by Abbe Alphonse-Louis Constant, who died that 
same year. Better known in occult circles as Eliphas Levi, Constant was a French 
magician, author, and former priest who wrote a series of highly influential books 
from 1855 to 1865: Dogma and Ritual of High Magic, The History of Magic, and 
The Key of the Great Mysteries. One of Levi’s disciples was General Albert Pike, 
chief of intelligence for the Confederate Army and the highest-ranking 
Freemason in North America. In 1867, Pike incorporated Levi’s ideas into the 
constitution that he drafted for an overtly racist, occult-based secret society that 
he and an alliance of Confederate generals and intelligence operatives created fol- 
lowing the American Civil War: the Ku Klux Klan. Levi’s ideas would later find 
favor with the occult practitioners who engineered the rise of Nazi Germany. 

1875 was also the year that a certain Edward Alexander Crowley was born. 
Edward, better known as Aleister (or by the grandiose label that he chose for him- 
self, ‘The Great Beast 666’), was without question the most influential occultist 
of the twentieth century. He was also an asset of British military intelligence, just 
as Albert Pike was an American intelligence operative, and just as Karl Kellner, 
Franz Hartmann and Theodore Reuss had close ties to German intelligence enti- 
ties. Hartmann, Reuss and Kellner were the primary architects of the Ordo Templi 
Orientis (OTO), a secret society formed in Germany around 1895 that claims to 
be in a direct line of descent from the Knights Templar, which some researchers 
believe to be the granddaddy of all the occult-based, secret Masonic societies. 
Whether or not there is any factual basis for that belief remains an open question, 
and one that is far beyond the scope of this book. 

What is known is that the OTO was directly linked to Blavatsky through 
Hartmann, a Theosophist and close associate of the Madame. The Hermetic 
Order of the Golden Dawn (OGD), founded by Theosophist William Westcott 
in 1888, was closely allied with Blavatsky s group as well. It was in the OGD, 
which he joined in 1898, that Aleister Crowley first attained occult celebrity sta- 
tus. He created his own occult order, which he named the Astrum Argentium 
(Silver Star), in 1907 and began publishing its newsletter, The Equinox, a couple 
years later. In 1912, he forged a close association with Theodore Reuss, who 
introduced him to the OTO and appointed Crowley to head the order’s UK 
chapter. That same year, Crowley penned an OTO Manifesto that included a list 
of those he claimed to be past ‘Grand Masters’ of the lodge. On that list were 
composer Richard Wagner and an associate of his, Friedrich Nietzsche, whose 
published works included The Antichrist. 

In 1919, Crowley declared that every non-member of the occult order should 
be treated as a savage. Around that same time, he became known for his pub- 
lished works of pro-German and pro-Nazi propaganda, which he continued to 

David McGowan • 123 

produce through both World Wars. While living in the U.S., Crowley wrote for 
two pro-fascist rags: The Fatherland and The Internationalist. Around 1920, 
Crowley moved to Sicily where he founded the Thelema Abbey, a site that 
quickly became known for conducting satanic rites — complete with animal sacri- 
fices, bestiality, and blood drinking. The abbey also gained notoriety for being 
fraught with death and disease. Crowley’s own infant child died there, as did oth- 
ers. At the time, Crowley was openly accused of infanticide, and he never denied 
the charges. To the contrary, Crowley openly and rather flamboyantly revelled in 
his depravity. In Diary of a Dope Fiend (Crowley was a life-long abuser of drugs of 
all types), he wrote that: “I have driven myself to delight in dirty and disgusting 
debauches, and to devour human excrement and human flesh.” 

Those close to Crowley had the rather disturbing habit of dropping dead 
under unusual circumstances. As Gary Valentine Lachman has written, “A study 
of Crowley’s life and that of his disciples shows that many of them ended up mad, 
destitute or prematurely dead; occasionally all three.” From early in his life, 
Crowley developed an unsavory reputation for killing his mountain climbing 
partners, a number of whom failed to make it home from their joint expeditions. 
In his native England, he was widely rumored to routinely sacrifice children and 
dump their mutilated remains in the Thames River. In one notable incident, 
Crowley and an assistant entered a locked room to perform a ritual; the assistant 
did not make it out alive. Immediately following that escapade, Crowley report- 
edly spent four months in a mental hospital. 

Crowley’s offspring did not fare much better than his climbing partners did. 
In addition to the child that died at Thelema Abbey, a young daughter of his died 
in 1906, and some reports claim that a son died as well, in a separate incident. 
The Great Beast himself died on December 1, 1947. He was at the time the 
worldwide head of the Ordo Templi Orientis, having been named by Reuss as his 
successor in 1923 and confirmed in 1924 (though some reports hold that 
Crowley appointed himself to the leadership position, as early as 1922). With his 
passing, a new generation of occult superstars stood ready to take the torch, each 
of them devoted to spreading the word of the Great Beast: “Do what thou wilt 
shall be the whole of the law.” 

One of these disciples was Gerald Gardner, who replaced Crowley as the UK’s 
most famous occultist. Gardner was born in 1884 into an affluent family in the 
UK, and he served for a time as a British customs agent. He was also the head of 
his own OTO lodge and a close associate of Crowley. Before his death, Crowley 
helped Gardner craft new rituals for what would become known as ‘Wicca.’ In 
1949, two years after his mentor’s death, Gardner penned High Magic’s Aid. He 
followed that with Witchcraft Today (1954) and The Meaning of 'Witchcraft (1959) 
and the movement was off and running. More recently, Sir Laurence Gardner — 

124 • Programmed to Kill 

Gerald’s son — penned a couple of books that attempt to justify genocide and 
Aryan supremacy. Laurence Gardner also serves as the Presidential Attache to the 
European Council of Princes, an entity that has admitted to receiving funding 
from the Central Intelligence Agency. 

One of the senior Gardner’s early recruits was Alexander Saunders, who was 
raised by a grandmother who was well versed in the black arts. As a child, 
Saunders was shipped off for a time to live with, and be trained’ by, Crowley 
himself. By the late 1960s, Saunders was a national celebrity in his native UK, 
having anointed himself the “King of the Witches.” During the filming of “Eye of 
the Devil” in 1 967, Saunders claimed to have initiated the film’s star, Manson vic- 
tim Sharon Tate, into witchcraft. Elis followers are said to practice Alexandrian 
Witchcraft, while followers of Gardner practice Gardnerian Witchcraft; both owe 
much to the teachings of Aleister Crowley. 

Saunders’ counterpart in America was the equally flamboyant Anton Szandar 
LaVey, who achieved minor celebrity status in the 1960s and 1970s as the clown 
prince of Satanism. LaVey’s profile was first raised by San Francisco Chronicle 
columnist Herb Caen, who frequently provided free publicity. Cosmopolitan, Life, 
Look, McCalls, and the Phil Donahue and Johnny Carson shows also helped to 
steer recruits LaVey’s way. 

LaVey claimed to have a lengthy and very colorful resume. He had worked, he 
said, as a lion tamer with the Clyde Beatty Circus and as a fortune-teller and 
astrologer in a carnival. He had worked with an uncle in Las Vegas who was a 
close associate of Bugsy Siegel and Meyer Lansky, both of whom he had met. He 
had studied criminology and worked as a crime scene photographer for the San 
Francisco Police Department, who consulted with him on “nut cases.” He had 
been a professional hypnotist, organist and ‘ghostbuster.’ He had been a para- 
mour and Svengali of a young and then-unknown Marilyn Monroe. It is unclear 
how much of this resume is accurate. Following LaVey’s death, his daughter 
claimed that his entire life story was a fabrication, which would hardly be surpris- 
ing if LaVey was, as he appears to have been, an intelligence operative. 

Together with Crowley-inspired filmmaker Kenneth Anger, LaVey organized 
the Magick Circle in San Francisco in the mid-1960s. By 1966, the group had 
evolved into the Church of Satan. From its inception, LaVey’s group included an 
inordinate number of police, military and intelligence personnel. One of these 
was Lt. Col. Michael Aquino, who left LaVey’s circle in 1975 to found his own 
overtly satanic order, the Temple of Set. Before his departure, Aquino had been 
the highest-ranking member of the Church of Satan other than LaVey. He had 
joined the Church of Satan upon his return from Vietnam, where he served as a 
psychological warfare specialist, which very likely means that he served as part of 
the Phoenix Program. Aquino returned from Vietnam with a Bronze Star, an Air 

David McGowan • 125 

Medal and an Army Commendation Medal. The Colonel, who reportedly began 
reporting directly to the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1981, is not the only intelligence 
asset in the Temple of Set; according to a police intelligence report cited by Carl 
Raschke in 1990, at least two of Aquino’s top lieutenants at that time were intel- 
ligence operatives as well. 

Although Aquino denies it, his group embraces an unabashedly fascistic ideol- 
ogy. The reading list that he provides to his followers includes a number of pro- 
Nazi books, including Adolph Hitler’s Mein Kampf, Aquino advises members to 
look therein “for the discussions concerning the selection of leaders, control of 
the masses, and the justification for human social organization.” Aquino’s admi- 
ration for the Third Reich was also illustrated by his visit to Wewelsberg Castle to 
perform a satanic ‘working.’ During the reign of the Nazi Party, Wewelsberg had 
been lavishly restored by Heinrich Himmler to serve as the headquarters of the 
Black Order of the SS; as such, it is considered sacred ground by some modern 
Satanists. Aquino has been known to claim that he is the son of an SS officer, 
although at other times he has claimed that he is a ‘homunculus’ magically cre- 
ated by the ‘Babalon Working’ performed by Jack Parsons and L. Ron Hubbard. 

After the Temple was incorporated in the state of California as a non-profit 
church, Aquino’s group quickly received both state and federal recognition, as 
well as tax-exempt status. The Temple’s members like to boast of being the only 
satanic church to hold such credentials. 

There have been claims made that, like Aquino, LaVey also had a fondness for 
the Third Reich. Some reports hold that LaVey secretly forged an alliance with 
the National Renaissance Party, an overtly racist, neo-Nazi organization. 17 Such 
claims are not difficult to believe, given that LaVey’s writings reveal an ideology 
that can best be characterized as fascism cloaked in quasi-religious dogma. His 
best-known work, The Satanic Bible , contains a dedication to Karl Haushofer, 
one of the occult architects of the Third Reich. According to some reports, 
Haushofer dictated virtually verbatim an entire chapter of Mein Kampf although 
legend holds that the tome was dictated to Rudolf Hess by an imprisoned Adolph 
Hitler. Hess was, it should probably be noted, a member of the Thule Gesellschaft 
(a powerful occult society behind the rise of fascism) and had been a student and 
protege of Haushofer at the University of Munich. 

LaVey’s prolific writings are filled with pro-police and pro-authoritarian prop- 
aganda, unabashed elitism, and calls for the destruction of the weak by the 

17 According to some reports, Bobby Beausoleil, who was associated with both the 
Church of Satan and Charlie Manson, played a key role in forging a prison alliance 
between the Manson Family and the Aryan Brotherhood. Other reports have linked 
Manson to the Nazi Lowriders, another neo-Nazi prison gang. 

126 • Programmed to Kill 

strong 18 — calls that echo Crowley’s writings in Book of the Law: “We have noth- 
ing with the outcast and unfit; let them die in their misery. For they feel not. 
Compassion is the vice of kings; stamp down the wretched and the weak; this is 
the law of the strong.” The Church of Satan’s promotional literature has proudly 
proclaimed the Church of Satan to be “an eclectic body that traces its origins to 
many sources. .. [including] the ritual magic of Aleister Crowley and the Black 
Order of Germany in the 1920s and 1930s.” Readers are reminded that the Black 
Order was the elite branch of the Schutzstaffel ( SS ) that was primarily responsible 
for engineering countless crimes against humanity during the reign of the Reich. 

In The Black Flame, an official publication of the Church of Satan, LaVey once 
wrote: “If a neo-fascist look — or outlook — makes for men who look like men and 
women who look like women, I am all for it.” He also offered the following 
observation: “There is nothing inherently wrong with fascism, given the nature 
and needs of the average citizen... Now it’s not so much a case of avoiding fas- 
cism, but of replacing a screwed-up, disjointed, fragmented and stupefying kind 
of fascism with one that is more sensible and truly progressive.” Peter Gilmore, a 
ranking member of the Church of Satan, has described modern Satanism as prac- 
ticed by LaVey’s group as “a brutal religion of elitism and social Darwinism that 
seeks to re-establish the reign of the able over the idiotic, of swift justice over 
injustice, and for a wholesale rejection of egalitarianism as a myth that has crip- 
pled the advancement of the human species for the last two thousand years.” 
Gilmore has also advocated the institution of “an American Schutzstaffel.” 

The Temple of Set is only one of several groups that have been spawned from 
LaVey’s inner circle. Another is the Werewolf Order, co-founded by LaVey’s 
daughter Zeena and Manson-admirer Nikolas Schreck. That particular spin-off 
was patterned directly after the so-called Werewolf Corps (Nazi terrorist cells cre- 
ated in post-war Germany to thwart attempts at denazification). Zeena LaVey 
and Nikolas Schreck are also notable for hosting, along with publisher Adam 
Parfrey, a public gathering on August 8, 1988 that was organized to celebrate the 
anniversary of the slaughter of Sharon Tate by the Manson Family. 19 

18 LaVey also publicly endorsed the practice of cannibalism. At a seminar that he 
dubbed “On Cannibalism and Human Sacrifice,” LaVey once served guests the 
amputated thigh of an unidentified young woman. The main course had reportedly 
been donated by a Berkeley physician. 

19 Nikolas Schreck is also notable for his noticeable lack of a left ear, which he sliced off 
in a VanGogh-like move intended to symbolize his allegiance to Satan. The 8/8/88 
celebration was notable for another reason as well: it was held just one day after the 
100 rl1 anniversary of the first Jack the Ripper slaying on August 7, 1888. 

David McGowan • 127 

Another disciple of Crowley, and an occult superstar in his own right, was 
rocket-fuel scientist Jack Parsons. In 1939, Parsons joined the Agape Lodge of the 
OTO in Pasadena, California, where he also helped found the prestigious Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory. The Agape was the only OTO lodge in the States at that 
time, though there was an active lodge in Vancouver started by Charles Stansfield 
Jones. In 1942, Parsons took the ‘magickal’ name of “Frater 210” and assumed 
leadership of the Pasadena lodge, with the blessings of Crowley. Parsons led the 
branch of the German-based, pro-Nazi order throughout the war years, while at 
the same time working on highly classified military projects purportedly aimed at 
defeating the European fascist powers. One of his early recruits, and most avid 
disciples, had just served with the U.S. Navy in the Pacific and was the son of a 
naval commander. Calling himself “Frater H,” he claimed at various times to 
work for the Los Angeles Police Department, the FBI, and the Office of Naval 
Intelligence. In truth, he may very well have worked for all of them. Frater FI, 
perhaps better known as L. Ron Hubbard, soon became Parson’s right-hand-man. 
In 1946, the two ‘adepts’ performed an allegedly important ritual that they 
dubbed the ‘Babalon Working.’ 

Two years later, following the death of mentor Crowley, Parsons took the oath 
of the antichrist and took on an elaborate new name: Belarion Armiluss A1 Dajjal 
Antichrist. His Pasadena mansion served as the lodge’s temple. Leadership of the 
OTO had, for the time being, been passed by Crowley into the hands of Karl 
Germer, a former Nazi spy. Hubbard, meanwhile, parted ways with Parsons and 
by 1950 had launched the Hubbard Dianetics Research Foundation in New 
Jersey. In May 1950, Astounding Science Fiction, a pulp magazine, introduced 
Dianetics as a purportedly new science. Within weeks, Hubbard’s book had hit 
the bestseller lists. In 1952, he moved his operation to Phoenix and renamed it 
the Hubbard Association of Scientologists. In June of that same year, just two 
days short of the summer solstice, Parsons allegedly blew himself up while at 
work in his private home lab. When informed of her son’s death, his mother 
promptly committed ‘suicide.’ Rumors surrounding Parson’s death named L. 
Ron Hubbard, Howard Hughes and Randolph Hearst as possible suspects. 

In 1953, the Church of Scientology was formally incorporated in Los Angeles. 
The group grew quickly over the succeeding years, particularly in the late 
1960s — when membership quadrupled with the addition of such members as 
Charles Manson. By 1967, Hubbard’s empire included command of a fleet of 
ships. Though the Church of Scientology has worked hard to gloss over its occult 
roots, its founder’s own son — L. Ron Hubbard, Jr. — has been quoted as saying: 
“Hitler was involved in the same black magic and the same occult practices that 
my father was. The identical ones... [my father] thought of himself as the Beast 
666 incarnate... when Crowley died in 1947 my father then decided that he 


Programmed to Kill 

should wear the cloak of the beast.” There seems to have been a lot of that going 
around. L. Ron, Jr. has also said that the “one super-secret sentence that 
Scientology is built on is: ‘Do as thou wilt.’” 

In the early 1960s, two ranking members of the Church of Scientology — 
Robert Moore and Mary Anne MacLean, better known as the DeGrimstons — 
split off from London’s Hubbard Institute to form the Process Church of the 
Final Judgment 20 — a group whose official logo is a modified swastika and whose 
literature included glowing tributes to Nazism, Satan, gore and necrophilia. The 
group’s bookstore reportedly stocked titles on topics such as Hitler, organized 
crime, hypnosis, brainwashing, and the occult. Moore, a former cavalry officer 
and the grandson of a British vicar, and MacLean, a one-time prostitute who was 
connected to the Profumo scandal and who reportedly believes that she is the 
reincarnation of Nazi propagandist Josef Goebbels, first left London with their 
followers just after the summer solstice of 1966, arriving first in Nassau and then 
in Xtul, Mexico. They were soon back in London. 

By 1967, they had arrived in the States, first setting up shop in New Orleans’ 
French Quarter, where the organization was formally incorporated with the assis- 
tance of a former lawyer for the Catholic Church. In March 1968, the group 
moved their base of operations to San Francisco, taking up residence not far from 
LaVey’s Church of Satan and various other occult groups, including a branch of 
the OTO. Recruiters for the group had been in the Bay area since the 1967 
‘Summer of Love,’ signing on such members as ‘Brother Ely,’ a member of the 
Gypsy Jokers biker gang whose home/Process Church temple was located just 
two blocks away from the home of the Manson Family. From its inception, the 
Process made no effort to hide its infatuation with death, destruction and cultural 
terrorism. In the essay Jehovah on War, Moore commanded his followers: 
“THOU SHALT KILL.” Another essay that appeared in the official Process pub- 
lication urged readers to experience the pleasures of grave robbing and 
necrophilia. A rant in the “Death” issue was penned by a recent transplant to the 
Bay area by the name of Charles Manson. 

Also by 1 967, the Process had already spawned at least one spin-off, probably 
from the group’s inner circle, reportedly known as ‘The Omega.’ The spin-off has 

20 A February 2004 report from Denver’s Rocky Mountain News revealed that the Process 
Church is alive and well today after a series of name changes (Lou Kilzer “Friends 
Find Their Calling,” February 28, 2004). The group first became The Foundation — 
Church of the Millennium, then The Foundation Faith of God, then the Best Friends 
Animal Sanctuary, and finally the Best Friends Animal Society, which has its head- 
quarters on a compound in the Utah desert. The group, which still includes many 
original members, is now known to rub shoulders with various Hollywood celebrities. 

Da vid McGo wan • 129 

been variously referred to as the ‘Four-P Movement,’ the ‘Four Pi’ cult, or the 
‘Chingon’ cult. The group’s logo is a stylized swastika composed of four ‘P’s. Its 
members are said to share a fascination with Nazi racist doctrines. Author 
Michael Newton has written: “If law-enforcement spokesmen are correct, the cult 
is also deeply involved in white slavery, child pornography, and the international 
narcotics trade.” The first branch of the cult was organized in Northern 
California, and is said to have held its early gatherings in the Santa Cruz 
Mountains, adjacent to that boiling cauldron of satanic activity known as San 
Francisco. From this primordial stew would arise, in the late sixties, the Manson 

Much of Manson’s ideology was taken directly from the teachings of the 
Process Church, with whom Charlie was closely connected, as alluded to by 
Bugliosi in Helter Skelter and greatly elaborated on by Ed Sanders in The Family 
and Maury Terry in The Ultimate Evil. Manson was exposed to the Process as 
early as the spring of 1967 at San Francisco’s infamous ‘Devil House,’ and he later 
claimed to have met the leaders of the Process at the Polanski home, which he is 
known to have visited before the killings. Manson was also linked to: the Church 
of Satan; the Solar Lodge of the OTO, which operated from a ranch near Blythe 
and a cult-owned house near the University of Southern California campus; the 
Church of Scientology (Charlie declared himself to be a ‘Theta Clear’ after 150 
hours of ‘auditing’ while in prison); a particularly bizarre group known as the 
Kirke Order of the Dog Blood; and a number of occult-oriented biker gangs, 
including the Straight Satans (who once attended a Ku Klux Klan rally in the San 
Fernando Valley), the Satan Slaves, the Gypsy Jokers, the Jokers Out of Hell, and 
the Coffin Makers. 

Terry’s evidence indicates that the Family was itself a satanic cult — specifically 
a faction of the Process-spawned Four Pi cult and a sister group to both the New 
York chapter said to be responsible for the Son of Sam slayings and the Santa 
Cruz/San Francisco faction that may have been responsible for the ‘Zodiac’ mur- 
ders. The Manson Family, appropriately enough, was also deeply involved in drug 
trafficking, just as Henry Lee Lucas claimed his cult to be. It is not likely a coin- 
cidence that Henry’s partner, Ottis Toole, was known to have paid visits to the 
New Orleans headquarters of the Process Church. 

With all that in mind, we now turn our attention to the San Francisco/Santa 
Cruz area and the explosion of violent murders that belched forth from that caul- 
dron beginning in the late 1960s. 


Programmed to Kill 

“Satan is a Fascist” 

— Title of an April 1972 article by 
Donald Nugent in The Month that referred 
to the “unholy trinity of Adolph Hitler, 
Charles Manson. . .and Anton LaVey.” 

“In as much as Fascism stands for an embracing of the Natural 
Order and a rejection of ‘anything goes’ attitudes that have hin- 
dered our society, particularly since the 1960’s, then Fascists we 


— Church of Satan Magister Peter Gilmore, 
in The Black Flame, Vol. 4/No. 1&2 

Chapter 13 

The Spawning Ground 

Ottis Toole: I’ve been meaning to ask you. . . that time when I 
cooked some of these people? Why’d I do that? 

Henry Lee Lucas: I think it was just the hands doing it. I know 
a lot of things we done, in human sight, are impossible to 

Toole: When we took ’em out and cut ’em up. . . remember one 
time I said I wanted me some ribs? Did that make me a canni- 

Lucas: You wasn’t a cannibal. It’s the force of the devil, some- 
thing forced on us that we can’t change. There’s no reason deny- 
ing what we become. We know what we are. 

O n March 21, 1967 (the spring equinox), Charles Milles Manson was released 
from prison and given transport to San Francisco, where — despite having served 
virtually his entire adult life in prison — he immediately started gathering devoted 
followers, many recruited from the various Satanic groups blossoming in the area. 
In the spring of the following year, 1968, Manson loaded his new followers into a 
bus and took them on the road, ultimately settling into the Los Angeles area 
where Charlie quickly and improbably established numerous prominent contacts 
in the entertainment industry. As Neil Young, who knew Charlie and his girls 
well and once tried to get the head of Warner Brothers to sign the aspiring 
singer/songwriter, once told an interviewer: “A lot of pretty well known musicians 
around L.A. knew him, though they’d probably deny it now.” 

On December 20, 1968, just shy of the winter solstice, what was thought to 
be the first of the Zodiac murders rocked the San Francisco area when a man was 
shot once in the head at point blank range with a .22 and his female companion 
was shot multiple times with the same weapon. A detective working the case 



Programmed to Kill 

noted that the male victim had recently learned of a major drug deal that was 
about to go down, and he had been talking openly about who was involved in the 

It would later be speculated that the Zodiac killings actually began in the Los 
Angeles area on the eve of Halloween, 1966 — just a few months after the ram- 
pages of Richard Speck and Charles Whitman. The victim, Cheri Jo Bates, had 
been stabbed in the chest and her throat had been slit so deeply that she was 
nearly decapitated. A wristwatch of military origin had been found at the crime 
scene, along with a military-style heel print. The circumstances of the murder 
suggested that the female victim knew her killer and had spent a portion of the 
evening with him before the attack. What was said to be a confession was received 
in the mail and, on Walpurgisnacht of 1967, taunting letters were sent to area 
newspapers and to the victim’s father. The FBI would later inadvertently reveal 
that it had an alternate version of the ‘confession,’ featuring the exact same word- 
ing but set in a different typescript and with a different number of words per line. 

On Independence Day, 1969, another couple was gunned down in their car, 
this time with a 9mm semi-automatic. The woman, Darlene Ferrin, who 
appeared to be the primary target of the attack (the man survived his wounds), 
may have known the previous Zodiac victims. She had reportedly told her friends 
that she had witnessed a murder by a man who had subsequently been following 
her. In the weeks before her death, she had been receiving mysterious packages 
from a man living in Mexico who Darlene had, for unexplained reasons, married 
in 1 966 using an assumed name and then later divorced. Her companion on the 
night of the murder, Michael Mageau, left his home in such a hurry that the 
lights and TV were left on and the front door was left open. He later told investi- 
gators that he and Darlene were followed immediately upon leaving Ferrin’s 
house. After changing his story several times, Mageau went into hiding. Shortly 
after the shootings, police received a call from a man claiming credit for Ferrin’s 
murder. The call was placed from a payphone just outside the Sheriff’s station. 

At the end of July, the first of what proved to be a long series of letters arrived 
at area newspaper offices, with a request that the letter be published on August 1, 
the occult holiday known as Lammas. The series of letters were laced with codes 
that suggested that the writer had a background in naval intelligence, bringing 
the ONI (Office of Naval Intelligence) onto the case. Others agencies that inves- 
tigated the Zodiac killings included the FBI, the U.S. Postal Service, the 
California Department of Justice, and four local police agencies. On August 4, 
1969, the killer supplied his moniker in a letter that began: “This is the Zodiac 
speaking.” Just days later, on the nights of August 8 and 9, the Manson Family 
committed two of the most notorious multiple murders in the nation’s history: 
the Tate-LaBianca slayings. The Manson killings were part of a weekend orgy of 

David McGowan • 133 

violence in Los Angeles that saw the city record twenty-nine known homicides in 
just four days. Before the search for the perpetrators of the high-profile murders 
was over, it would involve the FBI, the Mossad, the California Beverage Control 
Board, the U.S. Treasury Department, the L.A. County District Attorney’s 
Office, the LAPD, the L.A. Sheriff’s Office, and Colonel Paul Tate — a U.S. Army 
Intelligence asset, Vietnam veteran, and the father of victim Sharon Tate. 

Also brought in by Roman Polanski to assist in his own investigation of the 
killings was famed ‘psychic’ Peter Llurkos. Hurkos had earlier made a high profile 
appearance alongside of F. Lee Bailey in the Boston Strangler case, which will be 
covered in a later chapter. At the time of the Manson murders, Llurkos was 
involved in organizing a Black Arts Festival scheduled for Llalloween day, 1969. 
The events other organizers were Timothy Leary and Anton LaVey, who were 
scheduled to host the festival before it was cancelled. 

The month after the Tate-LaBianca killings, and just after the autumnal equi- 
nox, a man and woman were stabbed multiple times in a San Francisco-area park. 
Despite the fact that it took nearly an hour for an ambulance to respond to a call 
as the pair lay bleeding, the man survived the attack. In what has to be the only 
known case of a serial killer showing up for work dressed in a logo-bearing cos- 
tume, the assailant was described as wearing a strange hood with an attached 
apron that prominently displayed the trademark symbol of the Zodiac. The 
attacker reportedly had a gun, but chose instead to use a knife, breaking from the 
previous pattern and likely contributing to the survival of the male victim. Prints 
from a military-issue boot distributed primarily to U.S. naval bases on the west 
coast were found at the scene. The professed killer again called police, again from 
a payphone near the local police station. He reportedly left a clear palm print on 
the phone, but a “nervous” technician reportedly destroyed it. 

On October 11, 1969, one day shy of the birthday of Aleister Crowley, a taxi 
driver was shot once in the head with a 9mm handgun, although it was a differ- 
ent 9mm than had been used previously by the Zodiac. At four San Francisco- 
area crime scenes, the ‘Zodiac’ had now used a different weapon at each. The 
latest victim had picked up his fare on Mason Street and had then driven him to 
an address in the Presidio Heights area of the city, where he was promptly shot. 
Some local kids witnessed the murder and immediately called the police with a 
description of the assailant. For unexplained reasons, however, the police dis- 
patcher broadcast a description of a black perpetrator, allowing the real shooter to 
evade a massive police response. Two days later, a new letter from the Zodiac 
claimed credit for the killing and threatened a future attack on a school bus. 

On October 22, a man identifying himself as the Zodiac called authorities and 
requested to speak, strangely enough, to either F. Lee Bailey or San Francisco attor- 
ney Melvin Belli. A spectacle then played out in which the man, calling himself 

134 • Programmed to Kill 

‘Sam,’ called and had a live chat on the air with the CLA-linked Belli. In 
November, another letter arrived from the elusive Zodiac, this one containing a 
bomb threat. Also in November 1969, two Scientologists were found savagely 
murdered on the streets of Los Angeles. Each had been stabbed more than fifty 
times. One of the victims had dated Manson disciple Bruce Davis in 1968, just 
before Charlie had sent Davis to London to visit both the headquarters of the 
Process Church and the local Scientology school. Davis was later convicted of 
other, unrelated murder charges, and he has been identified by some researchers as 
a possible suspect in the Zodiac killings. 

Another Zodiac letter, addressed to Belli, was sent on December 20, just shy 
of the winter solstice. On April 20, 1970, yet another letter was sent; it was fol- 
lowed by a ‘dragon card’ on April 28. The next day, on the eve of Walpurgisnacht, 
the Zodiac’s bomb threat was revealed to the public, ratcheting up the already 
high level of fear in the Bay area. Interestingly, one of the Zodiac’s numerous let- 
ters contained a coded reference to the locations of the killings. A decoding sug- 
gested that the crime scenes formed a pattern that centered on Mt. Diablo (the 
Devil’s Mountain) and that utilized an obscure unit of measurement known as a 
radian, which is a mathematical unit based on the number Pi. 

Elsewhere in the country, a man named Stanley Baker was convicted in July 
1970 for the murder of a Montana resident. Baker made a candid admission to 
his arresting officers: “I have a problem. I am a cannibal.” As proof, he produced 
from his pocket a well-gnawed human finger. Baker was the talkative sort and he 
readily confessed his involvement in a number of other murders that he claimed 
he had committed as a member of the Process-spawned Four Pi cult. Police were 
able to confirm his complicity in a particularly brutal mutilation murder in San 
Francisco, thanks to his having left behind a bloody fingerprint. California courts 
nevertheless declined to prosecute Baker for the homicide with the remarkable 
claim that he had been denied a speedy trial. Despite his confessed involvement 
in a number of murders, and despite the fact that the murder for which he was 
convicted involved him ripping out the man’s heart and eating it, Baker was 
released from prison after just fourteen years, and according to recent reports, he 
remains at large today. This in spite of the fact that he distinguished himself as 
something less than a model prisoner during his incarceration by starting his own 
satanic cult and having no fewer than eleven weapons confiscated by guards. 

Just as Stanley Baker and Charlie Manson had migrated away from San 
Francisco, so too did many other disenchanted hippies and flower children move 
on in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Many of them found refuge in the hundreds 
of square miles of sparsely settled wilderness offered by the Santa Cruz 
Mountains, where the abundance of rich soil and clear, running water provided 
ideal conditions for communal living and marijuana cultivation. By 1972, some 

David McGowan • 135 

seventeen thousand men, women and children had taken up residence in the fer- 
tile glens and along the rich creek beds of Santa Cruz. As Margaret Cheney 
described the scene: 

Every enterprising commune or solo Druid grew a patch of 
cannabis ; but it did not end there. More enterprising men began to 
operate small, portable pill factories in the remoter parts of the forest, 
turning out LSD and amphetamines for the city market, free of police 
harassment. A small cult of Satanists from San Francisco liked the land- 
scape and opened a local parish. After them came pretenders, exploiters 
and hangers-on. The more sensational news media promoted the 
black-mass aura. Small sacrificial animals were occasionally found 

Seemingly random, motiveless killings quickly began to plague Santa Cruz. 
On October 19, 1970, in a case closely mirroring the slaughter of the residents of 
the Tate house the year before, John Lindley Frazier, allegedly acting alone, killed 
all the occupants of a home in Santa Cruz, including a prominent doctor, his 
wife, secretary, and two children. Frazier, who was known to have a strong inter- 
est in the occult, was said to have started his own lifestyle as an Aquarian Age’ 21 
hermit living in a six-foot-square shack in the woods (a lifestyle later adopted by 
Ted Kaczynski, who was a subject of MK-ULTRA experiments while he was a 
young student at ffarvard, and who has been named by some researchers as a pos- 
sible suspect in the Zodiac killings). Just over a week after the Frazier killings, a 
Halloween card was received from the Zodiac. More cards and letters followed, 
the last of which arrived in 1974. The murders were never solved, though many 
believe that — as Inyo County District Attorney Frank Fowles has stated — 
“Manson and the Zodiac Killer were connected.” 

Soon after Frazier’s rampage, women began going missing from around the 
Santa Cruz area. As early as autumn of 1968, reports began surfacing of grisly 

2 1 The notion of an Age of Aquarius’ was popularized by groups like San Francisco’s 
‘Diggers,’ who occupied the aforementioned ‘Devil House,’ and by publications such 
as San Francisco’s Oracle. Perhaps no one played a greater role in popularizing the idea 
of the Age of Aquarius’ than the Oracle s Gavin Arthur. Interestingly, Arthur’s full 
legal name was Chester Alan Arthur III. He was the great-grandson of President 
Chester Arthur. He reportedly predicted JFK’s assassination before Kennedy was even 
elected. Some attribute that feat to clairvoyance, but it was more likely due to fore- 

136 • Programmed to Kill 

occult sacrifices being performed in the surrounding mountains. By the summer 
of 1972, it was clear that Santa Cruz had a problem. Mutilated bodies began 
showing up in the hills. By the time 1973 rolled around, the bodies were piling 
up at an alarming rate. In just the first six weeks of the year, eight bodies were 
found, and women were continuing to disappear. What had once been an idyllic 
community had been radically transformed; the murder rate had quintupled and 
Santa Cruz had achieved the rather dubious distinction of having the highest 
homicide rate in the country. Many of the area’s killings were credited to two 
alleged serial killers, Edmund Kemper and Herb Mullin, who were said to be 
operating at the same time in the same city, though acting independently of each 
other. Kemper’s bloody odyssey reportedly included eight victims brutally 
butchered between May 1972 and April 1973, most of them coeds whose corpses 
were cannibalized and sexually violated. Mullin was credited with dispatching 
thirteen victims in just four months, from October 13, 1972 through February 
13, 1973. Mullin admitted to having a strong interest in the occult, a fact made 
evident by the nature of the killings attributed to him: the first victim was killed 
on Friday the 1 3^, the second on or about Halloween, and the third murder was 
the stabbing of a Catholic priest in his confessional on November 2, celebrated as 
All Souls Day. 

To briefly recap, no fewer than six serial killers/mass murderers — Charles 
Manson, Stanley Baker, Edmund Kemper, Herbert Mullin, John Findley Frazier, 
and the Zodiac — were all spawned from the Santa Cruz/San Francisco metropol- 
itan area in a span of just over four years, at a time when ‘serial killers’ were a rare 
enough phenomenon that they hadn’t yet acquired a name. And another serial 
killer was said to be at work not far away during the same timeframe. As Bundy 
chronicler Richard Farsen recounts, the bodies of at least fourteen young women 
and girls were found, nude and with their belongings missing, in Northern 
California between December 1969 and December 1973. In the immediate 
vicinity of each of the bodies “was found an elaborate witchcraft symbol of twigs 
and rocks.” Remarkably enough, the crimes collectively attributed to these men 
did not even account for all the ritualized homicides that occurred in the Bay area 
during that time. For example, the murder of Fred Bennett, the captain of the 
Oakland chapter of the Black Panthers whose mutilated remains were found scat- 
tered in the Santa Cruz hills, was never solved. And many of the young students 
who were reported missing from local campuses were never found, either dead or 
alive, and were therefore never listed as homicide victims. 

On October 12, 1974, the birthday of Aleister Crowley, student Arliss Perry 
was brutally murdered and left on display in the Stanford Memorial Church on 
the campus of Stanford University, nestled in the shadows of the Santa Cruz 
Mountains. Perry was left lying on her back, with her head toward the altar and 

David McGowan • 137 

her legs spread wide. She was nude from the waist down and an altar candle pro- 
truded from her vagina; another altar candle was wedged between her exposed 
breasts. Her jeans had been neatly arranged in an inverted V-shape and placed 
across her splayed legs, forming the Masonic symbol of the compass and the 
square. Five years earlier, the very same symbol had been left carved into the 
stomach of Manson victim Leno LaBianca, as the “W” in the word “War.” The 
prime suspect in the still-unsolved murder of Perry is a man named Bill Mentzer, 
who knew Charles Manson and at least one of his victims: Abigail Folger. In fact, 
Mentzer reportedly had lunch with Folger just a few days before her death. He 
later was connected to David “Son of Sam” Berkowitz as well, and still later was 
convicted of the Cotton Club murder of aspiring film producer Roy Radin. 

A few years after Perry’s murder, a new rash of ‘serial killings’ began in nearby 
Sacramento, California. These were ultimately attributed to a man named 
Richard Chase, also known as the “Vampire of Sacramento” and “The Dracula 
Killer.” These killers — Chase, Manson, Kemper, Mullin, the Zodiac, Frazier and 
Baker — heralded the dawn of a new era that soon had established ‘serial killers’ as 
an ever-present part of the American landscape. Before I960, fewer than two 
serial killers a year were reported nationwide. By 1970, the number had climbed 
to six per year; by 1980, to nearly twenty per year. By 1990, nearly three-dozen 
serial killers a year were being reported across the country. 

The years covered by the occult bloodbath in Northern California, 1967 
through 1973, correspond precisely to the years that the Phoenix Program in 
Vietnam was in full operation (although similar programs, under different 
names, existed prior to 1967). In September 1973, the head of the Phoenix oper- 
ation, William Colby, was appointed as the new Director of the Central 
Intelligence Agency. Phoenix had officially come home. 

Charles Milles Manson was born “No Name” Maddox, the son of an alcoholic 
teenage prostitute. His mother was imprisoned for armed robbery when Charles 
was just a toddler, so the boy was sent to live with his grandparents. Following 
that, he lived for a time with an aunt and uncle in Virginia, who sent him off to 
his first day of school dressed as a girl, just as Henry Lee’s mother had done. By 
age eight, Charles was back with his mother, who occasionally sent him off to stay 
with a moonshiner uncle. At age nine, he was sent to stay at the Gibault Home 
for Boys — a ‘reform’ school in Terre Haute, Indiana. Three years later, the pre- 
teen boy was living alone in a single room at a boarding house, until he was dis- 
covered by authorities. How he came to be living alone remains something of a 


Programmed to Kill 

mystery. From that point on, Manson spent the vast majority of his life institu- 

Charles next found himself housed at Boy’s Town, identified in The Franklin 
Cover-Up as a cesspool of pedophilic operations. By the age of fifteen, Charles 
was no longer a ward of the state; he had graduated to being a full-fledged con- 
vict. In prison, the diminutive Manson was repeatedly raped and beaten by 
guards and fellow inmates, until he managed to escape at the age of sixteen and 
find his way to California. He was soon arrested again and sent to the rather omi- 
nously named National Training School for Boys in Washington, D.C. A few 
years later, he was set free and married briefly and fathered a child, while also 
working as a pimp. That occupation earned him a lengthy prison stay following a 
conviction for running an interstate vice ring. Seven years later, he was again set 
free, after reportedly following Henry Lee Lucas’ lead by begging authorities at 
Terminal Island Prison not to release him. 

Within months, Charlie was playing his music in bars in San Francisco’s 
Tenderloin District and gathering a large and devoted group of followers. In his 
brief period of freedom, he lived with and associated with hundreds of different 
people, many of them prominent in the entertainment industry. He made 
numerous contacts in the music business, including Dennis Wilson , 22 Neil 
Young and Terry Melcher — the son of Doris Day and the former occupant, along 
with Candace Bergen, of the Cielo Drive home where the Tate murders occurred. 
Charlie even reportedly served as a ‘religious consultant’ for Universal Studios on 
a movie about Christ, and also auditioned to be one of “The Monkeys.” He was 
also deeply involved in a number of criminal enterprises, well before the consecu- 
tive bloodbaths that thrust him into the national limelight. As author Joel Norris 
has noted, Charlie was “a drug dealer and contract killer,” and “had become 
involved in underworld crime, murder-for-hire rings, and child pornography.” 
Interestingly enough, Manson has said that the Family’s most well known victims 
were involved in some of the same enterprises: “Don’t you think those people 
deserved to die? They were involved in kiddie porn.” Charlie had also, as previ- 
ously noted, allied himself with various satanic cult groups that, as Norris notes, 
were “heavily based on ritual bondage, sacrifice, and also murder.” According to 
Ed Sanders, who interviewed numerous members and associates of the Family, 
Manson was also involved in the production and distribution of snuff films. 

In the aftermath of the Tate and LaBianca killings, the LAPD, one of whose 
officers co-owned the auto shop that Charlie lived in just a few months before the 
murders, couldn’t really be bothered with the wealth of evidence that implicated 

22 Wilson and Melcher reportedly created an L.A.-area ‘Hell Fire Club’ known as the 
Golden Penetrators. Manson was likely a member. 

David McGowan • 139 

Family members in the murders. The department also refused to acknowledge 
and examine the obvious connections between the two murder scenes, severely 
hampering the investigation. They likewise refused to explore the connections 
between the murder of musician Gary Hinman and the other two more high- 
profile crimes. The L.A. Sheriff’s Department had already solved the Hinman 
case, no thanks to the LAPD, and had taken Bobby Beausoleil into custody just a 
few days before the Tate murders. The Sheriffs knew of his connections to the 
Family, and of the connections between the three crime scenes; two motorcycle 
gang members with close ties to the Family — A1 Springer and Danny DeCarlo of 
the Straight Satans — had given the Sheriff’s damning testimony concerning the 
Family’s involvement in all three murders. 

DeCarlo, who was reportedly a member of the Process Church, appears to 
have provided security for Charlie and the Family. He kept a large arsenal of 
weapons at the Family compound, including a .303 British Enfield rifle, a .22 
rifle, a 20-gauge shotgun, a .30 caliber carbine, a 12-gauge riot gun, an M-l car- 
bine, and a sub-machinegun. The Family, it should be noted, did not operate as 
the hippie cult that they have been portrayed as being. Their base of operations 
was more of a paramilitary compound than it was a commune, complete with 
guard shacks at lookout points, telescopes, walkie-talkies, military field tele- 
phones, and converted dune buggies equipped with machinegun mounts. 

When the Sheriffs passed along to the LAPD the information they had 
obtained from their informants, L.A.’s finest proceeded to do absolutely nothing. 
Meanwhile, on September 1, 1969 — just a few weeks after the Tate murders — a 
.22 caliber revolver was found in Sherman Oaks and turned in to the LAPD. The 
gun was a rather rare and unique firearm, and just happened to match the 
description of the weapon suspected of being used in the killings — right down to 
the broken handle that provided a perfect fit for the handle pieces that were 
recovered at the murder scene. Nevertheless, the department tagged and filed the 
weapon and it was promptly forgotten. For months. The department later sent 
out a flyer with a photo of the weapon, failing to realize that they already had the 
gun in their custody. It took a phone call from the father of the boy who had 
found the gun to get the department to acknowledge its existence, and even then, 
the caller was initially told that the gun had probably been destroyed. 

Elsewhere, Family member Susan Atkins had been arrested on unrelated 
charges and was spending time in the Sybil Brand Institute for Women. While 
there, she gave detailed confessions of the murders to at least two fellow inmates. 
She claimed that the Family had already committed eleven murders, and “many 
more were going to die.” Both of these women tried to pass this information 
along to the LAPD, but both were repeatedly denied permission to do so. This 
was in spite of the fact that one of the female jailers to whom these requests were 

140 • Programmed to Kill 

made was at the time dating one of the Tate case homicide detectives. One of the 
inmates later said: “It was the hardest thing I’ve ever tried to do in my life, to get 
anyone to listen to me.” 

It would appear then that the LAPD had, among other evidence, ail of the fol- 
lowing at its disposal: the eyewitness account of a participant in the crimes; the 
gun used in the crimes; and the statements of two close associates of the killers 
directly implicating them in the crimes. Yet they chose not to act on any of this 
for a period of several months. 

Though no serial killer/mass murderer in history has likely achieved the level 
of notoriety, or generated the volume of media coverage, that Charles Manson 
has, many of the most compelling facts of the Manson case remain largely 
unknown to the public. Of particular significance, perhaps, are the myriad levels 
on which the killers and the victims were connected. One of those connections 
was provided by none other than Anton LaVey. At least one of Charlie’s girls, 
known locally as the “Witches of Mendocino,” was recruited from LaVey ’s 
Church of Satan. Susan “Sexy Sadie” Atkins was one of many dancers in LaVey’s 
stable, collectively known as the “Topless Witches Review.” Atkins later credited 
LaVey with starting her down the road to murder. Family member Bobby 
Beausoleil, who was a roommate and, by some accounts, a lover of child star- 
turned underground filmmaker Kenneth Anger, was also recruited from the 
Church of Satan. 

Interestingly enough, LaVey had connections to the victims as well. He had 
formed a close association with Roman Polanski shortly before the murders when 
he served as the technical consultant for Polanski on the film “Rosemary’s Baby,” 
in which he also made a cameo appearance as — who else? — Satan. On the set of 
an earlier film, Tate herself had reportedly been initiated into witchcraft by 
Alexander Saunders. Sammy Davis, Jr., who was introduced to the Church of 
Satan by Manson victim Jay Sebring, has said of the victims who were killed at 
Tate’s Cielo Drive residence: “Everyone there had at one time or another been 
into satanism.” Some newspaper reports at the time of the slayings, denounced as 
sensationalism, were rife with reports that the Polanskis were satanists who hosted 
drug and sex orgies. Indeed, just days before the murders a drug dealer was 
reportedly filmed being whipped at the house in an S&M ritual. Various celebri- 
ties were said to have been attendance. Actor Dennis Hopper spoke in interviews 
of sadistic movies filmed at the house that featured some of Hollywood’s biggest 

Another connection was provided by the Esalen Institute, a ‘new age’ retreat in 
Monterrey with ties to Crowley enthusiast Timothy Leary’s like-minded 
Himalayan Academy. Manson had ties to both. He had in fact visited Esalen, 
where Robert DeGrimston of the Process Church reportedly lectured occasionally, 

Da vid McGo wan • 141 

just a few days before the Tate killings. On the very day of the murders, someone 
from within the Polanski home placed a call to the Institute for reasons unknown. 
One of the victims, Abigail Folger, may have visited the retreat just a few days 
before Manson’s visit. Author Robert Heinlein was also reportedly invited to lec- 
ture at Esalen. Heinlein, who, like Hubbard, first gained notice penning pieces for 
Astounding Science Fiction, is probably best known as the author of the 1961 novel 
Stranger in a Strange Land. The book provided Manson with a Crowley-inspired 
script to follow, and it was one of the few books that Charlie allowed his disciples 
to read. Heinlein was a right-winger with strong authoritarian leanings who to this 
day, nevertheless, continues to be promoted by various voices in the progressive 

Another link between the principals in the case was provided by singer 
“Mama” Cass Elliot. Victims Voytek Frykowski and Jay Sebring, who had a his- 
tory of sadism, were both part of Cass’s clique, as were Manson and some of his 
followers. Victim Abigail Folger may have been as well. Folger had also been 
friends for a time with Charles Manson himself, as well as with convicted Cotton 
Club killer Bill Mentzer. Four of the LAPD’s top initial suspects in the Tate mur- 
der case were members of Cass Elliot’s inner circle. They remained prime suspects 
for the first month of the investigation. One member of that circle was Pic 
Dawson, the flamboyant son of a U.S. State Department official and an on-and- 
off boyfriend of Cass. Dawson had lived in the home of victims Frykowski and 
Folger in the summer before the killings while the ill-fated pair house-sat for the 
Polanskis at the future crime scene: 10050 Cielo Drive, later renumbered, appro- 
priately enough, 1 0066 Cielo Drive. 

Another connection between killers and victims was provided by their shared 
interest in drug trafficking. Several of the victims — including Voytek Frykowski, 
Abigail Folger, and Sharon Tate herself — were linked to the trafficking of hallu- 
cinogens. Rosemary LaBianca was a known trafficker of methamphetamine, and 
likely other drugs as well. Frykowski had reportedly secured a deal just before the 
murders that would have made him the exclusive distributor of MDA in the L.A. 
area, his operations financed with coffee heiress Folger’s considerable financial 
resources. Jay Sebring, who before the murders had once appeared in an under- 
ground movie that also featured Mansonite Bobby Beausoleil, appears to have 
been involved in the drug trade as well. A man named Joel Rostau is known to 
have delivered drugs to Sebring at the Cielo house just hours before the murders. 
Rostau was found murdered the next year in New York City. Another Sebring 
associate showed up dead just a month later in Florida. Immediately following 
the killings on Cielo Drive, Sebring’s house was thoroughly cleaned by friends 
before police arrived to conduct a search. 

142 • Programmed to Kill 

The Manson family was also heavily involved in drug dealing, including traf- 
ficking in LSD, hashish, marijuana and cocaine. Just a couple of days after the 
killings, Manson was seen driving a black Mercedes Benz possibly owned by an 
underling of a man named Ronald Stark. Around that same time, Stark assumed 
the role of banker for the ‘Brotherhood of Eternal Love,’ a tax-exempt ‘church’ 
that was formed by a motorcycle gang with close ties to Timothy Leary. The 
Brotherhood was led by a man named “Farmer” John Griggs. At the same time as 
the Tate murders, Griggs allegedly overdosed on PCP at the group’s ranch in 
Idyllwild, California. A month earlier, a teenage friend of Leary’s daughter had 
been found drowned at the ranch. The death of Griggs resulted in a massive 
shake-up at the organization that resulted in the shadowy Stark becoming the 
Brotherhood’s sole banker and money manager. Under Stark’s guiding hand, the 
Brotherhood became the largest known producer and distributor of LSD in the 
world, producing some 50 million doses. Stark was also closely linked to a paral- 
lel acid-producing operation in the UK dubbed the “Microdot Gang,” which 
likewise produced millions of hits of LSD in the early 1970s. While running his 
empire, Stark was known to have extensive contacts with American embassy per- 
sonnel and to have frequent visitors from both the British and the American con- 

Were the Manson killings in reality part of what might be dubbed “The Great 
Acid Coup of 1969”? Were they the result of an operation aimed at, among other 
things, killing off some competitors, intimidating others, and consolidating con- 
trol of the hallucinogenic drug market? The possibility clearly exists. Police origi- 
nally were drawn to the theory that the killings were drug related. Other early 
theories were that the killings were occult inspired, or that the true motive could 
be found in what was dubbed ‘fame-porn.’ Films and videos found at the 
Polanski home suggested an elite Llollywood wife-swapping operation. The 
Folger/Frykowski home also yielded a box of erotic photos of Flollywood’s elite. 

There were also indications of the involvement of organized crime in the 
killings. Leno LaBianca had known underworld connections to whom he report- 
edly owed nearly $250,000 in gambling debts. At the time of the murders, the 
LaBianca home — which I must add, perhaps gratuitously, was once owned by 
Walt Disney — was known to have its phone lines tapped. I could also add here, 
perhaps rather gratuitously as well, that Walt Disney was a direct descendent, on 
his mother’s side, of George Burroughs — reportedly the ‘grand wizard’ of the 
witches executed in Salem in 1692. 

One mistaken impression that many people have about the Manson case is 
that the homes where the attacks took place were largely chosen at random. That 
was hardly the case. Manson was very familiar with the Polanski/Tate home, 
which he had visited in the past. Manson knew both the owner of the Cielo Drive 

David McGowan • 143 

home, Rudy Altobelli, and the previous tenant, Terry Melcher, who along with 
Charlie was involved with the Process Church (as was John Phillips, Cass Elliot’s 
bandmate and another associate of Manson). Charlie was familiar with the 
LaBianca home as well; it was right next door to the home of Harold True, who 
had hosted LSD parties attended by Charlie and his followers before the murders. 

One particularly bizarre fact about the Tate killings that has gone largely unre- 
ported is that the crime scene appeared to have been rearranged after the killers 
had left. An attempt appeared to have been made to pose the victims bodies on 
the home’s front porch, after which the corpses were reposed inside the house. 
Evidence of tampering with the crime scene included an unidentified bloody 
boot heel print found on the front porch of the house and a number of unidenti- 
fied fingerprints on the premises. 

Manson was ultimately arrested on charges unrelated to the murders on 
October 12, Aleister Crowley’s birthday, following a raid on the Family com- 
pound, and was only later charged in connection to the killings. Charlie had pre- 
viously been arrested or charged on forty or more occasions. One of those arrests, 
in 1967, was made by a narcotics team led by the LAPD’s Frank Salerno. Salerno 
would later lead the task forces investigating both the Hillside Strangler murders 
and the Night Stalker killings. 

When the Manson case came to trial, there were the usual strange occurrences 
that seem to plague serial killer trials. The lead defense attorney, Ronald Hughes, 
had just passed the bar and had yet to try a single case. He was, needless to say, a 
rather odd choice to spearhead the defense of one of the most vigorously prose- 
cuted and high-profile murder cases of all time. Hughes soon went missing, and 
later turned up dead on the very day that death sentences were returned by the 
jury. Family member John Philip “Zero” Haught, not charged with playing a role 
in the murders, also turned up dead, allegedly after playing a game of Russian 
Roulette. Another member of the Family was whisked away to Patton State 
Hospital, which was reportedly deeply immersed in overt behavior modification 
experiments in the 1970s. Perhaps the most troubling aspect of the trial was that 
the defense team rested their case without bothering to actually present one. 
Courtroom viewers were stunned when not a single witness was called to rebut 
the prosecution’s case, thereby virtually guaranteeing a win for Bugliosi and the 
state. Also of note is that then-President Richard Nixon declared Manson guilty 
on national television, nearly causing a mistrial, but ultimately greatly aiding the 
prosecution’s efforts. 

When it was all over, Judge Oder pronounced death sentences for Charlie, 
Patricia Krenwinkle, Susan Atkins, and Leslie VanHouten. The sentences were 
delivered on, of all days, April 19, 1971. The year before, Bobby Beausoleil had 
become the first Family member to receive a death sentence when the jury trying 

144 • Programmed to Kill 

him returned the sentence in the Gary Hinman murder trial. The date was April 
21, 1970. 

Perhaps in no other serial killer case has the subject of mind control played a 
more central role. That Charlie had a remarkable ability to control his followers is 
a well-established and widely acknowledged fact. Even more remarkable is that 
Manson has maintained much of that control from inside a prison cell for over 
thirty years now. In fact, the control that he had over his disciples was the primary 
basis for Manson’s murder convictions. While it was Charlie’s face that came to 
symbolize the killings, he did not personally participate in the Tate/LaBianca 
murders. According to the official version of events, he was not even present at 
the crime scenes when the murders took place; he merely suggested to his follow- 
ers what they should do, and they obligingly followed his commands. In order to 
convict Manson then, it was necessary for the prosecution to convince the jury 
that the actual killers were virtually powerless to disobey their leader. For this rea- 
son, the Manson trial had no real precedent in American legal history. What the 
Manson case demonstrated was that it could be proven in a court of law that a 
person could be compelled to essentially act against his/her will. That had already 
been established in a Danish court in a landmark case recalled by Estabrooks in 

An amateur hypnotist named Nielson had induced an hypnotic 
subject named Hardrup to commit a murder. . .Nielson, the hypnotist, 
got a life sentence, the maximum penalty in Denmark, whereas 
Hardrup, the actual murderer, received a two-year sentence on the basis 
of temporary insanity. 

The Manson case had a slightly different outcome: Manson, the hypnotist, 
received the death penalty, the maximum sentence in the State of California, and 
so too did the actual murderers. Legally and logically, that verdict made little 
sense. For if Manson’s control was so complete that the killers were powerless to 
resist his commands, then they should not have been held legally accountable for 
their actions. And if Charlie did not wield such power, then he should not have 
been held responsible for the actions of others. Prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi did 
not address that inherent contradiction in his prosecution strategy in his widely 
read book, Helter Skelter. He did ponder, albeit briefly, how Manson gained such 
control over his subjects. He concluded that that remains “the most puzzling 
question of all.” Indeed. After spending just a few pages briefly summarizing 
some of the techniques Manson employed on his followers, Bugliosi surmised: 

David McGowan • 145 

I tend to think that there is something more, some missing link that 
enabled him to so rape and bastardize the minds of his followers that 
they would go against the most ingrained of all commandments, Thou 
shalt not kill, and willingly, even eagerly, murder at his command. 

Charlie himself once gave an indication of how he controlled his flock: “If you 
want to get to people and unlock their minds, the basic way you get to them is 
through fear.” That was a concept that borrowed from the teachings of the 
Process Church. In a summer 1969 interview, Beach Boy Dennis Wilson spoke of 
“getting the fear.” In the same interview, he referred to Charlie as “the Wizard.” 

While pondering the question of how Manson was able to exert such control, 
Bugliosi largely ignores a perhaps even more important question: where did 
Charlie learn the techniques that he was obviously so skilled at? Bugliosi notes 
only that it “may be something that he learned from others,” which, of course, is 
only stating the obvious. The question not asked, either in the book or at trial, is: 
who were these others? One possible answer can be found among the personnel at 
the Haight- Asbury Free Clinic in the late 1 960s. Two employees of the clinic — 
Dr. Roger Smith, a research criminologist who had started the clinic’s drug treat- 
ment program, and Dr. David Smith, who founded the clinic itself — were both 
involved in government-sponsored research on human behavior. Both had con- 
nections to Manson and his followers. In fact, Roger Smith was Charlie’s parole 

Another question never addressed by Bugliosi is how it was possible that a 
man of limited education, who had spent the majority of his life behind bars, 
somehow acquired those skills while U.S. intelligence agencies, after investing 
countless millions of dollars in decades of research aimed at attaining that very 
same goal, have allegedly met with nothing but failure. It defies explanation that 
men such as Manson — or Jim Jones, David Koresh, et al — have stumbled upon a 
secret that the CIA has yet to discover. It is a patently absurd notion, and yet that 
is exactly what we are supposed to believe. We are also supposed to believe that 
Charlie, while controlling the actions of others, was himself acting on his own 
free will. That is highly unlikely. 

If Charlie was in fact controlling the Family, the logical question to be asked at 
trial was: who was controlling Manson? Was Manson himself a puppet, as well as 
a puppeteer? That question, naturally, was never raised and so remains largely 
unanswered to this day. Perhaps Bugliosi felt that question unimportant, given 
that, according to his book, “The Manson case was, and remains, unique.” Dr. 
Roger Smith saw things a little differently. In December 1969, he told Life maga- 
zine: “There are a lot of Charlies running around, believe me.” 

146 • Programmed to Kill 

(The story of Charles Manson is an endlessly fascinating one. It is also a story that 
is difficult to tell in a linear fashion, because Charlie and his victims were con- 
nected to so many people on so many different levels. For a nonlinear look at the 
Manson story, see 

Relatively little has been written about the murder of Dr. Vincent Ohta and 
his family on October 19, 1970, though the crime was no less sensational than 
the slaughter at the Polanski/Tate residence the year before. There were two 
marked differences between the Santa Cruz crime scene and the Benedict 
Canyon crime scene: in Santa Cruz, none of the victims was a national celebrity 
and the job was done more professionally. 

In a spectacular home overlooking the bay, Dr. Ohta, his secretary, Dorothy 
Cadwallader, his wife, Virginia, and his sons, Derrick and Taggert, were bound 
and blindfolded and then shot in the head from behind, execution style. They 
were then tossed into the home’s pool, some of them while they were still alive. 
The house was then set afire in several locations, thus destroying the crime scene. 
The family’s Rolls Royce and Lincoln Continental were parked across the home’s 
driveway entrances, denying access to the emergency vehicles that attempted to 
respond to the fires. A third car, a 1968 Oldsmobile station wagon, was missing. 

There was little in the way of crime scene evidence. The main portion of the 
house was completely gutted by the fires. The victims’ bodies had been washed 
clean in the pool. A driving rain in the early morning hours had thoroughly 
washed away any footprints or other evidence that might have been left outside 
the home. Police initially said that they had found no scrawled messages and no 
evidence of burglary. When the missing Oldsmobile was found, torched and 
abandoned in a tunnel, it also failed to yield any evidence. 

Although there was little for police to work with, one thing seemed clear 
enough: these murders were not the work of a lone perpetrator. Some investiga- 
tors, and much of the public, immediately suspected that another homicidal cult 
was at work. It seemed very unlikely that a sole assailant would have been able to 
bind all five victims, drag all their bodies out to the pool, start multiple fires, 
blockade the driveway, and then make a clean getaway. Two guns were used in 
the commission of the crimes — the .38 caliber weapon that killed Dr. Ohta and 
the .22 caliber weapon that killed the others. A witness reported seeing three 
people in the vicinity of the abandoned Oldsmobile, and three sets of footprints 
were found leading from the tunnel to an adjacent river. Two people who fit the 

David McGowan • 147 

witness’ description were reportedly found in the search area, but there is no 
indication of what became of those potential suspects. 

For obvious reasons, a Sheriff’s spokesman announced at a press conference 
that police were seeking more than one perpetrator. A few days later, however, 
John Frazier was arrested and charged with being the sole perpetrator of the 
crimes. An initial report on the arrest falsely claimed that Frazier had waged a gun 
battle with police, when he was actually taken into custody without incident. 

John Frazier had been placed in foster care at the age of five. Fie later ended up 
in a series of juvenile detention facilities. Fie was said to have a history of sleep- 
walking and horrifying nightmares. Despite his troubled upbringing, a friend 
described Frazier as having been a perfectly normal family man and competent 
mechanic, right up until the time that he suddenly changed his lifestyle dramati- 
cally and began speaking gibberish. On July 4, 1970, just three months before the 
murders, Frazier left his wife. At that time, he apparently took up residence in a 
shack, accessible via a drawbridge, on property near the Ohta residence. While 
living there, he reportedly collected guns. 

Following his arrest, Frazier was assigned James Jackson, the chief assistant 
public defender of Santa Cruz County, as his defense counsel. Assisting Jackson 
was Flarold Cartwright, a former U.S. Marine and police lieutenant working as 
Jackson’s private investigator. Also brought on board by Jackson was Donald 
Lunde, a former Navy man and a professor of psychiatry at the Stanford 
University Medical School, not far from Santa Cruz. This team remained 
together to handle the Kemper and Mullin cases as well. Also on the same team, 
for all practical purposes, was prosecutor Peter Chang. It is unclear whether these 
four men knew each other before the Frazier trial began, but in his book, Funde 
makes it clear that he, Chang, Jackson and Cartwright were fast friends by trial’s 
end, and frequently saw each other socially thereafter. This undoubtedly made it 
much easier to coordinate the shamelessly fraudulent Kemper and Mullin trials. 

On October 28, 1970, a grand jury indicted Frazier on five counts of murder. 
The defendant entered a plea of “not guilty,” which was later changed, on January 
19, 1971, to “not guilty by reason of insanity.” A gag order was issued and the 
trial was moved to Redwood City, but the Santa Cruz team remained on the case. 
Flelming the trial, which began in October 1971, was Judge Charles Franich. By 
late November, Frazier had been convicted on all five murder counts. It is unclear 
what evidence those convictions were based on. No murder weapon was ever 
found, so there was no ballistics evidence. There were no witnesses to the crime, 
and virtually all forensics evidence was destroyed by the fires and the rain. One 
witness reportedly identified Frazier as the driver of the abandoned Oldsmobile. 
It was claimed at one time by the DA’s office that fingerprints had been recovered 
from a typewriter found in the incinerated home, but it was later acknowledged 


Programmed to Kill 

that that statement had not been accurate. It was also claimed, implausibly 
enough, that fingerprints were recovered from a beer can found in the home. 

Dr. Lunde seems to have played a key role in garnering the convictions when 
he testified (for the defense, mind you) that Frazier had confessed the crimes to 
him during a psychiatric examination. Lunde also assured the court: “He’s crazy.” 
John Frazier illustrated that point when he arrived for court during the penalty 
phase of the trial with half his head and face shaved clean. He was sentenced to 
death, but that sentence was later set aside by a 1976 Supreme Court decision. 

There are many questions left unanswered in the Ohta/Frazier case. Among 
them is the question of what Dorothy Cadwallader was doing at the Ohta home. 
Cadwallader worked at Ohta’s office, not at his home, and she was not known to 
be a visitor to the residence. Press reports claimed that she was there to baby-sit, 
but Cadwailader’s husband denied those reports. He had no explanation for why 
his wife was there that fateful day. 

Another lingering question concerns the typewritten note that a press release 
claimed was found under the windshield wiper of the Rolls Royce, contradicting 
initial reports that there were no notes or messages found. Of course, a typewrit- 
ten note fits in quite well with the claim of a fingerprint-laden typewriter. That 
typewriter, unfortunately, did not actually exist. The note, however, lives on. It 
read, in part: 


today world war 3 will begin as brought to you by the pepole of the free 

Edmund Kemper III and Herbert Mullin — Santa Cruz’s dueling serial 
killers — lived what were, in many respects, strangely parallel lives. 

Both were born the sons of World War II heroes, Kemper on December 18, 
1948, and Mullin on April 18, 1947. Edmund Emil Kemper, Jr. was a Special 
Forces operative whose specialty, according to his son, was suicide missions. 
Martin William Mullin served as a highly decorated captain in the Pacific. 
According to his son, Martin voluntarily committed himself to a mental hospital 
at the close of the war. Both of these men liked to regale their sons with graphic 
war stories. Young Herb was taught that violence is natural, and Ed’s childhood 
home was filled with what Margaret Cheney described as “mementos of battle- 
field gore and heroics.” 

Da vid McGo wan • 149 

In their youth, both Herb and Ed received training in firearms from the 
National Rifle Association while at summer camp. Both would later be accused 
and convicted of killing with the cold precision of a professional assassin. Both 
were also labeled ‘serial killers,’ though both were convicted of crimes that evi- 
dence suggests they did not commit — at least not alone. 

Both of their alleged killing sprees began in 1972 in Santa Cruz, California 
and both were arrested in early 1973. Following those arrests, the two were 
assigned adjoining jail cells, appointed the same defense attorney, examined by 
the same psychiatrist, and their cases were prosecuted by the same district attor- 
ney, at least until Chang bowed out of the Mullin case due to a medical emer- 
gency. Kemper and Mullin were both found guilty, both determined to be sane, 
and both were sent to California’s Vacaville Medical Facility, which has been well 
documented as a hotbed of covert intelligence operations. Not long before their 
killing sprees began, both men spent a considerable amount of time in mental 
institutions, both voluntarily and involuntarily. In the two years leading up to the 
convictions of Kemper and Mullin, at least seventy-four men, women and chil- 
dren were killed in the state of California by released mental patients. 

Herb Mullin was, by all outward appearances, the quintessential All-American 
boy. He was a bright student, a talented athlete, and was popular enough to have 
been voted “most likely to succeed” by his graduating class at San Forenzo Valley 
High School. But he was also known to consume large quantities of hallucino- 
genic drugs and he had “Fegalize Acid” boldly tattooed across his stomach. 

On April 21, 1968, just three days after his 21 st birthday, Mullin was arrested 
for possession of the substance referenced in another of Herb’s tattoos: “Eagle 
Eyes Marijuana.” He cryptically wrote to his parents of that experience: “That 
day the GAME started.” For the ‘crime’ of possessing marijuana, Herb was given 
probation and, on Halloween day, committed to San Luis Obispo General 
Hospital. The personable young man — who was known to have a keen interest in 
astrology, numerology, reincarnation, magic and the occult — was institutional- 
ized at least four more times over the next few years, including a voluntary com- 
mitment to Mendocino State Hospital near Ukiah. On July 30, 1970, Herb was 
again arrested on drug charges and ordered into the psychiatric ward of the 
county hospital. 

That same year, he met an older woman named Pat Brown at a Santa Cruz 
commune, and she soon thereafter convinced him to accompany her to Maui. 
Once there, Herb was once again committed to a mental hospital. According to 


Programmed to Kill 

Manson chronicler Ed Sanders, the hospital was run by the U.S. Army. Sanders 
also claimed, in a letter to famed ‘conspiracy’ researcher Mae Brussell, that a mind 
control project in operation on the Hawaiian Islands at the time was specifically 
aimed at creating ‘serial killers.’ While on Maui, Mullin — whose other tattoos read 
“Mahashamadhi,” “Kriya Yoga,” and the word “Birth” with two crosses — also 
spent time at the Krishna Temple. Upon his return to the mainland, he was met at 
the airport by the son of a prominent local doctor, Richard Koch. Mullin report- 
edly revealed to him that he had received electroshock treatments while on Maui. 

On March 28, 1971, Mullin was again arrested, this time for being drunk in 
public and resisting an officer. He served ten days in jail and then, in May, moved 
to San Francisco, where he remained for the next sixteen months, although later 
he had only vague memories of that lengthy period. For the most part, he could 
not account for that entire one-and-a-half-year slice of his life. He lived in the 
city’s ‘Tenderloin’ district, where Charlie Manson had taken up residence just a 
few years earlier. Herb stayed in the company of young male hustlers in a series of 
seedy hotel rooms and, at times, in his car. Friends and acquaintances from that 
period of his life universally described him as sweet, tender, sensitive, and com- 
pletely incapable of killing anyone. Strangely though, he also appears to have 
been a Golden Gloves boxer during that time. 

Throughout his adult life, Herb complained frequently of voices in his head, 
haunting his thoughts. He regularly told those around him that he was receiving 
messages, including commands to kill, that were delivered in his father’s voice. 
Herb would later state: “I feel that I was under my father’s control, like a robot.” 
Mullin was also known to tell people that his father, a Mason, was a mass mur- 
derer responsible for countless unsolved killings up and down the California 
coast. During the largely blacked-out period that he spent in San Francisco, Herb 
engaged in what is known as backward writing, a hypnotically conditioned skill 
that is frequently indicative of mind control programming. Mullin was ultimately 
diagnosed as suffering from MPD; his alters were said to include a Mexican 
laborer, an Eastern philosopher, and, bizarrely enough, local columnist and unof- 
ficial Anton FaVey publicist Herb Caen. 

Herb returned from San Francisco to his parent’s Santa Cruz home in 
September 1972, and allegedly began his killing spree just a few weeks later. He 
allegedly purchased a six-shot .22 revolver from a gun shop on December 22, the 
winter solstice. Around that same time, the former Conscientious Objector inex- 
plicably decided to enlist in the U.S. Marines. On January 15, he passed both the 
physical and mental entrance examinations, a rather remarkable feat considering 
that at the time he was just a few weeks away from being arrested and charged as 
a serial killer. He also had a criminal record, which his recruiter opted to waive. 

David McGowan • 151 

Herb’s arrest preempted his military plans. Once in custody, he was interro- 
gated by police, throughout which he robotically chanted the single word 
“silence” to virtually all questions posed to him, as if repeating an instruction that 
had been programmed into his brain. He later claimed that, once incarcerated, he 
began receiving telepathic messages instructing him to kill himself, but he was 
able to resist acting on those orders. Had Mullin elected to commit suicide, the 
state surely would have breathed a sigh of relief. After all, they would have been 
spared the burden of staging a blatantly fraudulent trial. 

From the moment of Herb’s arrest, there were clear indications that he was 
being railroaded — by the very same team, as noted previously, that sent John 
Frazier to death row. There were also clear signs from early on that Mullin may 
not have been responsible for many of the crimes for which he was charged, most 
of which looked for all the world like contract hits. The killing of Father Tomei, 
for example, was very likely a professional hit. Tomei, who was raised in an 
orphanage during World War I, was internationally known both as a hero of the 
French resistance during World War II, and for having organized a chorus for 
troubled youth made up primarily of boys from abusive homes. This chorus 
toured internationally, which, though it is merely speculation, would have pro- 
vided an ideal ‘front’ for an underage male prostitution racket. 

An eyewitness to the slaying of Tomei described his assailant as young, white, 
6’ tall, and wearing a black leather jacket. Herb was only 5’ 7” tall and never 
owned a black leather jacket. Although he certainly could have borrowed the 
jacket, the five- inch height discrepancy is a little harder to explain. Mullin did 
have a connection to Tomei: Herb’s second cousin, Monsignor Edwin Kennedy, 
was a close friend of the slain priest. 

Mullin may or may not have been responsible for the nearly simultaneous 
mass murders at the homes of Jim Gianera and Bob Francis. One witness 
described the possible assailant as being short and of medium build, which accu- 
rately described Herb. But the witness also stated that he thought the man was 
Mexican, which Mullin definitely was not, although, as previously mentioned, 
one of his alter egos was. One thing that is known for sure is that Herb knew the 
victims quite well, which illustrates yet another flaw in the public’s perception of 
the nature of serial crime. In fact, a number of the killers profiled herein knew at 
least some of their victims, and sometimes knew them quite well. 

Another thing that is quite clear is that the Gianera and Francis families were 
not randomly selected victims. Rather, they were almost certainly the targets of 
professional hits. Both Francis and Gianera were known drug dealers, as were 
Gianera’s two brothers. And word on the street at the time of the killings was that 
Jim and Bob were snitches. It is, therefore, extremely unlikely that the simultane- 
ous assaults on their two homes were random acts of violence. 


Programmed to Kill 

Bob Francis was not at home at the time of the killings, but his wife and two 
young sons were summarily and quite professionally executed with a .22 round to 
the head. One of those sons, Herb’s youngest alleged victim at just four years old, 
was named Daemon — which is a nice name to give to your kid, if your name 
happens to be, say, Lucifer. At the Gianera home, both Jim and his wife Joan were 
killed with multiple gunshot and stab wounds. Strangely, both Jim and Joan’s 
families arrived at the crime scene before the police were notified. The house 
looked as though it had been thoroughly searched, though whether by the killers 
or by the victims’ families is unclear. Police later found two .22 casings in Bob 
Francis’ car, though that is obviously far from being conclusive evidence of guilt. 

Another mass murder attributed to Mullin, the slaughter of four teenaged 
campers, appeared to have been the work of multiple perpetrators — unless, that is, 
one chooses to believe that one man wielding a six-shot revolver can overpower 
four healthy young men armed with a rifle. This crime also looked very much like 
a professional job. All four victims were coldly and methodically dispatched with a 
single small caliber shot to the head from point-blank range. Evidence at the scene 
suggested that there had definitely been a struggle, yet the boys loaded and unfired 
rifle was found still lying within easy reach of where the teens’ bodies lay dead. 

The final murder attributed to Herb was the sniper shooting of a retired boxer 
who was felled with a single shot to the chest from 100 feet away, in what 
appeared to be yet another professional hit. Just days later, prosecutor Chang filed 
six murder counts against Mullin, even though three witnesses were unable to 
pick him out of a police line-up. Eight days later, four more murder counts were 
added and a sweeping gag order was issued barring any public statements on the 
case from anyone involved. On March 1, Mullin appeared before a judge, accom- 
panied by attorney Jackson, and shocked the courtroom by entering a nolo con- 
tendere plea and a request to represent himself. When the judge rejected both the 
plea and the request, Herb immediately offered up a guilty plea. The judge, how- 
ever, insisted on going through with the mockery of a trial. Dispensing with a 
preliminary hearing, the case was instead sent to a grand jury, which issued 
indictments on all ten murder counts on March 14. The transcript of those pro- 
ceedings, naturally enough, was sealed by the judge. 

Mullins defense counsel, Jackson, got things rolling by introducing a number of 
pre-trial motions that rather shamelessly sold his client out. Jackson told the court 
that there was no reason to change the venue of the trial, despite a massive amount 
of pre-trial publicity demonizing Mullin, and despite the unprecedented climate of 
fear in Santa Cruz engendered by the alleged actions of Kemper, Frazier, Mullin, et 
al. He also made an unprecedented request that jury questioning, known as voir 
dire, be conducted in the judge’s chambers. The request was granted and the jury 
was, without precedent, selected away from the eyes of the press and public. 

David McGowan • 153 

As California law requires that a defendant pleading “not guilty by reason of 
insanity” also maintain their factual innocence, two trials are generally required to 
dispose of such a case: one to determine factual guilt; and the second to deter- 
mine sanity, and therefore legal guilt. In a most remarkable move, however, 
Jackson agreed with the prosecutor and the judge that the two should be com- 
bined into one, since it was universally claimed that there was no question about 
factual guilt. The trial,’ in other words, began with the presumption of guilt as its 
starting point, completely doing away with the notion that, in the American 
criminal justice system, all defendants are presumed innocent until proven guilty 
in a court of law. 

When the trial began on July 30, 1973, the judge opened the proceedings by 
explaining to the secretly selected jurors the five possible verdicts they were to 
consider: guilty of first degree murder; guilty of second degree murder, guilty of 
voluntary manslaughter; guilty of involuntary manslaughter; or not guilty by rea- 
son of insanity. Notably absent from that list, from the very beginning of the trial, 
was “not guilty.” Not to be outdone, defense counsel Jackson began his opening 
statement by declaring: “Friday the 13^, October 1972, Herbert William Mullin 
took a baseball bat and clubbed one Lawrence White to death.” Not only had he 
declared his client guilty of murder, he had implicated him in a crime he had never 
even been charged with. Jackson’s opening act also included this little gem: “We do 
not, as you know, intend to argue the proposition that [Herb] did not commit 
these killings.” He did not, in other words, intend to actually defend his client. 

With Mullins guilt having been predetermined — albeit with no actual physi- 
cal evidence to support that conclusion — the state presented its case in just four 
days, with the ‘facts’ established rather perfunctorily and without a hint of any 
objections from the defense table. The defense team, in fact, did not bother to 
challenge any of the supposed facts of the case, which would not have withstood 
any sort of scrutiny. Truth be told, the state need not have presented a case at all; 
the defense did a fine job of establishing Mullins guilt. Playing a central role in 
that charade was Dr. Donald Lunde, who took the stand and proceeded to reveal 
what was purportedly Herb’s own account of the murders, which the doctor 
claimed that Mullin had confessed to both he and Cartwright. 

Not long into this testimony, Herb objected and requested that Jackson 
promptly terminate his questioning of Lunde, which was obviously eliciting tes- 
timony that was damaging to Herb’s case. Mullin noted of Lunde’s testimony: 
“different aspects and different facets of the story which I related are being por- 
trayed completely false as to how I made them.” He also informed the judge that, 
“in conference, they [Lunde and Jackson] explained that they would portray the 
reasons for my derangement.” The judge, needless to say, declined to halt Lunde’s 

154 • Programmed to Kill 

testimony, which was essential for establishing Mullins alleged guilt, which is 
why, I suppose, the testimony was being solicited by the defense team. 

Herb voiced numerous other complaints during his trial and frequently ques- 
tioned the competence and integrity of his appointed defenders, noting at one 
point the fact that Jackson, his lead attorney, refused to communicate with him in 
writing. Herb also strenuously objected to the misuse by Lunde of videotapes that 
the doctor had made of Herb’s supposed confessions. Mullin even went so far as 
to state, rather bluntly, that he was the victim of a huge conspiracy. Despite his 
deep mistrust of Lunde, the doctor was nevertheless able to convince Mullin to 
take the stand in his own defense, which any first year law student knows almost 
never benefits anyone other than the prosecution. While on the stand, Herb was 
asked directly by Jackson to explain why he had killed thirteen people, to which 
he responded: “All right. First of all, you have heard me say before that I am a 
scapegoat, sort of an outcast who has been made to become a scapegoat.” 

That was not, it seems safe to say, the response that Jackson had hoped to elicit. 

On August 19, 1973, the jury returned with guilty verdicts on all ten murder 
counts. The failure of the pitiful attempt at an insanity defense was due in no 
small part to a statement from Lunde to the jury: “as a practical matter, whether 
somebody is dangerous or not, there is no place to put him.” The message was 
quite clear: finding Mullin to be insane would essentially mean setting him free. 
The jury had essentially been instructed to find Herb guilty, and it did just that. 
He was sentenced to life in prison and promptly shipped off to Vacaville, before 
ultimately landing in San Quentin. Over the years, he was periodically shipped 
back to Vacaville, perhaps in need of a tune-up. 

To fully understand the depths of Lunde s cravenness, one need look no further 
than the doctor’s own words, written in his self-serving book on the case: “I had 
learned years earlier that the best course after a psychiatric interview of a criminal 
defendant is for me to return to my office, immediately dictate a summary of my 
notes, and destroy the originals.” That is, needless to say, a course of action to be 
taken only when one feels the need to cover something up, and a course of action 
that should have disqualified Lunde as a credible witness in the case. 

The final words on the Mullin case were written by Kenneth Springer, the jury 
foreman, who wrote to then-Governor of California Ronald Reagan: “I hold the 
state executive and state legislative offices as responsible for these 1 0 lives as I do 
the defendant himself — none of this need ever have happened.” Springer proba- 
bly had no idea how true those words really were. Nor did he likely know that the 
very same words could be as accurately applied to the case of Edmund Kemper. 

Da vid McGo wan • 155 

When Ed Kemper was just a toddler, his father headed off for the Pacific, 
where he spent two years working on the U.S. atomic bomb testing program, as 
did the father of the so-called “Sunset Strip Killer”. . .but we’ll get to that later. 

Though it appears that efforts have been made to whitewash Kemper’s child- 
hood, there are clear indications that it was a horrifyingly abusive one. At one 
point in his young life, Ed was made to live in a dank, dark basement for eight 
consecutive months, the only access to which was through a trapdoor hidden 
beneath a kitchen table. From the age of eight, Ed engaged in an incestuous rela- 
tionship with an older sister. At ten, he killed and beheaded his first cat, planted 
the severed head on a spindle and thereafter prayed over it. According to chroni- 
cler Margaret Cheney, he was prone to “zombie-like fits of staring,” which is 
another way of saying that he had a strong tendency to dissociate. 

At the tender age of fifteen, Kemper summarily executed both of his grand- 
parents with single .22 caliber rounds to the backs of their heads. Ele was judged 
insane and, on December 6, 1964, was remanded by the California Youth 
Authority to Atascadero State Hospital, an enormous facility filled with convicted 
rapists, child molesters and other violent sex offenders. Kemper remained at 
Atascadero for five years. On staff there, near the end of his confinement, was 
none other than Dr. Donald Lunde. It is indeed a small world. 

Remanded back to the CYA as ‘cured,’ Kemper was paroled three months later 
to his mother’s care. Not long after, Ed began work on a particularly brutal string 
of murders, while at the very same time he successfully petitioned to have his 
juvenile record sealed. In pursuit of that latter goal, he reportedly once drove to 
Fresno for a required psychiatric exam with a freshly severed head in the trunk of 
his car. 

Kemper spent a considerable amount of his free time hanging out at a bar 
called the “Jury Room,” which served as a watering hole for local cops, sheriffs 
and prosecuting attorneys. Kemper was quite well known there, where he was 
affectionately known as “Big Ed,” even by the regulars who were aware of his col- 
orful history. This theme of alleged serial killers maintaining close ties with vari- 
ous law enforcement agencies and personnel is one that will be revisited 
frequently in this book. In fact, many of the men profiled herein, including Ed 
Kemper, aspired to careers in law enforcement themselves. 

By April 1973, Kemper had been charged with savagely murdering six female 
hitchhikers between May 1972 and February 1973. He followed those killings up 
with his swansong — bludgeoning his own mother to death, beheading her, rap- 
ing her headless corpse, and then, according to some reports, using her severed 
head as a dartboard. Ed then called to invite his mother’s friend over to the house 
that he shared with his mom and, upon her arrival, quickly dealt with her in a 
similar manner. This double murder occurred, strangely enough, on April 21, 

156 • Programmed to Kill 

1973 — exactly five years to the day from the date on which Herb Mullin had 
noted that the “GAME” had begun. Kemper quickly fled the state, ending up in 
Pueblo, Colorado after a making a stop at the University of Nevada campus for 
reasons unknown. 

On April 23, Big Ed called some of his drinking buddies at the Santa Cruz 
Police Department and promptly began confessing his crimes. Pueblo police 
arrested him as he stood at a public payphone talking to the Santa Cruz officers. 
In his nearby car were 3 guns and 200 rounds of ammunition. He had apparently 
left some of his arsenal at home; his sister claimed that Ed owned at least six guns, 
including a .22 Ruger pistol, which is the one that he allegedly used to inflict the 
fatal head wounds that killed many of his victims. Why Ed chose to turn himself 
in and give up without a fight, after making his roundabout escape equipped with 
a mini arsenal, remains a mystery. 

Though there is no question that Kemper was involved in the killings (he did, 
after all, document his handiwork with Polaroids), there is evidence to suggest 
that others may have been involved as well. An eyewitness to the abduction of 
one victim, for instance, described a “fairly tall male Caucasian” driving a “cream 
or tan-colored sedan.” Kemper’s car was bright yellow, and he was hardly what 
would be considered “fairly tall.” Kemper, in fact, was known as Big Ed for good 
reason; he was a giant of a man, standing 6’ 9” tall and weighing in at 280 
pounds. It would have been nearly impossible for any potential eyewitnesses not 
to notice his imposing stature. 

One particularly bizarre aspect of the crimes attributed to Ed Kemper and 
Herb Mullin is that the body of one of Ed’s alleged victims and the body of one 
of Herb’s alleged victims were found buried in the virtually the same isolated, 
remote location. As Kemper himself noted, the body of his victim was discovered 
“amazingly close to where the girl from Cabrillo was found up there, stabbed.” 

Kemper’s trial was a largely pointless affair that featured the very same cast of 
characters that had starred in the Frazier and Mullin trials. No one in the court- 
room ever questioned whether Ed was factually guilty of the crimes, or whether 
he had acted alone. After all, he had given what Cheney described as “one of the 
most detailed, articulate, and chilling confessions of sadism, murder, mutilation, 
cannibalism, and necrophilia in the annals of crime.” He had also taken the time 
to document his barbarity with a large collection of ‘snuff’ photos. What the con- 
fessions and photos revealed was a series of unbelievably sadistic crimes that were 
laced with occult symbolism. This had led some avenues of the media to theorize, 
prior to Ed’s arrest, that the yet-to-be-identified killer was a member of a devil- 
worshiping cult. 

Just as Mullin had unwisely chosen to take the stand in his own defense, so too 
did Kemper. He testified that the killings arose from fantasies that began to build 

David McGowan • 157 

in his head during his confinement at Atascadero. Attorney Jackson elaborated, 
adding that Ed had told California Youth Authority officials of “evil forces within 
him which tried to control his behavior.” Incidentally, John Frazier, like Kemper, 
had spent time with the CYA; he also claimed, like Mullin, to hear voices in his 
head. The phenomenon of hearing voices, though considered by psychiatrists to 
be auditory hallucinations indicative of delusional thought processes, is actually a 
quite logical manifestation of both Multiple Personality Disorder and mind con- 
trol programming, the two frequently going hand-in-hand. Many researchers 
have put forth the idea that the hearing of such voices, and particularly the receiv- 
ing of specific commands, is a result of various high-tech forms of electromag- 
netic mind control, such as inter-cerebral implants. However, while such 
technology no doubt exists, it really is not necessary to explain the phenomenon 
of hearing voices — a phenomenon that long predates the development of any 
technological means to produce it. 

In all probability, what the voices represent are the various alter personalities of 
a person with a severe dissociative disorder communicating with that person’s 
core personality, which has no conscious awareness of the alters and so experi- 
ences their voices as disembodied “voices in the head.” The voices, in other 
words, are essentially a one-way internal conversation between different personal- 
ities inhabiting the same body. In a sense then, the voices are not a delusion at all, 
for the afflicted person is not imagining that someone is talking to him; someone 
is talking to him. The problem is that the person is unaware that the person talk- 
ing to him is actually within him. He is, in a very real sense, talking to himself. 

Ed Kemper was probably familiar with the notion of voices in the head. As he 
once said, “I believe... that there are two people inside me.” He also described 
experiencing a dissociative state while going about his grisly work; “It’s almost 
like a blacking out. You know what you’re doing but you don’t notice anything 
else around.” Ed was judged sane and guilty of eight counts of first-degree mur- 
der, giving him a career total of ten homicide convictions, just like Herb Mullin. 
He was sentenced to life in prison and sent to Vacaville, then later transferred to 

It seems somehow redundant to review the case of the so-called Vampire of 
Sacramento, Richard Chase, given that his story closely parallels that of Herb 
Mullin. Nevertheless, a brief review is in order. 

Chase was born into a household where inter-familial violence was the order 
of the day. His parents reportedly fought constantly, and his father was 


Programmed to Kill 

euphemistically described as a “strict disciplinarian.” By the age of eighteen, 
Richard was receiving regular psychiatric care. In the late 1960s, Chase was twice 
arrested for possession of marijuana, the same charge that first brought Mullin 
into the orbit of the criminal justice system. Richard was also a suspect in a 1968 
shooting, although he was never charged with the crime. In 1973, he was arrested 
for carrying a concealed weapon and, on December 1 , he was admitted into the 
American River Hospital by order of the court, but was discharged not long after 
into the care of his mother. As Herb had done with his father, Richard took to 
accusing his mother of controlling his mind. Chase also began claiming in the 
mid-70s that he was receiving telepathic messages. He was known to hold con- 
versations with people nobody else could see. And like Mullin, Chase reportedly 
had a healthy appetite for hallucinogenic drugs. His mother later claimed that her 
son’s problems were due to him being the victim of LSD abuse. 

Richard was again arrested in 1976 and, on April 28, just two days shy of 
Walpurgisnacht, was again admitted to American River Hospital. In June of that 
same year, his mother was granted a one-year conservatorship of the troubled 
young man. He was then transferred to Beverly Manor, where he became known 
to staff and fellow inmates as “Dracula.” In September 1976, he was released. In 
June or July of the following year, Richard Chase made a very odd solo journey to 
Washington, D.C., for reasons unknown. He never explained to anyone, before 
or after the trip, the reason for his abrupt and unexpected sojourn. Immediately 
after that, on August 3, 1977, Chase was arrested at California’s Pyramid Lake. 
Two loaded and bloodstained rifles were on the seat of his truck, along with 
Richard’s bloodstained clothes and shoes. Also in the vehicle was a large bucket of 
blood in which was floating a fresh liver (later claimed to be from a cow). 
Chase — naked, dripping with fresh blood, and with dried blood caked in his hair, 
whiskers and ears — fled from the officers upon their approach. He was appre- 
hended, arrested and charged with federal gun law violations. In a rather unlikely 
turn of events, all the charges were subsequently dropped. 

Less than five months later, Chase’s alleged killing spree began, just after he 
purchased a .22 semi-automatic handgun in early December 1977 — just as 
Mullin had done in December 1972. On December 29, an engineer with the 
Federal Bureau of Land Management was picked off by a sniper in a car wielding 
a .22 caliber weapon — precisely mirroring one of the crimes attributed to Herb 
Mullin. Not quite a month after that, Teresa Wallin was killed with two contact 
wounds to the head from a .22, one pumped into her left temple. The slugs 
recovered from her head were said to be “similar” to the one that killed engineer 
Ambrose Griffin — which is not saying much, since any .22 slug would be similar 
to the one that killed Griffin. 

David McGowan • 159 

Teresa Wallin was carved up and left on display. She was ripped open from her 
neck to her groin, with her sternum and breastplate split open. Some of her 
organs were removed and her left nipple was sliced off. She was then posed in the 
master bedroom on her back, with her splayed legs facing the hallway. Her corpse 
was found to contain a three-month-old fetus. Just four days later, in a scene rem- 
iniscent of the Ohta house after John Frazier’s alleged visit, or the Francis home 
after Herb Mullins alleged visit, Evelyn Miroth was found dead in her home, the 
victim of a .22 round fired above her left ear at very close range. A man described 
as a friend, Danny Meredith, caught two slugs to the head, one between the eyes 
and another next to his left ear. Young Jason Miroth, Evelyn’s son, was shot above 
the left ear and in the back of the head. Missing from the home was twenty-two- 
month-old David Ferreira, Evelyn’s nephew. He was also shot in the head, though 
his body was not discovered until much later. 

Evelyn Miroth was also brutally mutilated after her death, as was young David 
Ferreira. Miroth was found nude, ripped open and with her legs splayed. Two 
household knives lay near her body. Her right eye had been partially removed and 
there were multiple cuts and stab wounds about her neck. She had been split 
down the middle, with a second cut across her abdomen intersecting the first 
gaping wound, thereby forming an inverted cross on her corpse — as was the case 
also with Mullins alleged ‘ripper’ victim, whose body was discarded nearly along- 
side of one of Kemper’s alleged victims. Another cut ran up the back of Evelyn 
Miroth’s buttocks; tests revealed that semen was present in the wound. This 
semen was never matched to that of her alleged killer. The bathroom of the home 
was a gruesome sight, with blood all over the floor and bloody water left standing 
in the bathtub, indicating that Miroth was probably butchered there before being 
posed elsewhere. 

Mirroring the situation five years earlier in Santa Cruz, the homicide rate in 
Sacramento soared during Chase’s alleged murder spree. In the twenty-nine days 
between his first and last killings, no fewer than fourteen largely unexplained 
murders plagued the capital city. Included among the dead were a baby girl killed 
by her father and a baby boy killed by his mother. Both of these infanticidal par- 
ents drew three-year sentences, illustrating once again the appalling job done by 
the criminal ‘justice’ system in protecting the most vulnerable of Americans. 

On January 28, just one day after the Miroth bloodbath, Richard Chase was 
arrested by a three-man team of detectives that had been working the case. 
Despite the fact that these were arguably the most sensational crimes in the city’s 
history, the three were all rookies whose combined experience working homicide 
cases totaled just six months. It seemed almost as though the police, rather than 
turn the case over to its most seasoned homicide detectives, had opted to bring in 
a team of newcomers to handle the investigation. 

160 • Programmed to Kill 

At the time of his arrest, Chase believed that he was under investigation not 
for murder, but for killing dogs, which he apparently was in the habit of doing. 
The detectives quickly made clear that Richard was being charged with multiple 
counts of murder, which he repeatedly denied knowing anything about. He read- 
ily admitted though to killing the dogs, whose blood covered virtually everything 
in his apartment, including his handwritten notebook that reportedly featured 
drawings of swastikas. Chase was grilled relentlessly by detectives, who showed 
him photographs and filled him in on the details of the crimes they claimed he 
was guilty of committing. Steadfastly though, Chase maintained his innocence, 
at one point saying: “I just... I don’t know. I don’t understand how it could be 

5 ) 2 3 

me. AD 

Eventually two other detectives took over the questioning of Chase, showing 
him yet more graphic crime scene photos and hurling yet more accusations at 
him. Nevertheless, Richard continued to steadfastly deny any involvement in the 
murders and the detectives ultimately gave up and sent him to a cell. Once there, 
amazingly enough, Chase promptly confessed the murders to a trustee inmate. 
That is, at any rate, the way the official story reads. 

To say that the case against Chase was weak would be a serious understate- 
ment. No forensics evidence placed him at, or even anywhere near any of the 
crime scenes: not one drop of blood, not one strand of hair, not a single finger- 
print. No witnesses could place him at any of the scenes and no ballistics evidence 
linked him to any of the killings. The only evidence recovered at the Wallin crime 
scene consisted of latex glove prints and fresh shoeprints on the kitchen floor. The 
latter, oddly enough, were not noticed until hours after technicians began search- 
ing the home, and hours after investigators had been freely trampling over the 

23 That statement by Chase may have been a telling one. Such speculative statements 
about one’s own guilt or innocence, seeming to imply that the accused cannot say for 
certain, are quite common in the serial killer literature. Ted Bundy, who gave what are 
said to be ‘confessions’ by speculating on what the killer may or may not have done, was 
particularly notorious for such comments. These types of statements are generally 
attributed to the killer’s desire to match wits with, and play games with, their pursuers, 
and/or to a desire to confess their crimes without actually giving a legally admissible 
confession — to take credit for their crimes without actually incriminating themselves. 
However, there is another explanation: it might be that many of these alleged killers 
cannot honestly say whether they are guilty. They know that the persona being ques- 
tioned is not guilty, but they may not be able to rule out the possibility that another 
persona, utilizing their body, may indeed be guilty. That would be particularly true if 
the person has ‘blacked-out’ the timeframe when the crimes occurred. 

Da vid McGo wan • 161 

alleged evidence. One detail of the crime scene strongly indicated that the killer 
was not Chase, but rather someone known to Teresa: her ever-vigilant German 
Shepherd, Brutus, was in the house at the time of the killing. 

Two sisters of David Wallin — Teresa’s husband, who discovered the body — 
suspected one of David’s former significant others, who claimed to possess psy- 
chic powers and who had bragged to the two women that she was in a “devil 
cult.” One such cult that was active in the area, strangely enough, was the 
Manson Family, who had relocated to the area to be near their leader’s new home 
in a California prison cell. Indeed, the Family’s Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme had 
been arrested just two years before, in 1975, in the city’s Capital Park following a 
failed assassination attempt on then-President Gerald Ford. 

At the Miroth crime scene, all that was left behind by the killer was again 
shoeprints, this time in the outside soil, and latex glove prints. A cigarette butt 
that may or may not have been left by an assailant was found on the porch. There 
is no indication that saliva on that butt was ever matched to Chase. Richard’s car 
was apparently parked nearby, adjacent to the Country Club Centre, a fact that 
prosecutors pointed to as an indication of guilt. If so, Chase had parked the car 
rather inappropriately for use as an intended getaway car: it was quite conspicu- 
ously parked in a clearly marked no-parking zone. And oddly enough, the car was 
not actually used; the Meredith car was driven away from the home by the 
killer(s). It appeared as though Chase’s car had been deliberately left, by someone, 
in such a way that it would not fail to be noticed, and in a location that would 
establish Richard’s presence near the crime. There is a distinct possibility that 
whoever killed the inhabitants of the Miroth home arrived in the Meredith car as 
well as leaving in it, which would mean that the killer almost certainly knew the 
victims. Neighbors across the street, who were keeping a fairly close eye on the 
house, saw no one enter or leave the Miroth home, saw no other cars arrive, and 
neither saw nor heard any signs of a struggle. 

Perhaps the clearest indication that Chase did not act alone in committing the 
crime, if indeed he was involved at all, is that the tiny body of David Ferreira was 
found adjacent to a church nearly two months after Richard had been arrested. 
The discovery was made when a gate that was normally kept locked was found to 
be unlocked and left ajar. There in a box lay Ferreira’s remains — stabbed, slashed, 
shot and beheaded. Also in the box were the child’s clothes and Danny Meredith’s 
car keys. According to prosecutors, the body had been decomposing there since 
before Chase’s arrest. Common sense and the circumstances of its discovery sug- 
gest otherwise. 

When Chase’s trial began on January 2, 1979, Richard stood before the court 
looking very much like a concentration camp inmate. Already a thin man, the 5’ 

162 • Programmed to Kill 

11” Chase’s weight had dropped to a nearly skeletal 107 pounds. He sat emo- 
tionless at the defense table, his mind seemingly miles away. 

As recounted by Lt. Ray Biondi, who headed the investigation and co- 
authored a self-congratulatory book on the case, the most “damning” pieces of 
evidence presented in support of the state’s case were two items that Chase 
allegedly had in his possession at the time of his arrest: a .22 caliber handgun and 
Danny Meredith’s wallet. The .22 though could not be matched to any of the 
slugs recovered from the victims, and the possibility certainly exists that the wal- 
let was planted, or was acquired by Chase after the murders. As it turned out, the 
strongest card in the state’s hand was Chase himself, who took the stand in his 
own defense, just as Herb had done. Despite having entered pleas of “not guilty” 
and “not guilty by reason of insanity,” Chase proceeded to give a long and ram- 
bling confession on the stand, during which he “freely and accurately used psy- 
chiatric and legal jargon,” according to Biondi. What he could not do, however, 
was accurately recall many of the details of the crimes. 

Chase’s defense counsel greatly aided the prosecution’s efforts by asking the 
jury to return second-degree murder convictions against his client. Echoing the 
immortal words of James Jackson, he stated: “I just feel that to tell you that there 
is something less than murder here is not a reasonable way to argue to you.” On 
May 8, 1 979, after just five hours of deliberations, the jury returned with six first- 
degree murder convictions. Six days later, after just 65 minutes of deliberations, 
they found the defendant sane. Four more hours of deliberations produced death 
sentences, after Chase once again took the stand during the penalty phase of the 

Richard Chase never made his appointment with the executioner. On 
December 26, 1980, he was found dead in his cell from the toxic ingestion of an 
enormous quantity of anti-psychotic drugs. His death was ruled a suicide. He 
allegedly had hoarded his daily medicine until he accumulated a lethal dose. His 
daily medication packet for that day, however, was found untouched. 

Not long before his premature death, Chase spent four months incarcerated 
at — where else? — Vacaville. 

Chapter 14 


“/ W]e locate a number of good hypnotic subjects among the 
criminal class. We then isolate and train these subjects... If 
allowed a free hand, the authorities could proceed to plant such 
prepared subjects from the criminal class where it would do the 
most good. . . ” 

— George Estabrooks in Hypnotism 

l\s the mid-1970s rolled around, the FBI’s Behavioral Sciences Unit came of 
age, the ‘science’ of criminal profiling was thrust upon the American people, the 
term “serial killer” entered the national lexicon, and the marauding mass mur- 
derer suddenly became the new American anti-hero. As soon as there was a name 
for this new and feared breed of criminal, the country bore witness to the media 
giving saturation coverage to the alleged exploits of these individuals, creating 
larger-than-life figures out of the likes of Henry Lee Lucas, David “Son of Sam” 
Berkowitz, Theodore Robert Bundy, John Wayne Gacy, and Angelo Buono and 
Kenneth Bianchi, collectively known as the “Hillside Stranglers.” 

Henry Lee Lucas, already discussed in previous chapters, had the longest reign 
of any of the serial killer superstars, spanning from 1975 to 1983. The alleged 
Son of Sam had a much shorter though quite spectacular reign just a year into 
Henry’s killing spree. That string of execution-style shootings has been far more 
thoroughly examined in Maury Terry’s The Ultimate Evil than would be possible 
here. Interested readers are advised to pick up a copy of Terry’s book, a thorough 
reading of which will facilitate a better understanding of this book. 

The twelve victims attributed to the Hillside Stranglers were killed between 
October 17, 1977 and February 17, 1978, closely mirroring the alleged murder 
spree of Herb Mullin, whose thirteen alleged victims were killed during almost 
the exact same span of time just five years earlier: October 13, 1972 to February 
13, 1973. The last killing attributed to Ted Bundy occurred just eight days before 


164 • Programmed to Kill 

the last Hillside Strangling, on February 9, 1978. Bundy had been killing for four 
years or more, according to varying accounts. John Gacy’s reign also ended in 
1978, and he too had been killing for about four years — longer by some 

There were a number of parallels between the cases of these high-profile 
killers. Kenneth Bianchi, like Charles Manson, was born the son of an alcoholic, 
teenage prostitute. His alleged partner, Sicilian-bred Angelo Buono, was also 
born the son of a prostitute. Like Lucas, Buono spoke of being taken along by his 
mother while she serviced her tricks. According to some accounts, Ted Bundy’s 
mother was an abusive young prostitute as well, who also plied her trade in the 
presence of her young son. 2 ^ 

24 Prostitution is a theme that runs rampant through the serial killer literature. In addi- 
tion to being born the sons of prostitutes — frequently underage prostitutes — some 
future predators have themselves been forced into child prostitution, probably far 
more often than has been reported. A large percentage of the victims of alleged serial 
killers make their living as prostitutes as well. More than a few serial killers have 
worked as pimps, running their own prostitution rings, as was already seen in the case 
of Manson. Of the alleged killers profiled in this chapter, both Gacy and Buono were 
involved in running prostitution rings, with both specializing in child prostitution 
rings. Other killers we will meet elsewhere in this book had close ties to the sex trade 
as well. Serial murder and prostitution are such frequent bedfellows precisely because 
both of these activities tend to carry the heavy stench of mind control. As numerous 
studies have shown, the vast majority of prostitutes begin their careers at a very young 
age — as child prostitutes. As was noted in an earlier chapter, almost all child prosti- 
tutes are borne of a lifetime of abuse. They work the streets either because the condi- 
tions in their own homes are so horrendous that the street life is actually preferable, or 
because a family member has forced them into prostitution. These are people who 
will — to an overwhelming degree — have a very strong tendency to dissociate, and 
who are, therefore, prime targets for mind control operations. Any good pimp has at 
least a general understanding of that fact. That is why the image of the abusive pimp 
maintaining control over his brazenly exploited flock is such a pervasive one. 
Psychologists and sociologists have long stumbled over mountains of jargon and dou- 
ble-talk attempting to explain why prostitutes will remain fiercely loyal to a man who 
regularly beats and berates them while appropriating nearly all of their earnings. The 
same is true of the proverbial battered wives who refuse to leave the men who repeat- 
edly rape and beat them. Meaningless terms such as ‘battered wife syndrome’ are rou- 
tinely tossed out to try to explain this phenomenon. When asked, none of these 
victims, housewife or prostitute, can really explain why they choose to remain in such 
a chronically abusive environment. The ugly reality is that all of these women, whether 

David McGowan • 165 

Bianchi, Bundy and Gacy all had an intense interest in law enforcement work. 
Bianchi, for example, studied police science in college, went on ride-alongs with 
the LAPD, joined the Sheriff’s Reserves, and was known to carry a California 
Highway Patrol badge. Gacy was described by his wife as a “police freak” — a 
description that was applied to him by others as well. From an early age, Ted 
Bundy also expressed a strong interest in pursuing a law enforcement career, and 
at various times worked for the Seattle Crime Prevention Advisory Committee, 
the King County Law and Justice Planning Office, the Seattle Crime 
Commission, and as a self-employed law enforcement consultant, billing himself 
asT.R.B. Associates. 

Another common thread that ties the cases of these men together is an early 
experience in the workforce that exposed them to the depravities that one human 
can inflict upon another. Kenneth Bianchi, for example, worked for a time as an 
ambulance attendant. So did John Wayne Gacy, who also was employed at a mor- 
tuary. Such an experience is what the intelligence community refers to as a 
‘blooding.’ In a similar vein, the entire country is being ‘blooded,’ though on a 
lesser level, through near constant exposure to a television and videogame diet 
increasingly dominated by scenes of graphic violence. The effect of this is to rad- 
ically desensitize individuals, or an entire society, to appalling levels of bloodshed 
and carnage. 

Another commonality among some of the more high profile serial killers pro- 
filed in this chapter and others are seemingly improbable connections to very 
high-ranking members of their respective political parties. Gacy, for example, was 
a fixture in Chicago Democratic Party circles. Despite his colorful and at times 
criminal past, he had a high enough security clearance to have once had a face-to- 
face meeting with then-First Lady Rosalynn Carter. Ted Bundy was equally well 
connected to various Republican Party officials. 

As a final note here, before taking a closer look at the stories of these men, it 
should be noted that the era in which their crimes were committed was a time 
when reported cases of Multiple Personality Disorder skyrocketed. Before the 
decade of the 1970s was over, twice as many cases had been reported in that ten- 
year span as in the previous 100 years. There are indications that all of these 
alleged killers suffered, to varying degrees, from a dissociative disorder. Bianchi 

on the streets or in the home, are — to varying degrees — victims of mind control. And 
a careful reading of the literature reveals that virtually all such victims have suffered a 
lifetime of abuse, beginning long before their current abusers entered the picture. Of 
course, most of them are not victims of the systematic and highly refined techniques 
practiced by the intelligence community, but they are mind control victims just the 
same. And so it is with those we think of as serial killers. 

166 • Programmed to Kill 

was diagnosed as such by a number of therapists, though this diagnosis was dis- 
puted by others — including the CIA’s own Martin Orne and Margaret Singer. 

Though never formally diagnosed, Ted Bundy displayed unmistakable signs of 
a dissociative disorder as well. Not only could Bundy’s personality change at a 
moment’s notice, but his physical appearance could as well. Bundy had a 
chameleon-like ability to alter his appearance, an ability that is clearly displayed 
in the numerous photos of him that grace the pages of the various books he has 
inspired. A neighbor of his in Florida once offered this observation: “He always 
looked different. . .1 don’t know, sometimes he just didn’t even look like the same 
person at all.” Diana Smith, a therapist and Bundy family friend, wondered how 
Ted could “be so many different things to so many different people.” An investi- 
gator on the Bundy case, Joe Aloi, claimed that he once observed Bundy react to 
a particularly stressful situation by spontaneously, and quite radically, altering his 
physical appearance; Ted’s body and muscle tone changed markedly, and he sud- 
denly became sweaty and began emitting a noticeable odor. The judge who 
presided over Ted’s Colorado trial referred to him as a “changeling,” noting the 
unsettling way in which his appearance could change dramatically with his 
mood. The judge drew a comparison to Vincent Bugliosi’s description of Charles 
Manson’s similar ability. Bugliosi was not the only one to make that observation 
about Manson; disciple Susan Atkins once said: “Charlie changes from second to 
second. He can be anybody he wants to be. He can put on any face he wants to 
put on at any given moment.” 25 

Although John Wayne Gacy did not have the ability to alter his physical 
appearance, as Detective David Hachmeister of the DesPlaines police observed, 
“His personality could change in a split second.” Gacy was viewed by many as a 
pillar of the community — a man who was politically active and well-connected, 
who gave of his time freely to entertain children, who was a valued neighbor 
who regularly hosted parties with hundreds of guests, and who was a successful 
businessman and a loving father. On the other hand, he also had the unique dis- 
tinction of being convicted of thirty-three counts of first-degree murder. How 
are we to reconcile these two sides of John Gacy? Men such as he are usually said 
to be ‘sociopaths.’ They are said to be lacking a conscience. The persona that is 

25 That ability is a very real, though extremely rare, physiological phenomenon. George 
Estabrooks explained it decades ago, in his seminal work Hypnotism, as a hypnotically 
induced phenomenon that is indicative of a severe dissociative disorder. Estabrooks 
also explained such religious/supernatural phenomena as speaking in tongues, the 
appearance of stigmata, and the channeling of ‘spirits’ by ‘mediums,’ as hypnotic/dis- 
sociative phenomena. 

David McGowan • 167 

presented to the public is said to be nothing more than an elaborate ruse, an 
emotionless facade disguising the monster within. 

But is it not just as likely, if not more so, that the public self is, in fact, a legit- 
imate personality — separate and distinct from the one that does the killing? And 
when the monster emerges, does this represent the facade slipping away, or an 
alter personality emerging? Or is there any difference? Is the ‘sociopath’ label not, 
in the final analysis, just another way of describing multiple personality disorder? 

Kenneth Bianchi is, like many other serial killers, of unknown parentage. He 
was born the son of an alcoholic teenage prostitute on May 22, 1951 in 
Rochester, New York, and then privately adopted by the Bianchis. His adoptive 
parents were repeatedly reported to the Rochester Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Children for their treatment of their son. Ken was taken frequently to 
doctors and administered unspecified tests at the urging of his mother, who also 
frequently kept him home from school for prolonged absences, including nearly 
his entire Kindergarten year. As a child, Bianchi frequently lapsed into trance-like 
states, during which time his eyes would roll back in his head. He later recalled 
enduring such punishments as having his hand held over a stove flame. He also is 
said to have once killed a cat and left it on his neighbor’s porch on Halloween. 

Following high school, Bianchi sought psychiatric care and married briefly, 
although the union lasted just eight months. He also attended junior college, 
studying psychology and police science — and reportedly making frequent use of 
the school’s medical facilities. He found work both as a bouncer and as an ambu- 
lance attendant, and apparently considered an Air Force career, for which he took 
a qualifying test. Sometime during his early adult years, Bianchi also joined a 
biker gang, which ostensibly was the inspiration for the rather remarkable tattoo 
that he sported on his arm: “Satan’s Own M.C.” Perhaps not surprisingly, Ken 
had gaps in his memory, and would sometimes find himself walking down a 
street with no memory of how he got there or what he had been doing immedi- 
ately prior. Such episodes are clear signs of a dissociative disorder, a category that 
includes fugue states and amnesia, as well as MPD/DID. 

At the age of twenty-six, Ken arrived in Hollywood and moved in with his 
cousin, Angelo Buono, and Angelo’s son, also named Angelo Buono. Bianchi read- 
ily established access to a steady supply of drugs, which he both sold and used. He 
also, rather improbably, set up shop as a therapist, sharing office space with a legit- 
imate therapist in North Hollywood. During this time in California, Ken claimed 
to be getting outpatient treatments for cancer, and he regularly visited a hospital to 


Programmed to Kill 

receive those treatments. He generally preferred to go alone to these appointments, 
although sometimes his girlfriend, Kelli, drove him there and then waited in the 
car for him to return. 

Bianchi, of course, never actually had cancer. There is no question though that 
he was indeed making regular visits to a medical facility, and he was receiving 
some kind of treatments, although at least one of his chroniclers has claimed that 
Ken would, on a regular basis, enter the hospital, randomly kill time by reading 
and hanging out, and then return to the car. What possible purpose would be 
served by his doing so is left unexplained, as is how Bianchi was able to bring 
home legitimate receipts and medical forms following these treatments. 

Ken’s cousin and reputed partner, Angelo Buono, reportedly had a strong 
bond with his mother, whom he frequently accused of being a whore; he never 
lived more than a couple of miles from her throughout his entire adult life. 
Angelo quit high school at the age of sixteen and he was shortly thereafter 
remanded to the custody of the California Youth Authority. By the age of twenty, 
he was known for his flamboyance, exemplified by his habit of driving new 
Cadillacs. It is unclear how he suddenly acquired such wealth. 

Buono apparently had a lifelong penchant for underage girls; during his life, 
he married at least two of them. He fathered at least eight kids by his numerous 
wives; he reportedly regularly sodomized all of them. He also beat and sodomized 
his wives, often in front of the children. Angelo’s sons and only daughter were fre- 
quent visitors to the house that their dad shared for a time with Ken Bianchi. 
Many young girls were frequent visitors as well, and some even lived there for 
varying periods of time. Angelo has been described as a “magnet for women” and 
he had a constant stream of mostly teenage girls passing through his home. Many 
of them were working for him; his auto upholstery shop also served as a front for 
a teenage prostitution racket. Some of his girls — including sixteen-year-old Sabra 
Hannan and Rebekah Gay Spears, a fifteen-year-old biker’s daughter — were kept 
virtually enslaved with regular beatings, rapes, and threats of death and dismem- 

Angelo supplied the services of these young girls to the city’s business and 
political elite, including a city councilman, a police chief, and a chief aide to a 
member of the L.A. County Board of Supervisors. Such favors had earned side- 
kick Bianchi the right to display an L.A. County Seal on the windshield of his 
Cadillac. Buono and Bianchi had connections to the Hollywood crowd as well; 
Angelo once shared a home with actor Artie Ford, a friend of fellow actor Jay 
Silverheels (the Lone Rangers Tonto). He also repaired cars for Frank Sinatra and 
for reputed Mafioso Joe Bonnano. Buono’s daughter claimed that her father once 
drove her to Sinatra’s Palm Springs home, where Angelo dropped off a package. 
Several of the suspects identified during the course of the investigation were 

David McGowan • 169 

Hollywood names as well. The first suspect booked was actor Ned York, who gave 
a long and rambling confession to the crimes. Another man questioned in con- 
nection to the stranglings was identified as a minor actor who had a film studio 
set up in his home. An aspiring actress told of going to this home for an audition 
and being forced to participate in the production of hardcore S&M films. Yet 
another suspect was a man identified only as a famous Hollywood producer who 
was said to enjoy the company of young girls. He was stopped by police while 
driving the car of a convicted rapist, accompanied by a young girl, and he was dis- 
covered to be in possession of a phony police ID. 

Buono was known to have two avid interests that are common to many alleged 
serial killers: guns and Polaroid photography. Angelo reportedly owned five rifles, 
two .45 caliber handguns, and a Thompson sub-machinegun. He also owned a 
Polaroid camera, with which he was said to have photographed some of the pair’s 
victims, although such photographs were never produced at trial. 

Buono and Bianchi’s first purported victim was a black prostitute and drug 
dealer named Yolanda Washington whose nude body was found along Forest 
Lawn Drive. She had been strangled with intense force after having sexual contact 
with at least two men. Not long before her death, she and a group of fellow pros- 
titutes had sold Buono a ‘trick list.’ The month before Washington’s body was 
found, a girl named Laura Collins was found similarly strangled and dumped not 
far from Forest Lawn Drive, but her death, oddly enough, was never attributed to 
the so-called Hillside Stranglers. 

The next victim, Judith Ann Miller, also a prostitute, was found sprawled 
nude on Halloween day, 1977. She had been carefully placed by two or more 
individuals, and had marks on her face, wrists and ankles that suggested that she 
had been gagged and bound, but her bindings had been subsequently removed. 
There were said to be two witnesses to the abduction, both of whom — like the 
killers and the victims — reeked of mind control operations. One was a woman 
who had worked as a subject for a professional stage hypnotist; he had hypnotized 
her on literally hundreds of occasions. She claimed to have seen Miller get into a 
car with a light-skinned black man. The other witness was a male bounty hunter 
named Marcus Camden; he saw the victim get into a dark blue limousine, which 
he said was definitely not Ken’s Cadillac. He described the driver as a dark man 
with curly hair, Latin looking, and with a big nose. Neither witness saw a second 
man in the vehicle, although both Bianchi and Buono were later said to have par- 
ticipated in the abduction. Investigator Frank Salerno promptly checked Camden 
into Cedars-Sinai Hospital for tests, for reasons that are unclear. Much later, 
Camden allegedly positively identified Angelo; at the time, he was voluntarily 
committed to Richmond State Hospital in Indiana. As an interesting side note, 


Programmed to Kill 

witness Camden was missing two left fingertips, which is, according to some 
unconfirmed reports, an identifying mark of some Satanic cults. 

The next victim was Lissa Teresa Kastin, an exotic dancer with the L.A. 
Knockers dance troupe. She was likely a prostitute as well; at the very least, she 
had considered the profession and had discussed it with others. A witness who 
worked on a composite drawing described Lissa’s abductor as a white or Latino 
man with an olive complexion and acne, in his late 20s, 6’2” or 6’3” tall, 150 to 
160 lbs., and with a thick mustache and a small mole on his left cheek — a 
description that didn’t fit Buono or Bianchi. Jill Barcomb was the next victim. 
She was, like the others, a prostitute who was found nude and strangled. 
Following her was Kathleen Robinson, described as being part of the street scene. 
Unlike the others, she was found fully clothed. Next was Kristina Weckler, an 
honors student at the Pasadena Art Center. She was found nude and strangled, 
and she had had Windex injected into her arms and neck. 

Bob Grogan, one of lead investigators on the Strangler task force, pocketed 
and subsequently suppressed Weckler’s personal notebook — a flagrantly illegal 
act that he later openly acknowledged. Grogan, who had served as a technical 
adviser on the TJ Hooker television series, had connections to Santa Monica’s 
Rand Corporation, which is widely regarded by researchers as a CIA front. 

The next two victims were Sonja Johnson and Dollie Cepeda, who were just 
fourteen and twelve years old, respectively. Following them was Jane King, who 
was picked up across the street from the Scientology Manor, where she was 
reportedly taking acting classes. The body of Lauren Wagner was the next to be 
discovered; she had been strangled and electrocuted. There were purportedly at 
least three witnesses to her abduction, though all of them were problematic. One 
of these was a neighbor, Beulah Stofer, who reportedly witnessed the abduction 
from the window of her home, after which she claimed to have received a threat- 
ening phone call. She said that she had seen two men argue with Wagner before 
dragging her into a car and had heard Lauren scream: “You won’t get away with 
this.” Strangely, however, she did not initially report what she had witnessed. 
Stofer ultimately identified both Buono and Bianchi as the girl’s abductors, after 
being questioned by Grogan on more than 100 occasions, by his own accounting. 
Prior to a visit to the crime scene by Buono’s jury, Grogan later tampered with the 
scene by going to Stofer’s house to trim her front hedges, which normally blocked 
the view out of the window that Stofer claimed to have witnessed the crime from. 

Another neighbor claimed to have witnessed the abduction of the girl as well, 
but this witness also failed to initially report the incident. A third witness claimed 
that he just happened to be driving by at the time of the abduction. The man was 
said to be a convicted killer who had been ‘cured’ at Atascadero, just like killer Ed 
Kemper had been cured at that same facility. 

Da vid McGo wan • 171 

Forensics evidence indicated a culprit other than Bianchi or Buono. A sub- 
stance found on the corpse was determined to have come from a type B secretor, 
which ruled out both of the cousins. At trial, the state argued that the substance 
was nothing more than ant residue. The media, which had been focusing their 
bright lights on the trial, decided, for no apparent reason, not to provide coverage 
of this rather dubious testimony. 

The next victim, Kimberly Dianne Martin, was found in a vacant apart- 
ment — bound, gagged, strangled, and with a fractured skull and blood dripping 
from her ear. She was an underage outcall prostitute who had been dispatched to 
meet a trick. The request had reportedly been phoned in by Ken Bianchi. Just 
three days after her death, Bianchi went on a ride- along with the LAPD. The last 
victim attributed to the Hillside Stranglers was Cindy Lee Hudspeth, who was 
strangled and stuffed nude into the trunk of a car, which was then pushed over an 
incline. Bianchi would later claim, in a purported confession, that the car was 
pushed over front-end first; evidence indicated otherwise. This was just one of 
many details that his ‘confessions’ would get wrong. 

Soon after the killings began, a task force was established that included ele- 
ments of the LAPD, the L.A. Sheriff’s Department, and the Glendale Police 
Department. It eventually grew to include 162 officers. The task force’s head- 
quarters was in room 832 of the Justice Building, which had been converted from 
its original use as a courtroom, the very same courtroom where Charles Manson 
had been tried and convicted. The team was led by Frank Salerno, who had ear- 
lier headed a narcotics team that had arrested the very same Charles Manson on 
drug charges. Also on board the task force was the aforementioned evidence tam- 
perer, Bob Grogan. Weekly press conferences were held by then-Chief Daryl F. 
Gates, who had little progress to report as the killings continued, with some of 
the bodies showing up carefully posed in the hills near the L.A. Police Academy. 
All of the victims had been raped, and yet semen tests that were conducted 
reportedly yielded nothing. Ken Bianchi was questioned on multiple occasions 
during the investigation, by at least two LAPD officers and one Glendale cop, but 
he was cleared each time. 

One ‘expert’ consulted by the press was none other than Dr. Louis Jolyon 
West, a prominent member of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation who was 
connected to numerous covert CIA operations throughout his career. West told 
the L.A. Times : “It would be most unlikely to find this done by more than one 
person. . .this type is almost always the work of a single person.” This was an obvi- 
ous bit of disinformation that flew in the face of the known facts of the case. Not 
long after the Hillside Stranglings, West was one of the first prominent mouth- 
pieces to promote the mass suicide story to explain what happened at Jonestown. 
This was another rather obvious bit of disinformation. 


Programmed to Kill 

Three months after the last killing, Bianchi left the Los Angeles area for 
Bellingham, Washington, where he wasted no time in joining the Whatcom 
County Sheriff’s Reserves. Strangely enough, the chief of the police department 
of Bianchi’s new city of residence was both a former Los Angeles cop and a friend 
of fourteen-year-old victim Sonja Johnson’s father, the bookkeeper for an L.A.- 
area Catholic parish school. Chief Terry Mangan had an unusual history that 
sounded as though it could have been written by a Hollywood screenwriter. 
While working as an ordained priest, and as a high school teacher and dean of 
students in Monterrey, California, he began serving as a counselor to the police. 
He was soon regularly hanging out at the police academy and riding on patrol 
every night, becoming some kind of mythical priest-cop. He ultimately left the 
priesthood altogether and became a full-fledged cop. In 1976, the year before the 
stranglings began, he was named the new chief of the Bellingham force. 

On January 12, 1979, two Western Washington University coeds were found 
bound and strangled. Footprints and a loose pubic hair were reportedly recovered 
at the scene. New Bellingham resident Ken Bianchi was arrested shortly after the 
discovery of the bodies, and he promptly confessed. He was appointed Dean 
Brett as his defense counsel, and a psychiatric social worker named John Johnson 
was assigned to the case as well. Bianchi was held in isolation and allowed only 
limited visitation with family and friends. Before long, he was examined by a 
stream of psychiatrists/psychologists, some of whom had known and longstand- 
ing connections to the CIA. 

The first to examine Bianchi, on the spring equinox, was Dr. John Watkins, 
who questioned the accused in the presence of Brett, Johnson, Frank Salerno and 
Salerno’s partner, both of whom had flown up from Los Angeles. Next was Dr. 
Ron Markman of Los Angeles, a man with the dubious distinction of being both 
a psychiatrist and an attorney. He had previously been involved in both the 
Manson and the SLA/Patty Hearst cases. The stench surrounding the Strangler 
case reached a new level with the arrival of the next examiner: none other than 
Dr. Donald Lunde, last seen playing a pivotal role in the Frazier, Kemper and 
Mullin cases. Conveniently enough, Lunde just happened to have family in 
Bellingham that he purportedly just happened to be visiting at the time, so he 
just sort of dropped in for an ‘off-the-record’ examination of the famed Hillside 

26 Contrary to conventional wisdom, the so-called Symbionese Liberation Army appears 
to have been an artificial creation of the Central Intelligence Agency. Its architect was 
a man named Colton Westbrook, who had previously served in Vietnam as a Phoenix 
Program operative. The supposed revolutionary group arose from an MK-ULTRA 
project run by Westbrook at, appropriately enough, California’s Vacaville facility. 

David McGowan • 173 

Strangler. Next up was Dr. Ralph Allison, brought in from — of all places — Santa 
Cruz, California. He finished up with Bianchi on April 19, and Watkins returned 
the next day to administer a Rorschach test. The following day, April 2 1 , Angelo 
Buono’s house was searched for the very first time. The home was found to be 
immaculately neat and, amazingly enough, it reportedly contained not a single 
fingerprint, which would tend to indicate that Buono had been tipped off prior 
to the search. 

In May, Vienna-born Martin Orne, sent in by the state, took a turn at exam- 
ining Bianchi. Orne was another False Memory Syndrome Foundation luminary 
who received extensive CIA funding and who, probably not coincidentally, had 
testified at the SLA trial. In June, Dr. Saul Faerstein of Beverly Hills took his turn 
with Bianchi and in July, Dr. Lunde returned for an on-the-record examination. 
Lunde’s role was to build the prosecution’s case to try Bianchi in Los Angeles as 
the Hillside Strangler. As such, Lunde’s examination concentrated almost exclu- 
sively on discussion of the L.A. killings. Like Orne and Faerstein, Lunde largely 
dismissed the notion that Ken was suffering from MPD. Others have claimed 
that Bianchi displayed at least four distinct personalities, who were named Ken, 
Steve, Billy and Friend. Salerno and Grogan, as well as most of Bianchi’s chroni- 
clers, have claimed that the symptoms displayed by the suspect were an obvious 
ruse. Dr. John Watkins to this day sticks by his initial diagnosis of MPD. 

On October 2, 1980, Veronica Lynn Compton, a playwright and actress and 
the daughter of an L.A.-area editorial cartoonist, was arrested for attempted mur- 
der in Bellingham. The attack was said to be an attempt to commit a copycat 
killing that would have cast doubts on the incarcerated Bianchi’s guilt in the ear- 
lier killings. Strangely, Compton’s victim did not bother to report the incident 
until several days after the alleged attempt was made on her life. Compton had 
been sexually active from an early age, as evidenced by the fact that she was only 
twenty-three and yet she had an eight-year-old son. She had reportedly slept with 
numerous Hollywood figures, including a lawyer/agent who was later killed in an 
unsolved murder case. She confided to Bianchi that she herself had killed before, 
and that she shared with him an interest in necrophilia. 

On October 19, Bianchi appeared before a judge and entered a guilty plea 
based on a deal that had been worked out with the Los Angeles County District 
Attorney’s Office. The deal allowed the state of Washington to avoid a trial that 
would have revealed the state’s case to be rather dubious. That case was built pri- 
marily on hair and fiber evidence, which is inherently problematic, and which is 
also, it should be noted, by far the easiest type of evidence to plant. The official 
version of events was filled with discrepancies and such odd events as evidence 
strangely turning up at the crime scene the day after it was combed over by inves- 
tigators following the discovery of the bodies. 

174 • Programmed to Kill 

Nevertheless, Ken entered a guilty plea and agreed to testify against Buono in 
exchange for a life sentence to be served in California, even though the possibility 
existed that he would still receive death sentences for the charges pending in 
California. In other words, Bianchi gained absolutely nothing from the plea ‘deal’ 
offered to him and guaranteed himself a life sentence at a minimum. Ken had 
worked with his attorney until late into the night before his court appearance. He 
was instructed to stare at his hands while repeating the words “these hands have 
killed” before entering the courtroom, to ensure that he did not back away from 
the agreement to enter the guilty plea. 

Within twenty-four hours, Ken was on his way back to Los Angeles. Along the 
way, he was questioned by Salerno and Grogan and got many of the details of the 
crimes wrong, which did not seem to faze the two detectives in the least. Within 
days of his arrival in L.A., he had received additional life terms. Shortly after his 
arrival though, Ken began to have doubts about the deal he had made, and by 
November, he was insisting on his innocence. That same month, Angelo Buono’s 
Glendale home suddenly vanished; it had been bulldozed on the orders of the 
owner of the glass shop that sat next door. Buono — who by that time was sitting 
in a special security section of the county jail alongside his son Peter, a former 
Marine and a long-time PCP addict — had signed over the deed to the property. 
The glass shop owner denied that he had colluded with Buono to destroy evi- 
dence, and he was never charged with committing a crime. Around that same 
time, Prosecutor Roger Kelly opted to drop all the remaining murder charges 
against Bianchi, thereby giving up the leverage the state intended to use to com- 
pel Ken to testify against his cousin. Kelly also reportedly attempted to break 
down and discredit the testimony of two prosecution witnesses. 

Nevertheless, a nearly yearlong preliminary trial for Buono was begun, 
assigned to Judge Ronald George. George had attended Beverly Hills schools and 
then the prestigious Ecole Internationale de Geneve, which functions as some- 
thing of an intelligence prep school. Founded in 1 924 by a League of Nations 
group, it is attended by the sons of diplomats, European royalty and finance cap- 
italists. George next attended Princeton University. By the age of thirty, he was 
arguing before the U.S. Supreme Court to have the death penalty reinstated in 
California. In 1972, he was appointed to the bench by nominal conservative 
Ronald Reagan, and in 1 977, he was elevated to the Superior Court by nominal 
liberal Jerry Brown. 

On July 13, 1981, Kelly — backed by District Attorney John Van de Kamp — 
moved to drop all charges against Buono. Judge George, in a highly unusual move, 
ruled that the case be prosecuted. Kelly prompdy withdrew, clearing the way for 
George to assign the case to the state’s attorney general, George Deukmejian. On 
November 6, jury selection began. In a rather unlikely development, ten of the 

Da vid McGo wan • 175 

twelve jurors who were seated worked in civil service positions. These men and 
women spent the next two years of their lives hearing the case against Angelo 
Buono. Kenneth Bianchi alone delivered five months of testimony. In order for 
Bianchi’s testimony to be heard, however, it had to be determined whether he had 
been hypnotized in Washington. If so, his testimony would have been disallowed 
under California law. Judge George accommodated the prosecution by concurring 
with the opinion of covert operative Martin Orne that Bianchi had faked both his 
hypnotism and his dissociative disorder. 

The judge did disallow Bianchi’s Bellingham ‘confession’ tapes, ruling that 
they had not been made under oath. This was not likely an effort by the judge to 
prevent the railroading of the defendant, but rather to avoid having the trial’s ver- 
dict overturned on appeal. The tapes, which showed Bianchi confessing to the 
crimes in an even, matter-of-fact, emotionless voice, were entered into evidence 
in a way that would not compromise the verdict: they were entered by the defense. 
The defense also opened a door that allowed the state to call, as rebuttal wit- 
nesses, three young women who had been held by Buono as enslaved prostitutes. 
Their testimony had been earlier disallowed by the judge. After doing a consider- 
able amount of damage to their client’s case, the defense rested on August 2, 
1983 — after noting for the jury that both Charlie Chaplin and Lewis Carroll 
shared with Angelo a fondness for underage girls. 

In a highly unusual move, the judge opted to sequester the jury for the dura- 
tion of their deliberations, even though they had been free for the entire two-year 
duration of the trial itself. He also specifically instructed them to return verdicts 
on the numerous counts separately, which was another highly unusual jury 
instruction. The first guilty verdict was delivered after ten days of deliberations, 
appropriately enough on Halloween day, 1983. By the time the deliberations 
were through, Buono had been convicted on nine of ten counts. Perhaps sensing 
that his defense team did not have his best interests in mind, Buono requested 
that he be allowed to represent himself for the penalty phase of the trial; his 
request was denied. On January 9, 1984, Buono was formally sentenced to life in 

In the aftermath of the trial, Van de Kamp was elected to replace outgoing 
Attorney General George Deukmejian, who was elevated to the office of 
Governor of the state of California. His underling, Robert Philibosian, became 
the new L.A. District Attorney. Prosecutors Roger Boren and Michael Nash were 
both appointed to the bench by Governor Deukmejian, after Nash prosecuted 
the death penalty appeal of Douglas Clark, whose case will be examined in the 
next chapter. Judge Ronald George was elevated to the California Supreme 
Court, and ultimately was named its Chief Justice. Defense counsel Gerald 
Chaleff now serves as the senior adviser to the City Attorney’s Office. 

176 • Programmed to Kill 

While there is a very strong probability that the two cousins were involved in 
the killings, it is just as likely that others were involved as well. Many believed 
that a police officer was directly involved. Several were questioned during the 
course of the investigation, and a few who were conclusively linked to the times 
and places of the disappearances and/or the body drop-sites could not account for 
their time. Another suspect was a man named George Shamshak, who escaped 
from a Massachusetts prison around the time that the killings began, and who 
was recaptured around the time that they ended. Shamshak confessed to the mur- 
ders, and even offered the press what he said were audiotapes of some of the 
killings. He also claimed that a Beverly Hills resident named Peter Mark Jones 
was involved. Jones was arrested and released, and then he promptly left the city 
and was quickly forgotten. As for the Washington murders, Bianchi maintained 
that an accomplice performed the killings. The man, identified only as ‘Greg,’ 
was known to the police. He was killed in a ‘freak’ motorcycle accident near the 
body drop-site, shortly after Kenneth Bianchi’s arrest. 

In September 2002, Angelo Buono died in prison. Kenneth Bianchi continues 
to serve his time. 

John Wayne Gacy was born the son of an abusive, alcoholic father — as his sis- 
ter and mother both attested to in court. Little else has been written about John’s 
early years, although it is known that the senior Gacy constantly belittled his son 
and once shot the boy’s dog. He was also known to beat John’s mother. 

As a teenager, Gacy worked in Las Vegas both at a mortuary and as an ambu- 
lance attendant. At the mortuary, it was said that he had a habit of sleeping in the 
embalming room, amongst the corpses. He was fired after some of those corpses 
were found to have been partially undressed. In the 1960s, John lived in 
Waterloo, Iowa, where he owned several businesses, including four restaurants, a 
clothing design firm and a motel. During that period of his life, he joined the 
Jaycees and quickly forged a bond with the man who soon became the local chap- 
ter president. This particular Jaycee chapter was known at the time to be involved 
in prostitution, pornography, and various other crimes of vice. A local prosecutor 
identified Gacy’s motel, managed by his newfound friend, as the hub of those 
activities. According to the prosecutor, the motel was a front for a gay and 
straight prostitution ring. 

Gacy was in the habit of hiring many young people of both sexes to work at 
his businesses. He also reportedly set up what was described as a ‘social club’ in 
his basement recreation room, which he kept well stocked with drugs and alcohol 

David McGowan • 177 

to supply to his numerous underage guests. He was also said by those who knew 
him at the time to “control” his wife and to openly offer her sexual services to 
friends and colleagues. One former employee also said that Gacy always carried a 

On March 11, 1968, Donald Voorhees, Jr. — the son of a Jaycee and former 
Iowa state representative — gave a statement to police alleging that Gacy had 
assaulted and sodomized him. In early May, Gacy was indicted by a grand jury, 
though no further action was taken for several months. On September 12, John 
made a court appearance at which he was ordered to submit to a psychiatric 
examination at the ominously named Psychopathic Hospital of the State 
University of Iowa. While in custody there, he spoke freely to investigators of 
wholesale corruption among the city’s elite. He talked of gambling, prostitution, 
pornography, wife swapping, and the corruption and complicity of local police. 
He supplied the names of numerous Jaycees, police personnel, and various other 
prominent individuals who were involved in criminal enterprises. 

When brought before a judge, Gacy threw himself at the mercy of the court 
and entered a guilty plea. On December 3, 1968, he was sentenced to a ten-year 
term. He served less than two of those years, earning parole on June 18, 1970. 
While in prison, he somehow managed to always have money, cigars, and civilian 
shirts — all difficult commodities to attain for most prisoners. According to some 
reports, Gacy received electroshock and aversion therapy while incarcerated, 
allegedly to ‘cure’ him of his homosexuality. Just eight months after his release, he 
was again arrested, this time for disorderly conduct. Despite the violation, just 
eight months after that he was released from parole. Another eight months after 
that, on the summer solstice of 1972, he was again arrested and charged with 
aggravated battery and reckless conduct. Gacy had allegedly offered a young man 
a ride on June 7, identified himself as a police officer, and then attempted to 
handcuff the boy. Failing in that endeavor, Gacy had then clubbed him on the 
back of his neck, kicked him, and then pursued him with his car and struck him 
down. Curiously, the charges were dismissed against Gacy, whose fingerprint card 
on file with local police carried the alias ‘Colonel’ Gacy. 

In July 1975, the first known victim whose death would be attributed to John 
Gacy disappeared. The young man, John Butkovitch, was an employee of Gacy’s 
construction company, which specialized in drugstore remodels. Gacy’s home was 
later found to be fully stocked with an array of pharmaceuticals. Just one night 
before his disappearance, Butkovitch had been involved in a disturbance at a 
friend’s house. He was rumored to have gone to Puerto Rico to traffic drugs, and 
his family received a collect call from a woman in San Juan who claimed that 
John was alive and well. Someone apparently made an effort to thwart a missing 
persons investigation. 


Programmed to Kill 

Boys and young men continued to disappear for the next several years, though 
no one really paid much attention. The missing boys were routinely considered 
runaways by the police, despite pleas from many of the parents to investigate 
their sons’ disappearances as missing persons cases. 

On January 6, 1978, Gacy was arrested for deviate sexual contact, but the 
assistant state’s attorney rejected the filing of felony charges. Six months later, 
Gacy was charged with battery. A twenty-seven-year-old man had been picked up 
and then knocked out with a rag placed over his mouth. He awoke in a park with 
burns on his face and a bleeding rectum. The man had been picked up from the 
city’s gay district, where Gacy was very well known and widely believed to be a 
cop. The victim gave police the license number of Gacy’s car, and he was soon 
taken into custody. Several court dates were allowed to pass with no action taken 
on the charges. John Wayne Gacy was, after all, a very well connected guy. He 
served as a lighting commissioner and as a Democratic Party precinct captain. He 
claimed to have been an aide to Chicago Mayor Richard Daley, and he was 
known to be on friendly terms with Illinois Attorney General William Scott. He 
also claimed that local columnist Mike Royko and local TV anchorman Walter 
Jacobson were “good friends” of his. He once had his photo taken with First Lady 
Rosalynn Carter; the image is signed: “To John Gacy. Best Wishes. Rosalynn 
Carter.” In the photo, Gacy is wearing a Secret Service “S” lapel pin, indicating 
that he had been given a high-level security clearance. Another hint of Gacy’s 
political connections was provided by an observation made by one of his prose- 
cutors: “Two items on [Gacy’s] Chicago Police report were blacked out, indicat- 
ing that they were FBI matters.” 

John also laid claim to having organized crime connections, which is not sur- 
prising given the fine line between politics and organized crime. Gacy claimed 
not only that he himself worked for the “Syndicate,” but also that he was a cousin 
of local mob figure Tony Accardo. 

Gacy continued in Chicago his practice from Iowa of surrounding himself 
with young people. He frequently entertained as a clown at hospitals, orphan- 
ages, and at private parties. He also hired a steady stream of teenage boys to work 
for his construction firm, at least three of whom went missing, and another of 
whom followed an interesting path that will be examined in the next chapter. 

On the night of December 11, 1978, a young man named Rob Piest disap- 
peared. He had last been seen outside of the pharmacy where he was then 
employed, talking to Gacy about a job with his construction company. The Piest 
family focused their suspicions on John Gacy and pharmacy owner Phil Torf, 
who was evasive when questioned about the boy’s disappearance and who refused 
to provide Gacy’s address. For unexplained reasons, Torf had remained at the 
pharmacy that night with his friends until 1:00 AM, three full hours after closing 

David McGowan • 179 

time. The Piest family quickly grew angry with the police over their handling of 
the case, and they began threatening to storm the Gacy house. In order to pacify 
the family and prevent them from acting on their threats, police agreed to begin 
surveillance of John Gacy. Assigned to the task was a special ‘Delta Unit’ of the 
DesPlaines Police. 

What followed was a surreal game of cat-and-mouse in which Gacy at times all 
but joined the surveillance team, wining and dining his alleged pursuers, inviting 
them into his home and allowing them to ride along with him in his car. At other 
times, he would drive maniacally around town with the Delta Unit in pursuit — 
reportedly hitting speeds of up to 100 miles-per-hour, even in school zones. 
Amazingly, he was never stopped during such escapades, let alone ticketed or 
arrested. Police also searched Gacy’s house, which was said to be meticulously 
neat. The search yielded a number of interesting items: a high school ring that 
had belonged to one of the missing boys; an Illinois drivers license issued to 
another boy; marijuana and rolling papers; a vast supply of pharmaceuticals; a 
switchblade knife; a pair of handcuffs; police badges; a hypodermic syringe; 
numerous items of clothing that were obviously too small for Gacy; a photo lab 
receipt later traced to Rob Piest; an empty brown bottle that had contained chlo- 
roform; a bloodstained rug; and a homemade stock. One room in the home was 
completely filled with clown pictures. The crawlspace underneath the house, 
where employees had been asked to dig trenches, was covered with a layer of 
lime — useful for hastening the decomposition of bodies. There were nearly thirty 
of them buried there in shallow graves. More had been dumped into the 
DesPlaines River some sixty-five miles from Gacy’s home. 

Police opted not to arrest Gacy at the time of the search, despite the seemingly 
incriminating evidence found in his home, and despite the fact that they had 
received complaints from at least five assault victims, three in Chicago alone, all 
alleging druggings and torture administered by Gacy, and despite the fact that 
Gacy still had charges pending against him from the incident earlier in the year. 
However, Gacy did have an alibi for the evening that checked out: he had been at 
the hospital at the side of his uncle, who died the very night that Rob Piest disap- 

On the eve of the winter solstice, Gacy was arrested for the final time, 
although not on murder charges, but for possession of marijuana. Just the day 
before his arrest, the conviction of Elmer Wayne Henley in Texas had been 
reversed. Henley had been convicted a few years earlier, in 1974, for his partici- 
pation in what one of Gacy’s chroniclers described as “a homosexual torture ring 
that killed twenty-seven boys.” Henley and his two accomplices provided quite a 
model for Gacy to follow. The trio lured young boys to the home of Dean Corll, 
where they were tortured, raped and killed on a special torture board’ in Corll’s 


Programmed to Kill 

plastic-draped bedroom. Their bodies were then buried beneath a layer of lime in 
Corll’s rented boathouse, while the parents of several of the victims received 
phone calls or were sent letters assuring them that their sons were still very much 
alive. In Houston as in Chicago, police insisted on classifying the growing num- 
bers of missing boys as runaways. 

Gacy’s marijuana arrest prompted a second search of his home, during which 
the bodies in his crawlspace were discovered. How they were not discovered dur- 
ing the earlier search, or detected during the numerous visits to the Gacy home 
by his surveillance team, remains a bit of a mystery. Every corner of the house was 
said to literally reek of death due to the decomposition of the bodies buried in the 
shallow graveyard just beneath the floorboards. The second search also turned up 
a garage freezer that contained unmarked frozen meat and a container full of 
what inspectors suspected was blood. These items were later claimed to be noth- 
ing more than stewed tomatoes and non-human meat, although one would think 
seasoned homicide investigators would know the difference between stewed 
tomatoes and blood. 

While his home was being searched, Gacy was taken to Holy Family Hospital 
for a medical examination, allegedly due to complaints of chest pains. 
Immediately upon his release from the hospital, John read and signed a Miranda 
waiver and began confessing to the murders. One of his first questions to police 
was: “Who else do you have in the station? There are others involved.” Gacy was 
then asked if the others were involved directly or indirectly, to which he 
responded: “Directly. They participated.” Asked who these others might be, he 
answered simply: “My associates.” He was also asked where Rob Piest was, to 
which he answered: “I don’t know. I didn’t transport him.” When asked who did, 
he replied: “I can’t say.” 

This interrogation was cut short by a Sergeant Long, and then later resumed 
with two attorneys at Gacy’s side. No further mention was made of any accom- 
plices, and the issue does not appear to have been pursued thereafter. Perhaps 
notably though, the homicide rate in the Chicago area soared following Gacy’s 
arrest, possibly indicating that a large clean-up operation ensued. And on 
December 28, a week after John’s arrest, a fresh body was fished from the 
DesPlaines River. 

Although Gacy confessed to being a mass murderer, he had very little knowl- 
edge of the crimes to which he confessed. He claimed, for instance, that all of the 
victims were strangled, but forensics evidence suggested that at least thirteen of 
them had in fact been suffocated. He provided a map of the locations of the bod- 
ies under his house that press reports claimed was accurate, even though it actu- 
ally contained numerous discrepancies. Gacy was able to recall sketchy details of 
only five of the killings; of the other twenty-eight, he had no memory at all. He 

David McGowan • 181 

claimed that the murders began in 1974, but then later stated that the first 
occurred in January 1972. He attributed all of the murders to an alter personality 
that he referred to as Jack Hanley. 

John was denied bail and sent to Cermak Hospital, which was the medical 
wing of the local jail, and kept isolated from other inmates. Jail personnel were 
instructed to have no contact with him either. Not long into his stay there, Gacy 
wrote a letter that read: “Since the dark shadow of Satan has come over me, it 
seems that my fair weather friends have run away. . . ” During his second week at 
Cermak he consented to an interview, with the full cooperation of his attorney, 
during which he once again confessed to the murders. He claimed rather prepos- 
terously that the victims were mostly male prostitutes who he had killed over 
price disputes. To explain how he had gained control of the young, healthy vic- 
tims prior to killing them, Gacy put forth a dubious story about using a “hand- 
cuff trick” to get the young men to handcuff themselves. 

On January 10, 1979, “not guilty” pleas were entered on Gacy’s behalf in 
response to the seven murder counts that had been brought against him. On 
April 23, a grand jury handed down indictments on twenty-six additional counts, 
bringing the total to thirty-three. Two days later, Gacy entered “not guilty” pleas 
to the additional counts. Jury selection for his trial began in January 1980. 
Despite intense pre-trial publicity — overshadowed for a time by news of the car- 
nage at Jonestown — the venue of the trial was not changed. Instead, jurors were 
selected from another county and then sequestered. Remarkably, the jury selec- 
tion process was over in just four days. 

The trial began on February 6, 1980. Following opening statements, the state 
called sixty witnesses to present its case against John Gacy. The defense’s case, 
such as it was, was presented in less than a week. Gacy was clearly unhappy with 
the work of his legal team; in a letter to the judge, he complained: “I asked that 
my trial be stopped and I haven’t heard from you. When I asked my attorney as 
to why we are not putting on more witnesses, I am told that we don’t have money 
to bring in experts.” The state began its rebuttal of the defense case on February 
29, and, due to the numerous doors opened by ‘mistakes’ made during the abbre- 
viated presentation of a defense, it was given enormous latitude. Prosecutors were 
allowed to call, for instance, a number of witnesses who had survived attacks by 
Gacy; their testimony had originally been excluded. These young men all told 
similar stories of druggings and torture that were highly damaging to the defense. 

It must be said here that these victims all told of being victimized solely by 
Gacy, which seemed to indicate that he was indeed the sole perpetrator of the 
crimes committed against the thirty-three dead victims. What was never 
explained, however, was why it was that after these victims had been subdued, 
raped and tortured, and were completely under the control of the alleged serial 


Programmed to Kill 

killer, they were subsequently released, very much alive and able to bear witness 
against the defendant. Serial killers, we are told, are essentially slaves to their 
unnatural desires who, once they up the ante and begin killing their victims, are 
unable to stop themselves from killing again and again. And yet we are to believe 
that John Wayne Gacy, purportedly one of the most successful, and most 
deranged, serial killers of all time, was able to torture his victims for hours on 
end, but then pull back from the edge and opt to let some of them go now and 
then. And we are to believe that he had no concern with leaving living witnesses 
that could easily have been disposed of in his crawlspace. 

The possibility exists that Gacy was not actually able to kill alone, although he 
was clearly capable of raping and torturing his helpless victims. Perhaps, as his 
initial statements to police indicated, there were others involved in the actual 
killings, and Gacy’s house was just a convenient place to dispose of the bodies. 
Gacy himself suggested such a scenario in another of his letters to the judge: “As 
you know, other than the so-called statements made by me, and given in a self- 
serving manner by officers for the prosecution, there is only evidence that I 
owned the house that was used for [bodies], their safe -keeping.” Gacy’s statement 
was an accurate one, as outrageous as it may at first appear to be. And there were 
at least a half-dozen people known to have keys to Gacy’s home. 

One of the surviving victims who testified against Gacy had a rather interest- 
ing story to tell. Under oath, he told of having a meeting with the police and the 
assistant state’s attorney not long after his initial complaint was filed; at that 
meeting, he was not allowed to sign any complaints against Gacy and he was 
bluntly informed that no action was going to be taken. 

The last rebuttal witness called was a man named James Hanley whose pur- 
pose was, reportedly, to discredit Gacy’s claim of having an alter personality 
named Jack Hanley. The state claimed that Gacy had appropriated this man’s 
name for his concocted alter personality in an attempt to avoid responsibility for 
his crimes. Prosecution claimed that the witness’s belated appearance was due to 
the fact that they had “had investigators looking for Hanley for more than a year, 
but somehow the police computer didn’t turn up his name.” That was a rather 
stunning claim given that Hanley was one of their own; he had been a plain- 
clothes detective with the Chicago Police Department since the late 1960s. 

To no one’s surprise, a Gacy’s jury reached a verdict on their first vote, after less 
than two hours of deliberations. He was found guilty of all thirty-three first- 
degree murder counts. Following just two more hours of deliberations, after the 
sentencing phase of the trial, the jury unanimously voted to impose the death 

While awaiting his scheduled execution, Gacy occupied his time painting por- 
traits of clowns and Disney figures — a common pastime of convicted serial 

David McGowan • 183 

killers, many of whom consider themselves to be artists, including painters, poets, 
writers and musicians. Elmer Wayne Henley, like Gacy, whiles away his time in 
prison painting scenes that are far removed from the violent crimes he was con- 
victed of. 

While it is abundantly clear that Gacy was involved in the abductions and 
murders, it seems unlikely that he was acting alone. In addition to the facts 
already presented here that indicate the possible involvement of others, there 
were other indications that something was not quite right about the Gacy case, 
and that elements of the police were complicit in the operations. Following the 
disappearance of one of Gacy’s employees, Greg Godzik, John was not questioned 
by police for a full three months. Godzik’s frustrated parents turned for help to 
private investigator Anthony Pellicano, Jr., a shadowy character who tends to sur- 
face in organized crime and Hollywood circles, and who, as this is being written, 
is facing a variety of charges in Los Angeles in connection with a case he was 
working on for actor Steven Seagal. Pellicano never checked out Gacy and later 
claimed that he had never been given the name by Godzik’s parents, which was an 
interesting claim given that the primary reason for his hiring was to investigate 
the man that the police refused to investigate. Pellicano nevertheless maintained 
that he had been told that Greg worked at a gas station, not for John Gacy. 

Godzik was reportedly seen still very much alive after the time of his reported 
abduction, as was at least one other victim and former Gacy employee, John Szyc. 
In one of those bizarre ‘coincidences’ that seem to surround serial killer cases, the 
Godzik home was burglarized the night before the story of John Wayne Gacy’s 
arrest hit the airwaves. The family of victim Rick Johnston was convinced that 
Rick had been abducted by the Reverend Sun Myung Moon’s Unification 
Church, an organization heavily steeped in mind control and with extensive con- 
nections to South Korean’s version of the CIA (which was created and trained by 
our own CIA). Victim John Mowery, a former Marine, was the second sibling in 
his family to fall prey to a sadistic killer; his sister Judith had been found stabbed 
to death in her apartment in November 1972. 

As for the unnamed others who were possibly involved in the killings, there 
were any number of people who lived for varying periods of time in the Gacy 
home, or who regularly spent time there, all of whom denied knowledge of the 
crimes and of the source of the stench permeating the house. One of Gacy’s 
longtime employees and sometime houseguest, identified only by the pseudo- 
nym of Dick Walsh, was said to be evasive when questioned. He was given a 
polygraph examination, but his examiners claimed they were “unable to render a 
definite opinion.” There is no indication that further examinations were 
attempted. Another Gacy employee was Gordon Nebel, who reportedly worked 
as the company’s bookkeeper. He was curiously misidentified in the logs that 

184 • Programmed to Kill 

Gacy’s surveillance team kept of his visitors, even though the officers were well 
aware of Nebel’s identity, and aware that he worked two days a week inside the 
death house. Two other associates of Gacy’s, Donald Morrill and Ronald Rohde, 
were known to have protected and shielded John from police during his period 
of surveillance. Neither of them appears to have been investigated in connection 
to the crimes, nor were any of the numerous names that appeared in Gacy’s 
address book marked with a mysterious “H.” 

Whether any of these associates were involved in the deaths of the victims will 
likely never be known. The man in the best position to provide answers to those 
types of questions was executed by the state of Illinois on May 10, 1994. 

Theodore Robert Bundy was yet another serial killer whose parentage remains 
obscured. He entered this world in 1 946 at the Elizabeth Lund Home for unwed 
mothers and he was promptly abandoned there for three months by his mother, 
Eleanor Cowell. He was raised to believe that his mother’s father, Sam Cowell, 
was his father as well, which he may in fact have been. Chronicler Ann Rule has 
written that the identity of Ted’s real father was unknown outside of the family, 
and that he was a “shadowy man whose real identity grows more blurred with 
every year that passes. . .” Throughout his life, Bundy described his church deacon 
father/grandfather in glowing terms, while other family members have character- 
ized him as a horrendously violent and abusive man who terrorized his family and 
was sadistic to animals. Sam Cowell’s own brothers reportedly stated on numer- 
ous occasions that somebody should kill him to spare others further misery. 

In October 1950, Ted’s mother began calling herself Louise and legally 
changed her son’s name from Theodore Robert Cowell to Theodore Robert 
Nelson — for no discernable reason. The next year, she married Johnnie 
Culpepper Bundy and changed Ted’s name once again. Johnnie, a former Navy 
man and a member of a large clan of Tacoma Bundys, was employed at — of all 
places — a military hospital at a joint Army/ Air Force complex. Ted attended 
Woodrow Wilson High School in Tacoma, Washington — at least according to his 
former classmates he did. That cannot be verified, however, since all records of 
Bundy’s enrollment there have strangely disappeared. After graduation, he 
worked for a municipal electric utility. 

In the spring of 1967, Ted met a woman identified by the pseudonym 
Stephanie Brooks. She was the daughter of a wealthy California family and was 
just one of many women who would be drawn into Ted’s orbit. In the summer of 
1968, Bundy received a scholarship to attend Dr. Lunde’s Stanford University, 

Da vid McGo wan • 185 

just as that tiny geographic region of the country was about to become the serial 
killer capital of the world. Ted purportedly attended Stanford for sessions in 
intensive Chinese studies, although nothing else in his biography hints at any 
interest in Chinese studies. 

That same year, Ted traveled to Florida to attend the Republican National 
Convention as a supporter of presidential candidate Nelson Rockefeller. At about 
that same time, he worked as a driver and bodyguard for Art Fletcher, a candidate 
for Lieutenant Governor in the state of Washington. In 1969, Bundy traveled to 
Aspen, Colorado for an extended stay, after telling friends that he had been hired 
as a ski instructor, which turned out to be a lie. The real reason for Ted’s stay in 
Aspen remains unknown. Fie also paid a visit to Arkansas that year, reportedly to 
visit relatives. 

In September 1969, another woman entered Ted Bundy’s orbit. Variously 
identified as Liz Kendall or Meg Anders, she was the daughter of a prominent 
doctor in the Mormon stronghold of Ogden, Utah. Despite her social standing, 
her estranged husband was a convicted felon. Meg/Liz apparently did not have 
the best taste in men. 

In 1971, Ted began working at the Seattle Crisis Clinic as a paid work/study 
student; he remained there through May 1972. His work partner at the clinic was 
none other than Ann Rule, a policewoman cum true-crime’ reporter whose 
brother had been recently killed, allegedly by his own hand, at — where else? — 
Stanford University. Ted left the crisis center to intern at Harborview County 
Hospital as a psychiatric counselor; his salary there was funded by a federal grant. 
He also worked that year as a key organizer of Washington Governor Dan Evans’ 
reelection campaign. His job was, specifically, to spy and gather intelligence on 
the governor’s opponent. Governor Evans later personally wrote Ted a glowing 
letter of recommendation to a Utah law school. As noted earlier in this chapter, 
Ted next worked for a variety of city, state and county law enforcement entities. 
In April 1973, he became a special assistant to Washington’s Republican Party 
Chairman, Ross Davis, whom Ted frequently dined with and whose children, 
amazingly enough, he occasionally babysat. 

In July of that same year, Bundy again flew to the San Francisco area, just as 
the dust was settling from the flurry of ritual murders that had terrorized that 
city. Just after his return to Washington, women began disappearing from the 
Seattle/Tacoma area. Before that time, the Seattle area had experienced very few 
murders — but that was about to change dramatically. The body of the first vic- 
tim attributed to Bundy was found on December 6, 1973. Katherine Merry 
Devine had last been seen two weeks earlier getting into a pick-up truck after 
running away from home. The man from whom she willingly accepted the ride 
was not Ted Bundy. Her body was found to be missing its heart, lungs and 

186 • Programmed to Kill 

liver — purportedly attributable to scavenging animals. If so, those scavengers 
were very selective. 

Next to disappear was Lynda Healey, in the early morning hours of February 
1, 1974. According to the official version of events, Lynda was abducted from the 
home that she shared with others. Bundy allegedly entered the house, undetected 
by any of the home’s other occupants, crept noiselessly downstairs, overpowered 
and killed Lynda without waking a roommate sleeping just on the other side of a 
thin plywood partition, and without leaving behind any signs of a struggle, 
wrapped Lyndas body, carried it back upstairs undetected, and then returned, 
still unnoticed, to make Lynda’s bed, hang up her nightgown, and grab a change 
of clothes for her. Nothing unusual about any of that. 

Later that same day, Lynda’s roommates received three phone calls from some- 
one who made only breathing noises before hanging up. One of those very same 
roommates later roomed with one of Ted Bundy’s cousins — a cousin with whom 
Ted had been very close since the age of four. The brother of that same cousin, 
with whom Bundy was also quite close, was a teacher of what were described as 
‘disturbed youngsters.’ Lynda herself did volunteer work at the Camelot House, 
described as an experimental school for ‘retarded’ youth. The only remains of 
Healey ever found was her skull, based on which investigators speculated that she 
had been bludgeoned to death. According to Healey’s mother, the positive identi- 
fication of that skull was based on a single tooth — raising the question of whether 
Lynda was actually ever found at all. 

There was certainly nothing ever found of college student Donna Gail 
Manson, the next girl to disappear. She was last seen on March 12, but it took 
nearly a week before anyone bothered to report her missing. Whereas Healey, 
who bore no physical resemblance to Manson, was abducted from her home, 
Donna had reportedly been out walking when she disappeared. Donna Manson 
is said by Bundy chronicler Stephen Michaud to have “dabbled in occultism.” 
Ann Rule described her as having an “obsession with death, magic, and alchemy.” 
Found in her room was literature from “Thought Power, Inc.,” described by Rule 
as an organization offering “seminars on positive thinking and mind discipline.” 
The chief of the college police force, Alfred Pickles, reportedly ordered a perfunc- 
tory search of the campus following Donna’s disappearance, and then inexplica- 
bly delegated oversight of the case to, bizarrely enough, his secretary. One of Ted’s 
friends had been Manson’s occasional racquetball partner. Another friend of Ted’s 
was a jogging partner of Susan Rancourt, last seen on April 17. Only her skull 
was ever found, along with several others, on nearby Taylor Mountain. 

Along with the proliferation of missing girls, the Pacific Northwest was grap- 
pling with another emerging problem in the spring of 1974: an abundance of 
what are referred to as ‘cattle mutilations.’ While conspiracy theories attempting 

David McGowan • 187 

to explain this phenomenon abound, such theories frequently involving UFOs 
and alien experimentation, many police investigators and independent 
researchers have linked these occurrences to local satanic cult activity. 

Next to disappear from the Seattle area were Roberta Kathleen Parks and 
Brenda Ball. Both were later identified only by skulls that were found on Taylor 
Mountain. Ball was not reported missing for two-and-a-half weeks following her 
purported abduction. She was, curiously enough, an acquaintance of Bundy 
chronicler Ann Rule’s daughter. Georgann Hawkins reportedly disappeared from 
a well-lit, heavily traveled alleyway running along her campus’s Greek Row on 
June 11, 1974. Many of her fellow students were up late that warm night, and 
virtually every window along the Row facing the alley was open. Georgeann was 
seen by fellow students approaching her sorority house, right up until she was 
within a few seconds of the entrance. Nevertheless, she then disappeared without 
anyone seeing or hearing a thing. No clues were left behind and no body was ever 
found. Police investigators — including a man named Herb Swindler, who took 
over as head of the homicide division on the very day that Georgeann’s disap- 
pearance was reported, and who had been friends with Ann Rule for twenty 
years — were at a loss to explain the disappearance. A high school friend of Ted 
Bundy’s was a friend of the missing girl’s family. 

On July 3, 1974, a law enforcement summit was held in Olympia, 
Washington that was attended by 100 representatives from Washington and 
Oregon. A prime topic of conversation at the summit was the wave of missing 
girls, which was rather odd since only one of the girls’ remains had yet been dis- 
covered, confirming that she had met with foul play, and there was no indication 
whatsoever that the disappearances, which occurred over a wide geographic area, 
were connected in any way. In attendance at the summit were the Army’s 
Criminal Investigations Division (CID), and Bundy friend and chronicler Ann 

Each of the seven girls that had disappeared thus far — Devine, Healey, 
Manson, Rancourt, Parks, Ball and Hawkins — had vanished without a single clue 
having been left behind. There were no witnesses and no forensics evidence to tie 
anyone to any of the crime scenes. In some of the cases, it could not even be 
determined when or where the crime had occurred. All of that was about to 
change. On July 14, just days after the crime conference concluded, Janice Ott 
and Denise Naslund both reportedly disappeared from a very crowded Lake 
Sammamish Park — in broad daylight, and in front of literally thousands of 
potential witnesses, including a sizable chunk of the Seattle police force, who 
were holding their annual picnic there that day. 

Ott, a probation officer whose father had sat on the Washington State Board of 
Prison Terms and Paroles, was the first of the two to disappear that day, apparently 


Programmed to Kill 

sometime around noon. No one saw her leave or get into a car with anyone, and it 
was never explained what happened to her bike, which disappeared along with her 
and which would not have fir into Bundy’s Volkswagen. Naslund, a known drug 
user who was said to usually have a supply of downers on hand, but who never- 
theless babysat for a good friend of Ann Rule, disappeared around 4:30 PM. One 
witness saw a girl matching her description ride off from the park with a biker 
gang. She reportedly yelled, “No, I can’t! Let me off” Many years later, Naslund’s 
mother wrote a brief note that was displayed at her daughter’s memorial service, 
which read: “God forgive them for what they have done. I love you.” It has never 
been explained why she used that peculiar wording. 

A total of eight witnesses came forward claiming to have seen the elusive pred- 
ator in the park that day. One of them had seen Janice Ott in the company of a 
man with sandy blond hair around the time of her disappearance. The descrip- 
tions offered by the other witnesses varied. Only two of them were ever able to 
identify Bundy as the man they had seen, and then only after his image had been 
widely aired by the media, tainting the IDs. One thing that several of them 
agreed on was that the man had introduced himself as “Ted.” Why the stealthy 
killer would choose to show his face before thousands of potential witnesses, and 
why he would do so using his real name, are questions that have never been 
answered. Why Ted Bundy does not appear in any of the hundreds of photo- 
graphs that were shot at the park that day is another question that has never been 

Following the Lake Sam disappearances, the task force tracking the Seattle 
killer was dubbed the “Ted Squad.” One of the very first “Teds” reported to the 
newly christened task force was none other than Theodore Robert Bundy. His 
name was turned in by his friend Ann Rule, fresh from her attendance at the law 
enforcement summit. Ted would later also be reported by his fiancee, one of his 
college professors, and a former co-worker at one of the government agencies 
where he had worked. 

It was later determined that both girls had been strangled or bludgeoned to 
death, though that was a largely speculative conclusion. Only the girls’ skulls and 
a few assorted bones were ever found, on September 7. These remains were exam- 
ined by, curiously enough, Dr. Daris Swindler. Though Rule’s book pointedly 
claims that Daris was “no relation to Herb Swindler,” Michaud acknowledges 
that he was in fact a “distant relative of Herb Swindler.” 

One key piece of evidence to emerged from the Lake Sam disappearances was 
a possible name for the suspect; he had identified himself to several witnesses as 
“Ted.” Why the stealthy predator who had successfully abducted numerous 
women without leaving behind a single witness or forensics clue would suddenly 
operate in broad daylight using his real name was never explained. 

David McGowan • 189 

The task force became thereafter known as the ‘Ted Squad.’ Among the very 
first ‘Teds’ to be reported to the squad was Theodore Robert Bundy — by his pur- 
ported friend Ann Rule. Over the course of the investigation, four others would 
report Bundy as well: his fiancee, the pseudonymous Liz Kendall; a college pro- 
fessor; and a colleague at the Department of Emergency Services. 

The fact that only the skulls of the girls were ever found further fueled the 
belief of some that the killings were cult related. Rule’s book refers derisively to: 
“totally unsubstantiated rumors that the missing and murdered girls had been 
sacrificed and their headless bodies dumped, weighted, into the almost bottom- 
less waters of Lake Washington.” Chronicler Michaud, however, offered a differ- 
ent take: “occultism or Satan worship [are] creeds that local police say have long 
found a small but ardent following of practitioners around Seattle.” He added 
that many “people were convinced that a virulent offshoot of the Charles Manson 
family had moved to the Seattle area and had begun a new reign of terror led by 
‘Ted.’” Some on the Seattle police force were convinced that there was cult 
involvement in the murders. A hefty file on occult activities in the area had been 
assembled, cryptically referred to as ‘File 1004.’ The occult theories though were 
ridiculed by county police and prosecutors. 

The skulls that were recovered from Taylor Mountain were examined, curi- 
ously enough, by a local forensics expert named Daris Swindler, who Ann Rule 
claimed was no relation to Herb Swindler, her friend and the head of the homi- 
cide squad. Michaud, however, acknowledged that Daris and Herb were “distant” 

After the Lake Sam disappearances provided the task force with a name, no 
further disappearances in the area were linked to Ted Bundy. That is not to say 
that no more girls vanished from the area, but rather that Bundy was no longer 
living there. He had moved to Utah to attend law school at the University of 
Utah, where he worked, surprisingly enough, as a campus security guard. The 
first Utah victim credited to Ted was Nancy Wilcox, last seen on October 2, 
1974. She was never seen again, alive or dead. Melissa Smith was the next to van- 
ish, on October 18. Her intact, nude body was found strangled and bludgeoned. 
The body had been almost entirely drained of blood, and revealed a rather curi- 
ous fact: Melissa had not been killed immediately, but had been kept alive for up 
to a week after her disappearance. Strangely though, her make-up was undis- 
turbed, none of her nails were broken, and there were no signs of ligatures. If she 
was held against her will prior to her murder, there was absolutely no indication 
of that fact. If it was Ted Bundy who held her for that duration of time, then he 
most certainly had accomplices; just the day after the girl’s disappearance, Bundy 
left on a hunting trip with his fiancee’s father. The slain girl was, perhaps signifi- 
cantly and perhaps not, the daughter of the police chief of Midvale, Utah. 


Programmed to Kill 

Melissa’s disappearance was followed by that of Laura Aime, who vanished on 
Halloween night, 1974. Aime was also reportedly held for up to a week before her 
murder, and yet the hair on her strangled and bludgeoned corpse had been freshly 
shampooed just before or just after her death. Forensics tests revealed that she had 
been drunk at the time of her death. The local sheriff, Mack Holley, was sold on 
another suspect as Lauras killer — a man who was later convicted of the brutal sex 
slaying of his girlfriend. Holley once exasperatedly told a Ted Squad member: 
“Bundy had nothing to do with our case, so forget him. That man didn’t do our 
case. I wish you’d get that through your head.” There were indications that Laura 
had some awareness that her life was in danger. Her mother reported that the girl 
had said to her a few weeks before her death, out of the blue: “Mother, at my 
funeral I don’t want to be buried in a dress.” Her request was honored. 

The night of November 8, 1974 was purportedly a very busy one for Ted 
Bundy. He first allegedly attempted to abduct a girl by the name of Carol 
DaRonch from a shopping mall in Murray, Utah. Failing in that endeavor, he 
next struck in Bountiful, abducting Debra Kent from outside the building where 
a school play was in progress. Kent’s body was never found. The problem with 
this official version of events is that it would have been physically impossible for 
Ted Bundy, or anyone else, to have committed both of those crimes. First of all, 
the descriptions given by witnesses at the two crime scenes differed considerably. 
DaRonch described her attempted abductor as having slicked-back hair and the 
strong scent of alcohol on his breath. Reappearing at the school, the suspect was 
described as having long, brown, wavy hair and was said to be handsome and 
well-dressed, and with no hint of alcohol on his breath. It is possible, of course, 
that Ted could have changed clothes, washed and restyled his hair, and rid himself 
of the alcohol smell sometime between the commissions of the two crimes. He 
would have had to do so, however, while driving a Volkswagen at over 1 00 miles- 
per-hour over rain-soaked streets, since the two crime scenes were twenty-six 
miles apart and only fifteen minutes elapsed between his departure from the 
DaRonch abduction site and his first sighting at the school. These times were 
recorded in police logs, so it was well known to the members of the Ted Squad 
that it would not have been possible for Bundy to essentially be in two places at 
once. Nevertheless, they pretended as though both crimes were the work of the 
elusive ‘Ted,’ even after a drama teacher at the second crime scene positively iden- 
tified a drug dealer who was the initial suspect in the Kent case. 

On December 12, 1974, another law enforcement summit was held: the 
Intermountain Crime Conference in Nevada. Exactly one month later, Ted 
allegedly struck again, this time moving his operations to the state of Colorado 
where, on January 12, Caryn Campbell disappeared from a well-lit, heavily trav- 
eled corridor at the Wildwood Inn. She had been seen just steps away from her 

Da vid McGo wan • 191 

room, where she reportedly was heading to pick up a magazine. No one at the 
Inn saw or heard a thing, and there was no sign that there had been any struggle. 
Caryn had reportedly argued with her fiance on the day of her disappearance. 
Her badly bludgeoned body was later recovered. 

The next two alleged victims — Julie Cunningham and Denise Oliverson, who 
disappeared in March and April of 1975 — were never found. After that, the dis- 
appearances strangely stopped, although it was another seven months before Ted 
Bundy was arrested. In the interim, Ted received a Mormon baptismal. 

The circumstances of Ted’s arrest were, to say the least, rather bizarre. He was 
stopped by Sergeant Bob Hayward of the Utah Highway Patrol, who just hap- 
pened to be the brother of Captain Pete Hayward, the chief homicide detective 
for the Salt Lake County Sheriff’s Office. The only ‘crime’ Ted appears to have 
committed on the night of his arrest, by Bob Hayward’s own account, was driv- 
ing down a street that happened to take him by the officer’s house. Nevertheless, 
Hayward felt compelled to call in back-up for the stop, and he was soon joined by 
two additional UHP troopers and a Salt Lake County detective. Why this man- 
power was required to stop a motorist who had not even committed a traffic vio- 
lation remains a mystery. A thorough search of Bundy’s car was conducted, which 
was illegal without the consent of the owner since the officers, by their own 
admission, didn’t have probable cause to suspect Ted of committing any crime. 
The officers claimed that the search was consensual, but Bundy maintained oth- 
erwise. And Ted would have been a fool to consent to the search, which no one 
connected to the case has ever accused him of being. Discovered in the trunk of 
Ted’s vehicle were several provocative, though not illegal, items — including a pry 
bar, a ski mask, a stocking mask, an ice pick, and a pair of handcuffs. That last 
item was said to connect Ted to the attempted abduction of Carol DaRonch, 
which involved the use of handcuffs. The cuffs that were found in Ted’s car, how- 
ever, were from a different manufacturer than the pair recovered from DaRonch’s 

At the very time that Ted was being taken into custody, yet another law 
enforcement summit was underway. Convened in Aspen, Colorado, the meeting 
was attended by detectives and prosecutors from California, Washington, 
Oregon, Utah, and Colorado. This conference was held behind closed doors and 
all attendees reportedly took a fraternal vow of secrecy. On November 20, a week 
after the summit began, Ted was freed after posting a bond. Following his release, 
he reportedly thoroughly cleaned his VW, going so far as to take a garden hose to 
the inside of the vehicle. He also made some necessary repairs, and then sold the 
car to a former classmate of victim Melissa Smith. Investigators later claimed that 
hair from three different victims managed to survive Ted’s clean-up efforts. 


Programmed to Kill 

Bundy also moved out of his rooming house, which was under police surveil- 
lance. Oddly though, the room he vacated was never searched for evidence. 

Utah authorities had no real evidence linking Ted to any of his alleged crimes 
in that state, but they nevertheless proceeded to charge him with the attempted 
abduction of Carol DaRonch. The victim was unable to identify Bundy from an 
initial photo line-up, saying: “I don’t see anyone in there that resembles him.” 
Investigator Jerry Thompson, after presenting the photos to DaRonch, wrote in 
his notes: “She really just doesn’t know.” She had no problem, however, later 
picking Bundy out of a line-up. Ted was presented in a seven-man line-up along- 
side of six police detectives who were all a little older and a little heavier than Ted. 
Police detectives had, for unexplained reasons, rather hastily replaced the inmates 
who had originally been slated for the line-up. Not only did DaRonch pick Ted 
out of the line-up, but so too did two witnesses from the school where Debbie 
Kent had disappeared. Since it was, as previously noted, not possible for Ted to 
have been at both crime scenes, this line-up clearly had serious problems. It was 
alleged by some that Captain Hayward, the brother of the UHP officer who 
arrested Ted, heavily influenced DaRonch’s identification. 

With Ted set to go to trial in the DaRonch case, a trial that would hinge 
almost entirely on the victim’s rather shaky eyewitness testimony, Bundy’s lawyer 
concocted a most remarkable strategy; at the last minute, he suggested waiving a 
jury trial and letting the presiding judge, Stewart Hanson, Jr., decide the fate of 
the defendant. What Bundy’s advocate, John O’Connell, didn’t tell Ted was that 
all the principle officers of the court — O’Connell, Judge Hanson, and prosecutor 
Dave Yocum — had been buddies since their days together as classmates at the 
University of Utah. Ted Bundy was about to be railroaded, and it would not be 
for the last time. 

During the course of the trial, Judge Hanson regularly took it upon himself to 
question witnesses, which was roughly akin to a juror interjecting questions 
whenever he saw fit. The star witness for the prosecution, Carol DaRonch, deliv- 
ered testimony that was riddled with discrepancies and inconsistencies. She was 
unable to decide if her would-be abductor had had a mustache or not. She told 
the court that his car had been white or tan, although she had initially told police 
that it was blue. She acknowledged on the stand that she had positively identified 
Bundy’s car, even though by the time she did so the car had been altered and no 
longer looked as it would have on the night of the incident. Many veteran court 
watchers found her to be somewhat less than credible, as would have, it stands to 
reason, many jurors. But there were no jurors, and Judge Hanson saw no problem 
with DaRonch’s testimony. He pronounced Bundy guilty as charged on March 1 , 
1976. Sentencing was initially set for March 22, but was then delayed so that Ted 
could be psychologically evaluated by a Dr. A1 Carlisle. 

David McGowan • 193 

While Bundy awaited his sentencing, his visitation privileges were severely 
restricted. Interestingly enough though, Ann Rule had no problem at all being 
granted a special visit with Ted, even though she was not a relative, she was not on 
the list of approved visitors, and she showed up on a day that was not a regular 
visiting day. Any one of those factors alone should have disqualified her from vis- 
iting Bundy. Nevertheless, she was not only allowed to visit with the prisoner who 
was being held nearly incommunicado, but she was allowed to do so without 
even being searched before being allowed in. 

On June 30, 1976, Judge Hanson sentenced Bundy to a 1-15 year prison 
term, leaving open the possibility that he could be paroled in as little as eighteen 
months. Ted’s legal troubles were just beginning, however; on October 22, a war- 
rant was issued for his arrest by the state of Colorado for the murder of Caryn 
Campbell. The state’s case against Bundy was virtually nonexistent, consisting of: 
a hair purportedly found in his car; gas purchase receipts that placed him in the 
state of Colorado at the time of Campbell’s disappearance, along with millions of 
other people; a Colorado Ski Country guidebook that was found in Ted’s posses- 
sion and on which someone — Bundy maintained that it wasn’t him — had 
improbably marked an “X’ next to the Wildwood Inn; an alleged eyewitness; and 
a prison informant. 

Also in October, Utah’s notorious Gary Gilmore, immortalized in a disinfor- 
mational Norman Mailer book and a made-for-TV movie, was convicted and 
sentenced to death. Gilmore immediately and improbably began campaigning to 
become the first man executed in the United States since 1962. He succeeded, 
earning himself an appearance before a Utah firing squad on January 19, 1977, 
and opening the doors to the resumption of state executions. 27 Just over a week 
later, Bundy was taken to Aspen to stand before Judge George Lohr and answer to 
the charges filed against him in the Campbell case. It would not be the last time 
that a high-profile execution immediately preceded an important court appear- 
ance by Ted Bundy. 

Around the time that Bundy was awaiting trial in Colorado, a new woman 
entered his orbit: Carole Ann Boone, who had previously worked at a Vietnamese 
resettlement camp. She would later marry Ted and bear him a child. 

The judge and the prosecutor assigned to the Campbell case both reeked of 
corruption. Lohr had just presided over the Claudine Longet trial, which he had 

27 More than a quarter-century later, Timothy McVeigh waged a very similar and 
equally improbable campaign to open the doors to the resumption of federal execu- 
tions. He succeeded as well. His trial, conviction and execution left many questions 
about the bombing of the Oklahoma City federal building unanswered. 

194 • Programmed to Kill 

wrapped up by sentencing Longet to an absurdly lax thirty-day jail term for 
shooting and killing famed skier Spider Sabitch. District Attorney Frank Tucker 
had seriously compromised the prosecution by ‘losing’ Longet’s diary — report- 
edly crucial to the state’s case — after opting to take it home. Tucker would later 
be convicted, not long after handling the Bundy case, of two counts of embezzle- 
ment, one count of felony theft, and two misdemeanor counts. He was given a 
ninety-day delayed sentence, a $ 1 ,000 fine, and was disbarred, prompting him to 
change careers and enroll in a mortician’s school in — where else? — San Francisco. 

Bundy, perhaps catching a whiff of the stench wafting over Aspen, resolved 
that he would defend himself. As the preliminary trial began in early April, the 
state’s case began almost immediately to self-destruct. On April 4, the alleged eye- 
witness took the stand and confidently identified the man she had seen: the 
Pitkin County Undersheriff. Then the purported prison informant was quietly 
dropped, leaving the state without either of its witnesses. What was left were: 
some gas receipts, that proved only that Ted was in the state of Colorado; a tourist 
brochure, that proved only that Ted may have thought about taking a ski trip to 
Colorado; and a single hair that an FBI analyst claimed was “microscopically 
indistinguishable” from Caryn Campbell’s hair and that police claimed was 
recovered from Ted’s car. The chances of gaining a conviction on that evidence in 
anything approaching a fair trial lay somewhere between slim and none. 

As it happened, there never was a trial. In a rather bizarre turn of events, 
Bundy opted not to stick around long enough to face trial. During a break in the 
preliminary proceedings, he purportedly escaped, after being conveniently left 
unguarded, by jumping out an open window and strolling down the street. Ted 
then quickly and improbably found his way to an empty cabin that happened to 
be stocked with food, clothing, a rifle, a flashlight, batteries, blankets and first-aid 
supplies. He allegedly entered the cabin by prying loose the wire-mesh that had 
been applied to the windows for security, though a caretaker later said that it 
would have taken “superhuman strength” to do so with bare hands, as Ted 
claimed to have done. 

Bundy did not remain free for long. He became lost and disoriented, causing 
him to fail in his quest to get away from the Aspen area, and virtually guarantee- 
ing his recapture. Once back in custody, Ted was assigned new counsel: jet-setting 
attorney Stephen “Buzzy” Ware. Ware was a flamboyant, larger-than-life charac- 
ter who regularly piloted himself around the country to handle major racketeer- 
ing and narcotics cases. A few weeks after being assigned the Bundy case, Ware 
was in a coma. He reportedly crashed into a rock wall in another one of those 
freak motorcycle accidents. His wife was killed in the crash. 

Forced to again represent himself, Bundy filed for a much-needed change of 
venue, in order to get the case out of Aspen. The motion was granted, but that 

David McGowan • 195 

was hardly a victory for Ted. The new venue was to be Colorado Springs; statisti- 
cally speaking, there was no worse place in the state of Colorado for an accused 
murderer to stand trial. With his trial set to begin on January 9, 1978, Ted again 
managed to escape from his captors. This time he allegedly climbed through a 
12” square hole in the ceiling of his cell, which he had cut with a hacksaw, raising 
questions of where he obtained the saw, and how he was able to noisily hack 
through the steel plate without anyone noticing. Once in the crawlspace above 
his cell, he reportedly scurried over to the space above a deputy’s empty apart- 
ment, lowered himself down into a closet, and then casually strolled out the door 
to freedom. A prison snitch is said to have repeatedly reported hearing Ted mov- 
ing about in the crawlspace at night, but nothing was ever done. It seems very 
odd, however, that a jail would ever be constructed in such a way as to create a 

Once free, Bundy this time quickly located an MG Midget that happened to 
be outfitted with a set of studded radial tires, a necessity for the snow-covered 
roads he would be facing, and also happened to have keys already in the ignition. 
This time, Ted wasted no time getting out of town; by the time his disappearance 
was discovered at noon the next day, he reportedly was already in Chicago. His 
commandeered vehicle did not get him far; it apparently broke down on the way 
to Vail. Luckily though, he was picked up by a helpful GI who gave him a ride. 
He then traveled by bus from Vail to Denver, and then by plane from Denver to 
Chicago. Once there, he stole a car and drove it to Atlanta. From there, he made 
his way to Tallahassee, Florida, acquiring a new identity along the way: Chris 
Hagen. That is how the official story reads, anyway. 

On January 15, 1978, a slaughter took place at the Chi Omega sorority house 
on the campus of the University of Florida at Tallahassee. This crime did not bear 
even the slightest resemblance to any of the previous crimes attributed to Ted 
Bundy, but rather was reminiscent of the attack twelve years earlier that had been 
attributed to Richard Speck. Four girls were brutally bludgeoned in the early 
morning hours; two of them died from their injuries. A fifth girl was subse- 
quently attacked at another location not far away. The first attack, at the Chi O 
house, purportedly occurred just after 3:00 AM and was over in just fifteen min- 
utes. In that brief period of time, a single assailant was allegedly able to go room- 
to-room, locating and viciously beating four women, in addition to raping and 
sodomizing two of them. 

One of the sorority sisters, Nita Neary, caught a brief glimpse of an intruder in 
the house as the man was leaving through the front door. She saw him only in 
profile, and described him as wearing a watch cap pulled down low over his face. 
His most noticeable feature, she said, was a large nose. Neary had just arrived 
home, at 3:00 AM, from a campus kegger party, and was quite likely intoxicated 

196 • Programmed to Kill 

to some degree, although the state claimed that its star witness had been quite 
sober on the night of the attack. Under hypnosis, she later said that the intruder 
closely resembled the sorority’s houseboy, who looked nothing like Ted. Another 
sorority sister, Carol Johnston, was only asleep that night for a total of five min- 
utes, from 3:14 AM until 3:19 AM, when she was awakened by Neary and oth- 
ers. Nevertheless, she did not see or hear anything out of the ordinary that night. 

The first officers were on the scene by 3:23 AM, just minutes after the dazed 
and bloodied victims staggered out of their rooms. These officers were quickly 
joined by a virtual army of city police, campus police, and county sheriff’s 
deputies. The streets surrounding the house were soon brimming with squad cars, 
detectives’ vehicles, ambulances, and a hearse. Nearly forty distraught sorority sis- 
ters were milling about the house, many of them with blood dripping from their 
hands from their efforts to assist the victims. Joining the circus were an unspeci- 
fied number of curiosity seekers, who were allowed to roam freely about the 
house. Needless to say, the crime scene was hopelessly compromised before any 
serious investigation could even begin. 

Key evidence was destroyed at the scene, and the evidence that was preserved 
tended to point away from Ted Bundy as the likely perpetrator. For example, 
semen found in the bed of Cheryl Thomas, the fifth victim, proved to be from a 
non-secretor, effectively ruling out Bundy as the donor. Chewing gum that was 
discovered in the hair of one victim, and that could have yielded both saliva and 
bite-mark evidence, was destroyed. Saliva that would have likely been present 
around an alleged bite wound in the buttocks of another victim was swabbed 
away at the scene. The wound was allegedly photographed at the scene, but the 
photos that were later produced were not taken with the medical examiner’s cam- 
era. That camera purportedly malfunctioned, so the photos were taken instead 
with a standard 35mm camera, allegedly supplied by a crime scene specialist. The 
section of skin that contained the incriminating marks was excised and placed in 
saline solution; unfortunately, it was destroyed it in the process. A sheriff’s deputy 
on the scene prematurely ordered one victim’s body, Margaret Bowman’s, taken to 
the morgue before crime scene technicians had even ascertained whether any evi- 
dence was present on the corpse. 

And so it went at the Chi Omega house that fateful night. One rather curious 
fact about the crime scene that doesn’t appear to have been commented on by 
any of Bundy’s numerous chroniclers was observed by Ray Crews, one of the 
first officers on the scene. Crews later testified in court, and later repeated in 
interviews, that the body of victim Lisa Levy was cool to the touch upon its dis- 
covery. According to the official version of events, however, she had been dead 
for just minutes before her discovery — not long enough for her body to have 
noticeably cooled One other rather curious fact, that proves once again that 

David McGowan • 197 

bizarre ‘coincidences’ appear frequently in the stories of America’s serial killers, 
was that Daris Swindler — the forensics expert from Seattle — just happened to 
be in Tallahassee on the night of the killings. Another largely forgotten fact indi- 
cated that there was at least a possibility that the victims had not been randomly 
targeted: a set of keys to Thomas’ house, that likely were used by her killer, were 
discovered in her backyard. 

Not long after the bloody rampage in Tallahassee, twelve-year-old Kimberly 
Leach disappeared from Lake City Junior High School in broad daylight amid 
heavy rush-hour traffic. Her body was found two months later, completely 
drained of blood. The cause of death was listed as “homicidal violence to the neck 
region.” The day after her disappearance, coincidentally or otherwise, Ted 
Bundy’s name was added to the FBI’s ‘Ten Most Wanted’ list. There was no indi- 
cation at that time that Ted had anything to do with the Florida crimes; they cer- 
tainly didn’t match his supposed MO, and there was no reason to suspect that 
Bundy was anywhere near the state of Florida. 

Ted was arrested shortly thereafter, bearing yet another new name, Kenneth 
Misner. His last night of freedom was spent, oddly enough, in a wooded area of 
the Eglin Air Force Base, a restricted military facility. He had in his car at the time 
an array of credit and identification cards, as well as several photos of girls and 
young women. After allegedly sending word that he wanted to talk without coun- 
sel, Ted was interrogated in Pensacola without an attorney present, and the con- 
versation was taped. His public defenders later loudly complained that they had 
been refused entry to the interrogation room. The resultant tapes were filled with 
gaps, allegedly due to the tape-recorder unerringly malfunctioning whenever Ted 
purportedly made incriminating statements. None of these supposedly confes- 
sional statements were recorded, but detectives swore that Ted had in fact made 

There were some interesting bits of conversation that were recorded, including 
this exchange: 

Police Interrogator: Where’d you get the money [that you used after 
your escape to travel across the country] from? 

Ted: “Well, man, there’s other people. Other people are in on it.” 

The next day, Bundy was handcuffed and brought to the courtroom under 
heavy guard, with his attorneys still complaining that they had not yet been 
allowed to see their client in jail. Following his appearance, Ted was taken away 
with what chronicler Richard Larsen described as “a strange, aloof look in his 
eyes.” Bundy walked right past Larsen, who was a friend of his, without any hint 


Programmed to Kill 

of recognition. The nighttime interrogations of Bundy continued for a week, first 
in Pensacola and then in Tallahassee. 

In the first week of March, Ted was brought to appear before Judge John 
Rudd, and on April 27 Rudd issued a warrant authorizing Bundy’s captors to take 
dental impressions of their prisoner — by force if necessary. Curiously, prosecutors 
had waited for over two months before taking steps to obtain this allegedly key 
piece of evidence. In July, a grand jury was convened to hear secret testimony per- 
taining to the disappearance of Kimberly Leach. On the 21 st , an indictment was 
handed down, which a judge immediately ordered sealed. The next week, another 
grand jury was convened to hear evidence in the Chi Omega case. 

In December 1978, Judge Rudd was ordered by the Florida Supreme Court to 
disqualify himself from hearing the case, due to his having shown an obvious bias 
against the defendant. Rudd was replaced by Judge Edward Cowart, a former 
Navy man and police officer. On May 31, 1979, Ted was scheduled to appear 
before Cowart to accept the terms of a plea agreement that would have handily 
disposed of both the cases in which indictments had been handed down. In 
exchange for entering three guilty pleas to the three counts of first-degree murder, 
Ted was to receive three consecutive twenty-five-year prison sentences. This 
would have been a great deal for Bundy — if he was in fact guilty of the crimes he 
was charged with, and if the state had a solid case against him to prove that fact. 
However, there is scant evidence to suggest that that was the case. 

To insure that Bundy stuck to the script and entered the guilty pleas, the state 
of Florida executed John Spenkelink just six days before Ted’s scheduled court 
appearance. The message sent to Bundy could not have been any clearer: take the 
deal or you too will have an appointment with Florida’s “Old Sparky.” To further 
drive that point home, Ted was brought to appear in the very same courtroom 
where Spenkelink had been condemned to die, with many of the same actors in 
attendance. For a time, Bundy was even represented by Spenkelink’s attorney, 
Brian Hayes. Spenkelink was, curiously enough, only the second man executed in 
this country since 1962, the first being, of course, the aforementioned Gary 
Gilmore. Before his electrocution, Spenkelink was asked if he had any final state- 
ment, to which he replied: “I can’t talk. The [chin] strap is too tight.” That was 
the only statement he was allowed to make. 

Ted was not intimidated; he refused the deal. 

On June 25, 1979, the Chi Omega trial began in Miami, Florida. It was the 
very first trial in U.S. history to be nationally televised. By June 30, final jury 
selections had already been made. Sitting on that jury, according to at least two of 
Bundy’s chroniclers, was a man named Vernon Swindler — whom Michaud noted 
had “been to a murder trial before, his cousin’s.” For those who may have lost 
count, that brings to three the number of people named Swindler who played a 

David McGowan • 199 

part in the investigation and prosecution ofTed Bundy: Herb Swindler, the head 
of the homicide division; Daris Swindler, the forensics expert who examined the 
alleged victims’ remains; and Vernon Swindler, the juror. Nothing unusual about 
that, I suppose, nor in the fact that Ted’s defense team included a ‘jury expert’ 
who was actually an Atlanta hypnotist named Emil Spillman. 

The case presented by the state was, to put it politely, problematic. A stocking 
mask was produced that was purportedly found at the Thomas residence and 
which was said to be identical to the one found in Ted’s car during the illegal 
Utah search — though one has to wonder how different one stocking mask could 
be from another. The mask from the Florida crime scene was said to have yielded 
two hairs from the head ofTed Bundy. Interestingly though, the only eyewitness 
that night, Nita Neary, testified that the man she saw was not wearing any such 
mask. Of the 260 different fingerprints found in the Chi Omega house by detec- 
tives, not one of them matched those ofTed Bundy, even though Neary also said 
that the intruder she saw was not wearing any gloves. In court, Nita Neary posi- 
tively identified Bundy, as she reportedly had done from a photo line-up, though 
she had wavered in that identification when she had first seen Ted in person. And, 
as previously noted, she had said under hypnosis that the intruder more closely 
resembled the sorority’s houseboy. She had also said that he had a very prominent 
nose, a feature that Ted was clearly lacking. 

The notorious bite-mark evidence was presented to the jury, even though the 
actual bite wound had been destroyed and the photos purportedly taken of the 
wound had been shot with a camera other than that of the medical examiner, 
hopelessly compromising the evidence chain. The bite wound evidence was pre- 
sented by a man named Dr. Richard Souviron, who had published his supposed 
findings before the trial even began, thereby contaminating the jury pool. In 
explaining the techniques that he had used to come to his conclusions, the doctor 
may well have inadvertently revealed exactly where the photos of the victim’s bite 
wound came from: “I took models [from the castings of Bundy’s teeth] and I 
went to the morgue and I pressed the models into the buttocks area on different 
individuals and photographed them.” The good doctor took the castings of 
Bundy’s teeth and used them to ‘bite’ the buttocks of corpses, and then pho- 
tographed those bite wounds with a 35mm camera, but those were, of course, dif- 
ferent 35mm bite wound photos than the ones that were allegedly taken of the 
actual bite wound victim, although those photos were also taken with a 35mm 
camera, rather than with the ME’s camera, and it couldn’t actually be proven that 
there ever was an actual bite wound victim, since the purported physical evidence 
of the wound itself had been destroyed. 

Bob Campbell, a Fort Lauderdale police officer who followed the trial, was 
skeptical of both the bite-mark testimony and of Neary ’s dubious identification 


Programmed to Kill 

of Bundy, despite the fact that he had a vested interest in seeing Bundy convicted, 
given that it was his sister that Ted had been on trial for killing prior to his escape 
in Colorado. Dr. Dwayne DeVore was skeptical as well. Even if we take a leap of 
faith and assume that the photos of the bite wounds were legitimate, DeVore tes- 
tified that the tooth pattern visible in the photos was a very common one, and 
“the material of skin is flexible, elastic,” and not at all a good medium from which 
to compare bite-marks. Bundy himself cast further doubt on the evidence when 
he attempted to introduce photographs demonstrating that one of his teeth had 
been chipped after the attack at the Chi Omega house. To prove that point, Ted 
requested a delay in the trial to subpoena all the negatives of photographs taken 
of him by the media. If Bundy’s bite pattern had in fact changed after his arrest, 
then proving that would have conclusively proven that the bite wound evidence 
had been fabricated using castings of Ted’s teeth. The judge disallowed the 
motion and no photographic evidence was ever reviewed by the court. 

This was certainly not the only ruling to go against Bundy. It was clear from 
the time of the opening defense statement that the court was heavily biased in 
favor of the prosecution. The defense’s statement, which ordinarily would not be 
expected to draw objections, ran for just twenty-six minutes and was interrupted 
with an astounding twenty-nine objections, twenty-three of which were sustained. 
When all was said and done, the jury deliberated for just six hours before finding 
Bundy guilty on all counts. Following the penalty phase of the trial, the jurors 
required just an additional hour and forty minutes to deliver two death sentences. 
Ted was sent to Death Row’s QWing, otherwise known as the ‘Bug Wing,’ where 
he took up residence in John Spenkelink’s recently abandoned cell. 

In January 1980, he was back in court to again face murder charges, this time 
for the death of Kimberly Leach. There was virtually no chance of him receiving 
a fair trial; his name recognition in Orange County, where he was being tried, was 
said to be at 98%. Only the comatose were unaware of the notorious Ted Bundy. 
The state used that fact to their full advantage, brazenly stacking the jury with 
those who had prior knowledge of the case. As Ted accurately noted, “the state’s 
case is predicated on knowledge outside this courtroom.” Even Ann Rule 
acknowledged that the “prospective jurors... appeared willing to say almost any- 
thing so that they might be chosen.” 

Ted’s defense counsel this time around was a man named Vic Africano, who 
candidly described Bundy as a “split personality.” Court watchers noted that 
Bundy seemed to have undergone a radical transformation from his previous 
trial, during which he had represented himself quite lucidly and animatedly. Ele 
now seemed distant, aloof, out of touch with his surroundings. It would later be 
revealed that Carole Boone kept him supplied with a steady flow of drugs and 
alcohol throughout the latter proceedings. 

David McGowan • 201 

There were ostensibly three eyewitnesses to the Leach abduction, but there 
were serious questions about all of them. The first was a seventy-three-year-old 
crossing guard who remembered the day of the abduction as having been a 
“warm, summery day,” when in fact it had been a rain-drenched morning on 
which the temperature had been near freezing. According to chronicler Michaud, 
during a deposition this witness had “told the attorney that he knew he’d picked 
the right man because an FBI agent winked at him when he picked the right pic- 
ture in a photo lineup.” His testimony was deemed inadmissible, as was that of 
the second eyewitness, who had been unable to identify Ted for nearly two years 
before suddenly developing the ability to do so. The third witness, C. L. “Andy” 
Anderson, had waited for weeks before belatedly reporting his version of the 
abduction to police. Anderson happened to work at the local fire station, which 
was, conveniently enough, located in the same building as the Lake City Police 

Anderson’s version of the incident was seriously lacking in credibility. He 
claimed that Bundy, ever the careful criminal, had improbably left his van parked 
in the street, blocking the only west-bound traffic lane, during the morning rush 
hour, while he leisurely prowled about the school looking for a suitable victim. In 
order to ‘enhance’ his memory of that day, Anderson had reportedly been hypno- 
tized. Another witness, a sporting goods dealer, claimed in court that he had sold 
Bundy a knife shortly before the crime was committed, but there was no evidence 
that a knife had been used in the commission of the crime, and the witness had 
initially identified another man in a photo line-up. 

The most compelling element of the state’s case, on the surface anyway, was 
the purported fiber evidence. Fibers from a van that Ted had allegedly stolen and 
used for a period of ten days were reportedly recovered from Leach’s purse, bra, 
jersey, and socks. Conversely, fibers from her denim purse and jeans were said to 
have been found in the van. The problem was that there was no evidence to sug- 
gest that Ted had ever stolen, used, or been anywhere near that van. None of Ted’s 
or Leach’s hair was ever found in the van, even though 100 hair samples were 
recovered from the vehicle, clearly demonstrating that no effort had been made to 
cleanse the van of evidence. Similarly, dozens of latent fingerprints were found in 
the van, but none of them belonged to Ted. Obviously, no effort had been made 
to wipe the van down, which was not consistent with Bundy’s other alleged 
actions. For instance, it was claimed that Ted’s Florida apartment had been so 
thoroughly cleaned before his departure that not a single fingerprint could be 
found anywhere. 

Another problem with the fiber evidence is the notion that a fiber from a pair 
of denim jeans, a mass produced commodity, can be matched to a particular pair 
of jeans. There is absolutely nothing unique about any particular pair of blue 


Programmed to Kill 

jeans that would allow an analyst to ascertain that it was the garment that yielded 
an individual fiber to the exclusion of all other pairs of jeans. These are not, in 
other words, fingerprints we are talking about here; these are textiles that are pro- 
duced in enormous lots. The same is largely true of carpet fibers, including those 
from the van, which are also a mass produced commodity. The best that can be 
ascertained is that a fiber came from a particular make of automobile, not from 
any specific vehicle. Claims to the contrary fly in the face of any sort of logic. 

The best that the state could do to connect Bundy to the van was through the 
testimony of Detective James Parmenter of Jacksonville. Prior to the Leach 
abduction, his kids had purportedly had an encounter with the van and its driver. 
Parmenter later arranged for his kids to be hypnotized, out of which allegedly 
came a positive ID of Bundy as the driver. Bundy was thus ever so tenuously 
linked to the van, through the manipulated testimony of the two young children 
of a police detective, and not through any physical evidence whatsoever, and the 
van was then tenuously linked to Kimberly Leach, though only through dubious 
fiber evidence. 

None of this really mattered, however, as Bundy’s guilt was a foregone conclu- 
sion for the people of the state of Florida. It took the jury only forty-five minutes 
to deliver yet another death sentence on February 9 — the second anniversary of 
Leach’s disappearance, a fact that surely was not lost on the jurors. Following the 
verdict, Ted was sent to occupy a cell right next to that of our old friend Ottis 

Throughout the 1980s, long after Ted Bundy had mover on, women contin- 
ued to vanish in and around the Seattle area — as many as 1 00 of them by some 
counts. Most of them were prostitutes, many of them underage. These killings 
were attributed to the so-called “Green River Killer,” who has never been caught 
(though recent reports claim that police now have a suspect who will be prose- 

In the summer of 1985, the Violent Criminal Apprehension Program 
(VICAP) was launched at the FBI’s headquarters in Quantico, Virginia. Ted 
Bundy was said to be the prototype on which the system was based. This system, 
despite the lofty goals implied by the name, has little to do with the apprehension 
of violent criminals and everything to do with the wholesale erosion of civil rights 
in this country, using the fear of a manufactured phenomenon, serial killers, to 
sell repressive measures to the American people. One of the biggest promoters of 
the system, who did everything but go door-to-door to assist the FBI in its efforts 
to justify its implementation, was Ann Rule. The very same Ann Rule consented 
to be a witness for the prosecution during Bundy’s so-called “competency trials,” 
which were an effort on Ted’s part to persuade the courts to set his sentences aside 
and grant him new trials in the Florida cases. 

David McGowan • 203 

In her book The Stranger Beside Me, Rule, a former Chi Omega sorority sister, 
justifies the selling out of her purported friend by saying: “There would be a very 
real threat that Ted could work his way back through all his legal thickets.” In 
other words, if Bundy’s verdicts had been set aside, and if new trials had been 
ordered, there would have been a very real possibility that his previous trials 
would have been revealed as the judicial shams that they were. The truth of the 
matter was, as Stephen Michaud wrote: “in the dozens of cases from Seattle to 
Florida in which the police have sought to implicate Bundy there has not been a 
single bit of physical evidence that incontrovertibly demonstrates his involvement 
in anything more sinister than car theft.” Michaud attributes this to Bundy being 
some sort of criminal mastermind — a genius who was smart enough to always 
cover his tracks. In truth, there was never any evidence to suggest that Bundy was 
a genius. He was no doubt an intelligent man, but there is nothing in his aca- 
demic records or in his IQ test scores to indicate that he rose to the level of a 

In April 1987, the Associated Press reported that the incarcerated Bundy had 
been corresponding with attempted presidential assassin John Hinckley, Jr., who 
was in turn corresponding with Manson disciple cum attempted presidential 
assassin Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme. Birds of a feather. . . 

On August 1, 1987 — Lammas on the occult calendar — Judge Cowart died of 
a massive heart attack while lying in a private hospital room that he had checked 
into for observation. He had no prior history of illness. Ted Bundy, calmed by 
tranquilizers, was put to death by the state of Florida on January 24, 1989. In his 
final hours, he allegedly confessed on tape to an array of murders, including some 
in the state of Idaho that he had never been accused of. Many of the details given 
in these confessions were either wrong or unverifiable, and the tape is difficult to 
hear — due purportedly to yet another tape-recorder malfunction. 

One type of evidence that would have proven tremendously damaging to 
Bundy had it been introduced at any of his trials was Polaroid photographs of the 
murders. According to some officials, such photos did exist, taken by Ted himself. 
As with so many other cases though, such evidence was never produced. Why? 
Perhaps because those photographs would show actors other than, or in addition 
to, Theodore Robert Bundy. 

Chapter 15 

The Next Generation 

“Like you have a job, I have a job, he has a job. His job is killing 
people. That’s what he was trained to do. ” 

— Cynthia Haden, a juror in the Richard Ramirez trial, 
commenting on the convicted Night Stalker 

Henry Lee Lucas’ reign of terror ended a mere nine months before another 
series of violent ‘serial killings’ began in March 1984 in part of Henry’s old 
stomping ground: the state of Florida. By the time it was over, ten people had met 
with gruesome, untimely deaths, allegedly at the hands of Bobby Joe Long. 
Though rarely mentioned in press accounts of the killings, Bobby Joe Long was a 
cousin of Henry Lee Lucas. 

Just over two years after John Wayne Gacy was indicted for the murder of 
thirty-three young men in Chicago, a new wave of ‘serial killings’ began in the 
Windy City. A year-and-a-half later, seventeen young women had allegedly fallen 
victim to the “Ripper Crew,” led by Robin Gecht. Seventeen years after the arrest 
of the Rippers, and just days before the scheduled execution of one member of 
the crew, a son of the crew’s charismatic leader was arrested along with three 
accomplices and charged with homicide as well. Though the connection was 
almost entirely ignored by the media, Robin Gecht had been one of the young 
male employees of John Wayne Gacy. 

Angelo Buono was still awaiting trial for the Hillside Strangler murders when 
girls once again began turning up dead on the streets of the San Fernando Valley. 
These killings were eventually attributed to a man named Douglas Clark and an 
accomplice named, bizarrely enough, Carole Bundy — though this was not the 
same woman who acquired that very same name after marrying Ted Bundy. Like 
Buono, Clark owned an auto upholstery business, located just a short drive from 
Angelo’s shop. Also like Buono, Clark claimed to have used his business as a front 
for a prostitution ring. On at least one occasion, Clark had visited Buono’s shop 


David McGowan • 205 

to purchase supplies. The first victims of the Clark and Bundy team, who were 
dubbed the “Sunset Strip Killers,” were dumped along the same lonely stretch of 
Forest Lawn Drive where the body of Strangler victim Yolanda Washington had 
earlier been discovered, as well as the body of Laura Collins before her. Clark 
claimed that his large stable of past and present girlfriends included a roommate 
of one of the Strangler victims. Following his arrest, Clark began a relationship 
with another woman, as did his partner, Carole Bundy. The woman was Veronica 
Compton, the girlfriend of Kenneth Bianchi who was convicted of being a 
“Copycat” Strangler. 

Richard Ramirez, whose alleged “Night Stalker” killing spree began just weeks 
after that of Bobby Joe Long, arose from the very same cesspool that had spawned 
Henry Lee Lucas, Rafael Resendez-Ramirez, and the Matamoros and Juarez death 
cults. Just before his arrival in Los Angeles, Ramirez paid a visit to San Francisco to 
receive inspiration from the high priest of that satanic sewer, Anton LaVey. 

Robin Gecht was born on November 30, 1953 at, appropriately enough, rhe 
Illinois Masonic Hospital. His parents never married and young Robin was raised 
primarily by his grandparents. At a fairly young age, Gecht was sent to a school 
for troubled youth. Fie was later sent by a judge to a live-in facility that likewise 
catered to delinquent youth. Still later, as a young teen, Robin formed a close 
relationship with a man named Thomas Farley, a known pedophile who lived in 
the same building as the Gecht family. During his teen years, Gecht was accused 
of molesting his own sister. Around that same time, he began living with Farley, 
an arrangement that apparently was of no great concern to Gecht’s parents or 
grandparents. At one point, Robin even took to the road with Farley, journeying 
to the state of Florida for reasons unknown. 28 

28 It may by now have occurred to readers that three states seem to play a particularly 
prominent role in the life stories of an overwhelming number of purported serial 
killers: California, Texas and Florida. These three states are, coincidentally or not, rife 
with satanic cult activity. They are also, coincidentally or not, the three points 
through which virtually all of the drugs trafficked through Mexico and Central and 
South America enter the United States. As was previously mentioned, two of these 
three points of entry, again coincidentally or not, have in recent years been under the 
political control of the Bush family. And as was also mentioned previously, law 
enforcement officials have spoken of an organized crime pipeline that moves many of 
the drugs entering Texas to the city of Chicago, Illinois — which could help explain 
the recurrent phenomenon of spree and serial killers stalking that city. 

206 • Programmed to Kill 

Robin Gecht married a woman named Rosemary McCaffrey and fathered 
three children by her. Rosemary has been described by Gecht chronicler Jaye 
Slade Fletcher as “bizarre looking, with long black hair, Cleopatra eye makeup, 
long red fingernails, and a hard-eyed stare.” At the urging of Robin, who enjoyed 
reading books on the torture practices of ancient cultures, she reportedly kept 
hatpins stuck through her breast. Like Rosemary, her brother Thomas was also 
thin and chalk- white with jet-black hair. He was later implicated by Robin Gecht 
in the Ripper murders. Thomas, who denied any involvement in the killings, 
claimed that one of the accomplices who was later convicted of complicity was a 
lover of Robin’s, and that another accomplice was a former lover. 

In addition to his boyfriends, Robin also reportedly maintained a large stable 
of girlfriends. Like others profiled in this book, Gecht reportedly had a steady 
stream of teenage boys and girls coming and going from his house, some of 
whom stayed there for varying periods of time. One of them, a fifteen-year-old 
girl, accused Robin of raping her at gunpoint, but the charges were later dropped. 
Robin apparently was not too picky about who, or what, he copulated with; on at 
least one occasion, he reportedly had sexual relations with his wife’s parents’ dog. 

Gecht has been described as a master manipulator who is adept at reading oth- 
ers. He is also said to be an accomplished hypnotist who has an uncanny knack 
for getting people, especially women, to do what he wants them to do. He has 
also been described as a sufferer of a multiple personality disorder who speaks in 
various voices — including those of a small child, a teenager, and a businessman. 
Experts, of course, have declared this a sham. 

Robin frequently visited an unidentified drugstore where he apparently was 
on close terms with the pharmacist. Associates of Gecht ’s have said that he could 
get whatever he wanted there, in whatever quantities he desired; he was therefore 
able to keep a large and steady supply of prescription pills of various kinds on 
hand. All of this — the fascination with hypnotism and the control of others, the 
fascination with torture, the associations with pedophilia, ready access to drugs, 
indications of a dissociative disorder — is by now familiar terrain. 

Two of Robin’s convicted accomplices were brothers Andy and Tom 
Kokoraleis. Along with their four siblings, the two boys had been raised by their 
father following the premature death of their mother. One of those siblings filed 
numerous complaints with a youth protection agency charging their father with 
sexual molestation. In one of those strange twists that are forever popping up in 
serial killer cases, Warren Wilkosz, who served as the lead investigator on the 
Ripper case, had been a friend of the Kokoraleis family for a number of years. 

In April 1982, Robin Gecht suddenly disappeared for several weeks, much as 
Richard Chase had done several years before. Upon his return, Gecht refused to 
explain the reason for his sudden disappearance or to discuss where he had gone. 

David McGowan • 207 

On May 6, just after he returned from his mysterious sojourn, an unidentified 
Chicago police officer responded to a call of a man with a gun. That man turned 
out to be Robin Gecht, who was arrested and charged with carrying a loaded 
weapon. Robin purportedly quickly established a rapport with the officer, despite 
the circumstances of their meeting. A few days later, the two met at the officer’s 
house and Robin, a building contractor/ carpenter, just as Gacy had been, began 
working for the officer. 

Robin’s new friend on the force soon opened his home to the entire Gecht 
family, who essentially lived with him for a period of four months. During that 
time, Robin was allegedly directly complicit in a string of grisly murders. The first 
of these occurred just nine days after that fateful, and rather bizarre, meeting 
between Gecht and the officer. Lorraine Ann Borowski disappeared on May 15, 
1982. Borowski shared an apartment with a man who told police investigators 
that she had not slept at home the night before she disappeared, even though it 
was quite obvious to the officers that she had. It has never been explained why the 
man lied to the officers, or why he was not considered a suspect after doing so. 

Lorraine had told her mother the day before she vanished that a “big, giant 
man” in a car had been following her. That was a description that would have fit 
Ed Kemper, but it was certainly not a description that fit the rather diminutive 
Robin Gecht. The owner of a nearby liquor store had seen a struggle at the side of 
a gray or dull silver, older model car. A suspect was identified who had driven 
such a car until just after the abduction, when he claimed to have sold it. The 
man was said to have an explosive temper and a fondness for knives and Oriental 
throwing stars. He had been in-and-out of mental hospitals for a number of 
years, with release from his most recent confinement having come just the day 
before the abduction. His younger brother was already serving time for another 
abduction and murder. 

This was not the first abduction/murder that was later attributed to Robin and 
his crew. It would later be claimed that the killings actually began the year before, 
and that as many as twelve girls had fallen victim to the Rippers before Lorraine 
Borowski. Police though were never able to produce more than one of the pur- 
ported bodies, or to identify who any of the other missing victims might be. The 
first of them was said to be a Chicago-area prostitute named Linda Sutton, whose 
nearly skeletal remains were found facedown in a field on June 1 , 1981. She had 
last been seen on May 24 at a family function in the company of a new boyfriend. 
It was claimed that she had been killed just three days before her remains were 
discovered, on about the twenty-ninth of May. The advanced decomposition of 
the body, however, suggested that she had actually died just after the time she was 
last seen. Her whereabouts between that day and the alleged day of her death 
were never accounted for. 


Programmed to Kill 

There is nothing to indicate that Linda Sutton’s murder had any connection to 
those that occurred a year later. And there is no evidence to suggest that any other 
murders were committed by the Gecht crew between June 1981 and May 1982. 
In other words, there is nothing to suggest that the killings began before Robin 
returned from his mysterious sojourn and took up residence with a member of 
the Chicago Police Department. Indeed, the additional murders appear to have 
been a fabrication intended to draw attention away from the unusual circum- 
stances surrounding the actual time that the killings began. 

On May 29, 1982, a woman named Shui Mak disappeared; her corpse sur- 
faced shortly after that in one of Chicago’s most exclusive suburbs. The next 
month a prostitute named Angel York was attacked and her left breast was bru- 
tally slashed, which was to become a distinguishing feature of the Ripper killings. 
It would later be revealed that the severed left breasts of the victims were utilized 
by the cult in rituals that involved cannibalism and necrophilia. This preoccupa- 
tion with the left breast of victims is, perhaps significantly, shared by other serial 
killers. Included on that list are Richard Chase and the Boston Strangler, one of 
whose victims was found with eighteen stab wounds forming a ritual pattern on 
her left breast. 

The body of prostitute Sandra Delaware was found on August 28, 1982, bear- 
ing the distinctive mutilation wounds of the Ripper Crew. Delaware had been 
working for a pimp identified only as “The Minister,” but had recently left his 
stable and had subsequently received death threats from him. Just over a week 
later, Rose Davis was savagely beaten, stabbed and strangled. Robert Ressler, one 
of the founding fathers of the ‘science’ of profiling, just happened to be in the 
Chicago area when Davis’ body was found, and he was promptly put to work cre- 
ating a profile of her killer. Why this was necessary remains largely a mystery, 
since the police already had a prime suspect in the case. The suspect lived in the 
apartment building outside of which the crime took place, and he was seen by 
witnesses at the scene of the crime at the time that police estimated the girl had 
been killed. He was given a polygraph test that revealed that he had, at the very 
least, witnessed the murder. The police concluded, bizarrely enough, that the 
man had heard the assault in progress from inside his apartment, and had gone 
outside to watch. He was cleared as a suspect. 

On October 5, a prostitute named Denise Gardner was found alive but bleed- 
ing profusely from severe mutilations. Her left breast had been completely 
removed and her right breast was nearly severed. She was rushed to Illinois 
Masonic Hospital where she told investigators that she had been forced to swal- 
low some unidentified blue capsules. She also gave a detailed description of the 
van that was used to abduct her. The very next day, a drive-by shooting left one 
known drug dealer dead and one of his associates paralyzed. To investigators, it 

David McGowan • 209 

looked very much like a routine gang-related drug hit, which is no doubt exactly 
what it was. Nevertheless, it was credited to the Ripper Crew. 

Police pulled over a van two weeks later that closely matched the description 
that had been given by Gardner of the vehicle that was used to abduct her. The 
driver of the van was a young man named Eddie Spreitzer. Eddie led the officers 
to his boss, Robin Gecht, who was the owner of the van. Eddie was then taken in 
and questioned at length. Elis interrogation quickly yielded the names of Gecht 
and the Kokoraleis brothers. Andy Kokoraleis was then taken into custody, and 
Eddie and Andy were held in separate interrogation rooms for an extended period 
of time, forced to sleep on couches and endure frequent questioning. They soon 
confessed to as many as eighteen murders. 

Both of the young men displayed a palpable fear of Robin Gecht, who they 
said had an altar set up in his attic where he performed rituals. Police later found 
black and red crosses painted in that attic, but the altar had apparently been 
removed. Gecht was arrested and formally charged with aggravated battery, devi- 
ate sexual assault, armed robbery and kidnapping — all in connection with the 
assault on Gardner. Eddie and Andy were indicted for murder, rape, kidnapping, 
armed violence, and deviate sexual assault. 

On October 25, Gecht was released from custody after posting bail. Six days 
later, on Elalloween, another woman was rushed to the hospital for emergency 
treatment after having her breasts slashed. Gecht was formally charged with that 
attack on November 5, but the charges were later dropped on the request of an 
assistant state’s attorney. Eleven days later, with all of the Rippers safely in cus- 
tody, the mutilated body of another young prostitute was found under a bridge in 
exactly the same spot where Sandra Delaware’s body had been dumped. 
Authorities deemed that just a bizarre coincidence. 

Eddie Spreitzer and Andy Kokoraleis, both teenagers who appeared to be the 
least culpable of the suspects, took the majority of the fall; both ultimately 
received death sentences. Eddie initially pled guilty to four counts of murder and 
one count of attempted murder and received four life sentences plus an addi- 
tional 360 years. Ele was then indicted on additional charges and he went to trial, 
resulting in a death sentence. Andy’s first trial, in February 1985, resulted in a life 
sentence after he was found guilty of murder. Two years later, in a second trial, he 
was again found guilty. On April 30, 1987 — Walpurgisnacht — the presiding 
judge formally sentenced Andy Kokoraleis to death by execution. 

The purported leader of the cult, Robin Gecht, never faced murder charges, 
but he was charged with various lesser crimes. Elis first trial ended very quickly in 
a mistrial. At the second, he was convicted of attempted murder, rape, deviate 
sexual assault, aggravated battery and armed violence; he was given a 120-year 
sentence. Tommy Kokoraleis was initially given a life sentence for his complicity 


Programmed to Kill 

in the crimes, but that sentence was later reversed. Facing trial again, he accepted 
a plea agreement that netted him a seventy year prison sentence No one else was 
ever charged in connection with the murders, although there was certainly no 
shortage of suspects, including the Chicago police officer whose home provided 
Gecht with his base of operations. The name of another man came up repeatedly 
during the investigation, and that suspect failed a polygraph examination during 
which he was questioned directly about being present and participating in the 
killings. He was released “pending further investigation.” 

Some of the witnesses in the case implicated others as well, either directly or 
indirectly. Some said that Gecht slaughtered animals during ceremonies per- 
formed in the woods. They also spoke of his fondness for guns and of his seem- 
ingly unlimited access to drugs. Some of them also spoke of orgies that were 
attended by Gecht’s sister-in-law and her circle of friends. Many of the witnesses 
warned of a satanic “fad” sweeping through the local high school; students, they 
said, were wearing pentagrams and carving “666” and inverted crosses into their 
desks. Secret ceremonies were reportedly being held and candles and witchcraft 
were hot topics of whispered conversations. Teachers told of finding circles of 
stones and the skeletal remains of cats and dogs in the wooded area behind the 

Such stories were largely ignored by the local media, which was uncharacteris- 
tically muted in its coverage of the case. Coincidentally or otherwise, the Ripper 
case was overshadowed by a much more high-profile series of deaths that were 
attributed to Tylenol packages that had been tampered with. The Tylenol/cyanide 
case, which succeeded in ratcheting up the level of fear not just in Chicago, but 
across the country, was never solved. The lackadaisical coverage of the case was 
likely due to the fact that authorities were forced to acknowledge that the Ripper 
Crew was indeed a satanic cult that killed as a group, much like the Manson 
Family. Prosecutors in fact likened Gecht’s followers to Charlie’s, who yearned to 
please their leader and killed on his command. 

The cast of characters involved in the Sunset Strip Murders was a large and 
colorful one. Many of the key players in that cast reeked of covert military intel- 
ligence operations, including the alleged ringleader, Douglas Clark. 

Doug was born in 1948, the son of Navy Lieutenant Commander Franklyn 
Clark. The Clark family moved frequently during Doug’s early years, living for 
varying periods of time in Pennsylvania, Washington, California and Japan. 
When Doug was eleven, the family relocated to the Kwajalein Atoll in the 

David McGowan • 211 

Marshall Islands. By that time, Franklyn had allegedly retired from Naval service 
to find work in the civilian sector. The family’s new home just happened to be an 
interceptor pad for missiles fired from Vandenberg Air Force Base, but officially 
Franklyn was now a civilian employee of the Transport Company of Texas. 
Following this stint in the Pacific, the Clark family returned to the home that 
they maintained in Berkeley, California, where young Douglas whiled away his 
time playing with the children of legendary Navy Admiral Chester Nimitz. 

The family next lived for a time in India, where Doug remembered living a life 
of luxury surrounded by numerous household servants. After that, Clark enrolled 
at Ecole Internationale de Geneve, alongside the offspring of royalty, celebrities 
and diplomats. The rest of the Clark family, meanwhile, moved on first to 
Venezuela and then to Australia. Doug’s next stop was at the prestigious Culver 
Military Academy in Indiana. While there, he indulged his lifelong fascination 
with guns by joining a firearms club on campus. Fie also reportedly spent a con- 
siderable amount of time recording audiotapes and taking photographs of his sex- 
ual exploits, which he revelled in sharing with others. 

After leaving Culver, Clark moved back in with his family, who by that time 
had resettled in Yosemite. Fie next embarked on a career in the Air Force, where 
he worked, strangely enough, in radio intelligence. Like many other future serial 
killers, he was discharged early, though honorably and with full benefits. Details 
of his discharge, alas, remain rather murky; some of the records are reportedly 
missing. In the early 1970s, he married and opened his own upholstery business. 
By 1976, the marriage had ended and Doug was working for the Department of 
Water and Power’s Valley Generating Station. According to his work records, he 
once took two weeks off to recover from knife wounds of unspecified origin. 

His employment at the generating station was ultimately terminated; strangely 
enough, on the day of his termination, the plant received a telephone call from 
the LAPD warning that Clark was headed their way armed with a shotgun. That 
turned out to be a false alarm. It was never explained why the LAPD made that 
unusual call. 

Clark was known to confide to friends his ultimate dream of owning a coun- 
try home with a secret torture chamber where he could train and house sex slaves. 
He also liked to boast of being a contract assassin who had been performing 
“assigned hits” since his adolescent years. One of Clark’s closest associates, John 
Robert “Jack” Murray, also claimed to be an assassin. Murray was a lounge singer 
who fancied himself Australia’s answer to Tom Jones. He reportedly was known to 
carry a police badge and a 9mm handgun. He had served in Vietnam in a Special 
Forces unit of the Australian Army. He claimed that he had served, specifically, as 
an undercover assassin for the CIA — in other words, as a Phoenix operative. Like 

212 • Programmed to Kill 

Clark, Murray found it exceptionally easy to attract women and he generally kept 
a large stable of girlfriends, some of whom he shared with Doug. 

Jack’s wife, Jeannette, who was well aware of her husband’s frequent indiscre- 
tions, was a former Marine and the daughter of a Naval officer. Jeannette’s father 
died at the age of forty-two, reportedly by his own hand. Before his death, he was 
a frequent abuser of his daughter. One of his beatings was severe enough to leave 
Jeannette with a dislocated shoulder and a concussion. Jack Murray later took 
over as her primary abuser. 

Carol Bundy was another of the key players in this sordid tale. Carol had 
worked for a brief time as a child actress, the highlight of which was an appear- 
ance in the classic film “Miracle on 34 th Street.” Carol had also suffered through 
a horrendously abusive childhood. Her sibling recalled watching Carol sitting 
emotionless (in a dissociative state) while their mother beat her unmercifully. 
After the beatings, she would just grin at her tormentor. After their mother died 
at a young age, when Carol was just fourteen, the two girls were temporarily 
expected to take their mother’s place in their father’s bed. Their father was remar- 
ried just months later, however, and promptly shipped the girls off to foster 
homes. At about that time, Carol made her first suicide attempt; she made at least 
two more attempts in later years. 

Carol first married at age eighteen, but it apparently was a brief union. Not 
long after that, her father was found swinging from a rope; his death was ruled a 
suicide. At around that same time, Carol met a man named Dick Geis, who was 
the editor of a bizarre and obscure fan-zine and a writer of pornography. Geis was 
yet another possible player in this tale; he had inside knowledge of the murders, 
but was not necessarily complicit in them. 

Carol eventually moved into an apartment building that was managed by Jack 
Murray, and soon began an affair with Jack, and also with Doug Clark and with 
Jeannette’s Murray’s brother. Carol had two young sons living with her who suf- 
fered abuse at the hands of both Carol and Doug, and possibly Jack as well. Some 
reports held that both of Carol’s boys, and an eleven-year-old neighbor girl, were 
under Doug’s control. The neighbor girl had been molested from a very young 
age by an unidentified “family friend.” She had endured such severe abuse that 
she reportedly had her own pediatric plastic surgeon to mend the damage from 
her frequent ‘accidents.’ For Doug and Carol, she served as a model for child 
pornography photos. She also regularly rode along with Doug to assist him in 
selecting prostitutes, which was one of his favorite activities. 

The names of several of Doug and Jack’s girlfriends are woven through this 
story as well. And Doug and Jack had no shortage of girlfriends, some of whom 
they shared. Jurors at Doug’s trial were amazed at the level of control that he 
exerted over so many different women. Lydia Crouch was one of them. She had 

Da vid McGo wan • 213 

an eleven-year-old boy and a four-year-old girl who were likely molested by some 
of the adults in this story. Tammy Spangler was an off-and-on girlfriend of both 
Doug and Jack over a four-year period. She disappeared while Clark was awaiting 
trial. Bretta Jo “Joey” Lamphier was a particularly loyal girlfriend of Doug’s. Her 
phone bill revealed that incriminating calls to witnesses had been placed from her 
home. Nancy Smith was yet another of Doug’s girlfriends. She fled to Illinois the 
day after Jack’s body was found without Jack’s head attached to it. 

Jack Murray’s head was never found. The possibility exists that it was not really 
Jack’s body that turned up headless in Jack’s van. And it almost certainly was not 
Carol Bundy, working alone, that stabbed the victim repeatedly and then 
chopped off his head. And Jack Murray was certainly more than just a victim in 
this tale, but that is how he was portrayed by the state. 

The murders began in June 1980. The first victims were Cindy Chandler and 
Gina Moreno, just sixteen and fifteen years old. Their bodies were discovered 
alongside the Ventura Freeway, in a dumping grounds previously used by Buono 
and Bianchi. Both girls had .25 caliber slugs in their heads. Both had been sexu- 
ally violated and, according to accounts by law enforcement officials, pho- 
tographed with a Polaroid camera after their deaths. Not long before their 
disappearances, they had attended a party with a Beverly Hills acquaintance, 
Mindy Cohen, and had apparently been staying at the home of an unnamed 
Hollywood producer. Mindy’s boyfriend, an attorney, was the host of the party, 
which was reportedly attended by more than 100 people, many of them judges 
and lawyers — and many of them nubile young women. After leaving the party, 
the two girls were taken by Mindy to the home of Rod Stewart and Britt Ekland. 
It is unclear how long after this eventful evening they remained alive. 

Not long after their disappearances, a woman named Laurie Brigges received a 
troubling phone call from a man who seemed to be attempting to get a physical 
description of her brother-in-law, Henry Brigges. Henry’s business card was 
found on the body of one of the two dead girls. Days later, Mindy Cohen 
received an equally troubling phone call from a man claiming to be an LAPD 
detective; the police later said that the man had no connection to the department. 
Two days later, Cohen received a second call from the same man, this time claim- 
ing that he had seen her at the party. 

On the same day that Mindy received the first phone call, Exxie Wilson and 
Karen Jones were shot in the head with a .25 caliber automatic. Both of their 
bodies were found the next day, but it was several more days before Wilson’s sev- 
ered head was discovered — packed inside a treasure chest manufactured in Juarez, 
Mexico. Wilson and Jones had both arrived in L.A. just a week before, brought 
there from Little Rock, Arkansas by their pimp, Derek Albright. Albright had 
previously served time for murder. Tests conducted on the semen found in 

214 • Programmed to Kill 

Wilson’s throat revealed that it came from a type A secretor; Doug Clark had type 
O blood. One of the last places that Wilson was seen, on the day that she disap- 
peared, was the Carney’s Restaurant on the Sunset Strip from where one of the 
Strangler victims had been abducted. 

Another alleged victim was a seventeen-year-old runaway named Marnett 
Comer, who had been working the streets since the age of thirteen; she had 
worked the streets of Sacramento during the time of the Richard Chase killings. 
She had recently confided to her sister her intention to leave her pimp, and detec- 
tives initially suspected that a nationwide organization of pimps was responsible 
for her death. Another attack attributed to Clark was the brutal stabbing of a 
prostitute named Charlene Andermann. She was stabbed twenty-six times but 
managed to survive the attack. Andermann originally identified another man as 
her assailant, in both a photo line-up and a live line-up. She also described the 
man as having a mustache and identified the car he was driving as a wood-pan- 
eled station wagon. Clark had neither a mustache nor access to a station wagon. 
Andermann seriously undermined her own credibility when she waffled over 
where the attack took place; first she placed it inside a motel room, and then later 
changed her mind and claimed that it had occurred in the vehicle. 

The killings ended after Carol Bundy allegedly placed an anonymous call to the 
police. Doug Clark was arrested and reportedly talked to detectives for over three 
hours without the benefit of having an attorney present. Cindy Chandler’s home 
phone number was found in his wallet — a rather unusual find given that Chandler 
was allegedly a randomly chosen victim. Two guns were confiscated, but neighbor 
Teresa told investigators that that was just the tip of the iceberg; she had once seen 
an Army bag stuffed full of guns. Doug was charged with multiple counts of mur- 
der, three counts of child molestation, one count of attempted murder for the 
Andermann attack, and one count of being an accessory after the fact in the killing 
of Jack Murray. While in jail awaiting trial, Clark had no fewer than four fiancees, 
one of whom was the so-called ‘Copycat Strangler,’ Veronica Compton. 

The case against Clark was prosecuted by Robert Jorgensen, whose life had 
followed a rather interesting path. Jorgensen had at one time been an executive 
with General Electric. In the mid-1960s, he decided to resign to attend law 
school at UC Berkeley. The former defense industry executive was suddenly 
reborn as a campus radical. He graduated in 1967, at the onset of the ‘Summer of 
Love.’ Campus activism was at an all-time high, and covert operatives were lurk- 
ing everywhere. Following his graduation, Jorgensen drifted south to Los Angeles 
and promptly began working for the District Attorney’s Office. That was, need- 
less to say, a rather odd career choice for an idealistic young radical. Once on the 
job, he became known as a hard-line right-winger who tended to associate only 
with young, attractive women. 

David McGowan • 215 

Carol’s appointed attorney was a former homicide detective. As Doug’s coun- 
sel, the court appointed Maxwell Keith, who had previously represented Manson 
disciple Leslie Van Houten. Doug was not entirely pleased with the appointment 
and he repeatedly petitioned the court for permission to represent himself. His 
requests were denied, but he was allowed to essentially serve as co-counsel to 
Keith, who delivered one of the most pathetic closing arguments in legal history. 
His excuse, amazingly enough, was that he had left all his notes at home because 
he did not expect to have to argue that day. Clark seems to have fared somewhat 
better; veteran court watchers were said to be impressed with his performance. 

Clark’s efforts were hampered in a number of ways: he was repeatedly denied 
contact with his own attorney; on at least one occasion, his cell was searched and 
his notes were seized; and on another occasion, he was brought into the court- 
room manacled and gagged. And Clark likely didn’t aid his cause much by hurl- 
ing at the judge, in open court, such epithets as “sleazy cocksucker,” “gutless 
worm,” “Tijuana taxi driver,” “goddamned asshole,” “stinking faggot,” and 
“spineless bastard.” 

Perhaps the most damage was done to Doug’s case by Carol Bundy, who was 
called to the stand as a defense witness. Though Doug did not know it, Bundy was 
offered, and she accepted, an immunity deal immediately before she took the 
stand. The story she told was the one the state wanted to hear. It was a story 
loaded with discrepancies. 

Carol had already provided two different accounts of the crimes, the first in 
her anonymous phone call and the second in her sworn confession. The two 
accounts were markedly different. The one she recounted in court was not con- 
sistent with either of them. When the defense attempted to enter into evidence 
an audiotape of the initial phone call to illustrate that point, the judge disallowed 
the entry of the evidence. He claimed, quite remarkably, that allowing the tape to 
air would be too damaging to the defense’s case. Carol also could not be challenged 
on her ever-changing story of the murder of Jack Murray, since the charges 
against Clark in that case had been quietly dropped after a private conference in 
the judge’s chambers from which Doug was excluded. 

At one point during the trial, prosecutor Jorgensen obtained privileged com- 
munications, which normally would result in a mistrial. Jorgensen assured the 
court that he had not read the communications, and he was taken at his word. 

Despite Maxwell Keith’s botched closing argument, and the clear bias shown 
by the court throughout the trial, the first jury vote revealed that two of the jurors 
were holding out for acquittal. After further votes, Doug was found guilty on all 
counts, including the charges in the Andermann case. Called to testify during the 
penalty phase of the trial — purportedly for the defense, although Doug and his 
entire family refused to cooperate with him — was none other than Dr. Donald 

216 • Programmed to Kill 

Lunde. Dr. Lunde, as was his custom, assisted in the prosecution’s efforts to 
impose a death sentence on Clark. Somewhat more helpful on the stand was 
Doug’s brother, Walter, who had reportedly been cautioned by his mother not to 
reveal any family secrets in court. 

Three of the jurors initially voted for a sentence of life without the possibility 
of parole. All were soon swayed to condemn Clark to death. Six times. 
Considering that two of the jurors were not even convinced of Doug’s guilt when 
deliberations first began, that was a rather remarkable turn of events. 

Carol Bundy never had her day in court. On the day her trial was scheduled to 
begin, she suddenly withdrew her ‘not guilty by reason of insanity’ plea and 
entered guilty pleas to two counts of murder. She was given two 25-years-to-life 
terms. Two days later, her ex-husband was found dead, purportedly from a self- 
administered overdose. 

Doug appealed the court’s decision and found himself squaring off against 
Buono prosecutor Michael Nash. Dr. Dorothy Lewis was retained as a consult- 
ant. When she came to visit Doug and asked him about childhood abuse in the 
Clark house, about those family secrets, he told her to “Get the fuck out the 
door.” Doug proved no match for Nash; the initial verdict withstood the appeal. 

Dr. Lunde, meanwhile, surfaced on yet another case not long after he wrapped 
up his work on the Hillside Strangler and Sunset Strip cases. In 1985, he was 
called as an expert witness for the defense in a rather notorious case known as the 
girl in the box.’ The case involved a girl, Colleen Stan, who was kidnapped in 
Northern California and held as a sex slave for seven years by a man named 
Cameron Hooker. During that time, Stan was frequently tortured and forced to 
live for months at a time in a box roughly the size of a coffin. At other times, she 
was forced to wear what was called a ‘head box,’ which was a crudely made, but 
very effective, sensory deprivation device. 

When the case came to court, there was no question that the woman had been 
held in abhorrent conditions. Hooker had gone to the trouble of documenting 
his depravities on film, so there was no shortage of evidence. His home yielded 
the notorious box, along with an array of restraints and torture devices, and some 
literature suggesting that a ring existed that traded in sex slaves. 

It was not the open-and-shut case that it first appeared to be, however. 
Hooker’s defense counsel argued that the living arrangements had been bizarre, 
but consensual. Evidence was presented that seemed, on the surface, to support 
that argument. Love letters written from victim to captor were entered into evi- 
dence. Most damaging of all, testimony revealed that Colleen had been allowed 
to visit with her family, unattended, four years into her captivity. Quite unex- 
pectedly, she had first called, and then visited, her parents and siblings at the fam- 
ily home. She did not bother to explain her disappearance and four-year absence, 

Da vid McGo wan • 217 

and apparently her family did not press her on the matter. She visited for a day or 
two and then her abductor/captor returned to pick her up. The Stan family 
apparently made little or no attempt to stop her from leaving. She was returned 
to the box for another three years. 

There is no question that she had the opportunity to physically escape from 
her tormentor. In fact, in the latter years of her captivity, she was allowed to work 
outside of her captor’s home, and she never attempted to escape. Even when she 
did eventually break free of her psychic bonds, she did not bother to report her 
ordeal to the police or to her family. She did not bother to report her ordeal to 
anyone. But she did make numerous phone calls to her former captor. 

To explain all of that, prosecutors brought in a psychiatric witness who argued 
that the woman’s period of imprisonment was not consensual, despite outward 
appearances, because Stan had been deprived of her ability to act of her own free 
will. She was, the expert explained to the jury, mind controlled. To counter that 
argument, the defense brought in its own witness: Donald Lunde. Lunde argued 
that there was no such thing as mind control, and that the woman’s actions 
demonstrated that she remained with her captor voluntarily. Lunde did not fare 
well on cross-examination. 

Surprisingly, the jury rejected Lunde’s testimony and the rest of the defense 
case and convicted Cameron Hooker. That verdict signaled that all twelve jurors 
concluded that Colleen Stan was not in fact exercising her free will by choosing to 
remain as a captive sex slave. All twelve jurors, in other words, were convinced by 
the evidence presented in the courtroom that the victim was mind controlled. 

One final note on the case of ‘the girl in the box’: the jury returned the guilty 
verdict against Hooker on, of all days, Halloween. 

In probably no other serial killer case on record, with the possible exception of 
the Boston Strangler case, has the wholesale corruption of the criminal justice sys- 
tem been more clearly on display than in the case of Bobby Joe Long. 

Bobby Joe was born on October 14, 1953 to parents Joe Long and Louella 
Lucas. Both the Long and the Lucas families had a long history of alcoholism and 
mental illness — and apparently of spawning serial killers as well. Louella Lucas 
could not remember much of her own troubled childhood. Her father had died 
when she was three, and she did not remember her mother at all. Louella and Joe 
first separated when Bobby was just eight months old, thus beginning a long 
series of break-ups and reconciliations that included the pair remarrying on two 



Programmed to Kill 

When he was two-and-a-half years old, Bobby’s mother took him to live in 
Florida. Louella worked the bars there, as a prostitute according to Bobby, and 
she lived with her son in a series of seedy apartments and boardinghouses. Several 
other members of the Lucas clan moved to south Florida as well, including 
Louella’s mother, two sisters, a half sister, and seven of Bobby’s cousins. It is 
unclear whether one of those cousins was Henry Lee Lucas. The Lucas clan lived 
together in cramped quarters as a not-quite happy family, which is generally given 
as the reason why Bobby shared his mother’s bed until he reached the age of thir- 
teen. Long would later reveal that he had powerful childhood memories of being 
locked in a closet by his cousins and screaming in vain to be let out. 

As a young man, Bobby received his requisite ‘blooding’ by working as an 
attendant in a funeral home. He also worked at a variety of medical facilities, 
most frequently as an X-ray technician. In the late 1960s/early 1970s, Long 
began experimenting with LSD and reportedly became a heavy user of the drug. 

Bobby was first arrested in December 1970 on theft charges, but the charges 
were later dropped. He was again arrested just two months later, on unrelated 
charges, and was given probation without being formally convicted. He was next 
accused of rape, though it is unclear if he was ever formally charged with the 

On September 19, 1972, Long was sworn into the Army and sent to Fort 
Benning, home of the ‘School of the Americas’ — otherwise known as the ‘School 
of the Assassins,’ a notorious training facility for Central and South American 
death squads. Bobby reportedly spent a considerable amount of time in an Army 
hospital, ostensibly recovering from a motorcycle accident. He later said that this 
accident and its aftermath changed him completely. He was ultimately, inevitably 
perhaps, released early from military service. His family claimed that he was given 
a medical discharge, but the records are sketchy. He was though given a 40% dis- 
ability rating and was entitled to full military benefits. 

Beginning around 1975, at the same time that his cousin was beginning his 
career as a serial killer, Bobby allegedly embarked on a career as a serial rapist. An 
indeterminate number of women in three different Florida counties were 
accosted by a man with a knife, bound, and then violently raped; their homes 
were then looted by the attacker dubbed the “Classified Ad Rapist” and the “Ad 
Man Rapist.” No physical evidence linked Bobby to any of these attacks and 
only one of the numerous witnesses later claimed to be able to identify him. 
These rapes continued long after the string of killings that Long was also held 
accountable for began in yet another county. Strangely though, none of the rape 
victims were ever killed. Despite what the serial killer profilers tell us, Bobby was 
supposedly able to simultaneously function as a serial rapist in three counties 
and as a serial killer in a fourth. 

Da vid McGo wan • 219 

On August 21, 1981, Long was accused by his girlfriend of rape and battery, 
though the charge was later reduced to simple battery. Bobby opted to represent 
himself and to waive his right to a jury trial, choosing instead to place his fate in 
the hands of the judge. He was found guilty and sentenced to a thirty-day jail 
term and six months probation. But then, in a most remarkable turn of events, 
Long wrote an informal letter to the sentencing judge requesting a new trial, and 
the judge inexplicably accepted the letter as a valid legal motion for a new trial 
and released Bobby to await his new hearing. Before the year was out, Long had 
been charged with sending obscene photos and letters and making obscene tele- 
phone calls to the twelve-year-old daughter of a Tampa physician. He entered a 
plea of “no contest” to the charges and was fined $65.50 and put on probation for 
six months. 

While continuing to await his new trial on the battery charges, Bobby Joe 
embarked on an extended cross-country trek. He traveled first to West Virginia, 
and then on to Southern California, where he stayed for at least six months. At 
around that same time, cousin Henry was living in Hemet, California. While in 
California, Long purportedly signed up for a $9,000 commercial diving class. 
How the chronically broke and under-employed Long was able to finance the 
diving lessons, as well as the trip itself, has never been explained — nor has his 
sudden interest in diving, which was apparently of no interest to him before or 
after his trip to California. Those with whom Long socialized during his time in 
California later recalled that he frequently went out by himself and refused to talk 
about where he had been. These witnesses also described Bobby as being prone to 
headaches, wild mood swings, and the use of racist terms. 

After leaving California, Long slowly made his way back to Florida, again trav- 
elling by way of West Virginia. He was arrested there and given a hearing before a 
judge who just happened to be, conveniently enough for Bobby, a friend of the 
Long family. He was acquitted of the more serious charge of assault, but con- 
victed of destroying private property. He paid $68 in court costs and fines and 
continued on his way. In early 1984, Long stood trial once again for the battery 
of his former girlfriend. This time he was acquitted, despite the fact that damag- 
ing testimony was offered by several credible witnesses, including one who had 
witnessed the beating that Bobby had administered to the girl. 

Just after that trial concluded, the killings began. First to disappear was Ann 
Wick, on March 28, 1984. She had just recently arrived in the Tampa area. Five 
months earlier, in October 1983, one of her boyfriends and his brother had beaten 
their father to death; Wick had been complicit in the crime. She had quickly left 
town after that without telling anyone where she was going. Once in Florida, she 
moved in with a police officer, where she remained until her disappearance. When 
this officer was interviewed by police investigators, he was reportedly almost com- 


Programmed to Kill 

pletely incoherent. Bobby Long later agreed to unofficially take the rap for the 
killing of Wick, provided that he was not officially charged. The officer and vari- 
ous others were thereby absolved of any involvement in the crime. 

Just over a week later, Long was arrested after attempting to abduct a woman 
at gunpoint. The woman had thwarted the abduction by intentionally crashing 
her classic Jaguar. Three months later, Bobby was sentenced to six month’s proba- 
tion and ordered to pay $1,500 in restitution — needless to say, a preposterously 
light sentence. Meanwhile, the body count continued to mount. 

On May 13, the body of Lana Long was discovered — raped, strangled and 
posed for maximum shock value. This was the first body to be discovered (Wick’s 
body did not surface for several more months). Judging by the police response, 
you would have thought it was the first body ever to be discovered in Tampa, 
Florida. Half the police force quickly descended on the crime scene, including 
much of the department’s top brass, who normally were not known to congregate 
at crime scenes. For no readily apparent reason, a decision was made at the scene 
to send all evidence directly to FBI headquarters in Quantico, Virginia by means 
of a special courier system. 

From that point on, the FBI played a central role in building a purported fiber 
evidence case that became the key component of the state’s case against Long. As 
previously stated, fiber evidence is by far the easiest type of forensics evidence to 
plant; that fact would become glaringly obvious as the Bobby Joe Long story 
unfolded. Tellingly, the fiber evidence purportedly being assembled was kept 
secret and was never mentioned by police or the media throughout the course of 
the investigation. That is most likely due to the fact that the fiber case did not in 
fact exist prior to the arrest of Bobby Joe Long as a suspect. 

Lana Long, who was of Asian descent and not related to Bobby Joe, had 
recently come to Tampa from Los Angeles in the company of her boyfriend. Both 
Lana and her boyfriend had been associated with the owners of several L.A. 
nightclubs, including Eddie Nash, at whose former club Lana had danced. 29 An 
associate of Lana’s had also recently left Los Angeles for Tampa, purportedly to 
pursue a film role, although you would normally expect that someone pursuing a 
career in film would header L.A. Of course, this may not have been a typical 
film role; there was much talk among Tampa’s exotic dancers at the time of 

29 Eddie Nash, aka Adel Gharib Nasrallah, had achieved a considerable amount of noto- 
riety just a few years earlier when he was named as the prime suspect in a mass mur- 
der committed in Laurel Canyon that became known alternatively as the 
‘Wonderland Murders’ or the ‘Four on the Floor’ murders. On July 1, 1981, four peo- 
ple were brutally bludgeoned to death in a home that was described in some reports as 
a “drug den,” and which porn star John “Johnny Wadd” Holmes once described as “an 

David McGowan • 221 

unidentified men recruiting women for nude modeling jobs and then using them 
in the production of snuff films. In the last hours of her life, Long was reportedly 
desperately trying to raise money to get out of town. Needless to say, she did not 
make it. After she vanished, her boyfriend did not bother to report her disappear- 
ance until he was forced to do so by friends, who threatened to report the disap- 
pearance themselves if he did not. 

Next to be discovered was Michele Denise Simms, found two weeks after Lana 
Long’s remains were discovered. Michele had also just made the journey from 
Southern California to Tampa, and she had spoken to friends of doing some 
modeling work. Like Lana, she was known to be a heavy drug user. She was also 
the product of a seriously dysfunctional family. Michele’s mother had died very 
young, and her father had later been imprisoned for holding Michele and her 
babysitter at gunpoint. 

Elizabeth Loudenback was next to go missing, on June 8, 1984. She was found 
just over two weeks later. Loudenback had apparently been in fear for her life and 
had, just two days before her disappearance, left a note affixing blame should 
anything happen to her. Her efforts were in vain. Her note included the name of 

armed camp.” The crime scene, just down the street from the home of then-Governor 
Jerry Brown, was reportedly one of the bloodiest in the city’s history. Nash was 
accused of ordering the hits and Holmes, an LAPD vice squad informant, was 
indicted for helping to carry out the killings. Holmes had reportedly come home the 
night of the murders drenched in blood, and he had left a bloody palm print on a 
headboard above one of the bodies and a fingerprint on a coffee table. Following the 
murders, the LAPD put Holmes up in a luxury suite at the Bonaventure Hotel, and 
then moved him to the equally luxurious Biltmore Hotel. District Attorney John 
Van de Kamp offered him immunity for talking, which Holmes did, except that his 
statements exonerated the prime suspect, Eddie Nash. Nevertheless, Holmes was 
released. Then on December 4, 1981, he was arrested and charged with four counts 
of murder and one count of attempted murder. Following his arrest, Holmes was 
housed in a “High Power” cell, where he was allowed no physical contact with any- 
one. Also in “High Power” at that time were the Hillside Stranglers, Angelo Buono 
and Kenneth Bianchi. Holmes’ trial began in May 1982, and he was acquitted the fol- 
lowing month. Eddie Nash did not stand trial until 1990. That same year, Liberace’s 
gay lover, Scott Thorson, who had been peripherally involved in the Wonderland 
murders, was shot five times. John Holmes had conveniently died two years earlier, 
allegedly of AIDS. Nash’s first trial ended in a hung jury after a single juror held out 
on reaching a guilty verdict. A second jury acquitted him. On September 10, 2001 
(the day before “everything changed”), Nash stood in a Los Angeles courtroom and 

222 • Programmed to Kill 

a man who claimed that he was an informant for both the police and the DEA. 
Also provided was a description of his vehicle. On other occasions, Elizabeth had 
reportedly expressed fear of another man as well. Both of these men failed poly- 
graph examinations. Nevertheless, both were cleared as suspects and Bobby Joe 
was ultimately blamed for Elizabeth’s death. 

Following Loudenback’s disappearance, there was a three-month lull in the 
killings, which ended on September 7 with the disappearance of Vicky Elliot. 
Eler body would lie exposed to the elements for over two months before being 
discovered. By that time, her head was reduced to little more than a skull with 
some strands of hair still attached. Nevertheless, police made the remarkable 
claim that fibers from Bobby Joe’s car, defying all odds, still clung to those strands 
of hair. The FBI’s own experts, it should be noted, acknowledge that fiber evi- 
dence is extremely fragile and will be lost or destroyed very quickly with exposure 
to the elements, particularly the effects of wind and rain. As an FBI bulletin once 
put it: “fibers which have been transferred are very transient in nature.” 

By October, the killings were coming in rapid succession and a task force had 
been officially assembled. Joining that task force were the County Sheriff’s 
Office, the Florida Department of Law Enforcement, the Tampa Police 
Department, and the FBI’s BSU. The profiler assigned to the case, Stan Jacobson, 
had been a member of the team that engineered the illegal incursion into Panama 
to capture Manuel Noriega. 

admitted paying that holdout juror a $50,000 bribe. According to the LA Times, Nash 
also “rose to his feet during what was supposed to be a routine court appearance and 
acknowledged that he had conspired to commit murder and that he had engaged in a 
long-running racketeering and drug-dealing enterprise.” Amazingly, Nash was offered 
a plea agreement that netted him a mere thirty-seven month sentence. He ultimately 
served only about one year — as punishment for two decades of rampant criminal 
activity, including ordering an exceedingly brutal quadruple murder. One of the first 
investigators on the scene had been a man who allegedly continued to pursue the case 
for twenty years, and who visited with John Holmes just three days before his death: 
LAPD Detective Tom Lange. Lange, best known for his self-righteous indignation 
during the OJ Simpson trial, which afforded him his fifteen minutes of fame, had this 
to say about the final administration of justice in the Nash case: “I believe it’s a right- 
eous plea. How much more do they want to be perceived as beating up on an old 
man?” Considering that that old man admitted in open court his complicity in a mass 
murder, I would think quite a bit more. One final interesting note on the 
Wonderland case: Mark Lindsay, of the band Paul Revere and the Raiders, reportedly 
had lived at different times at both the Cielo Drive house where Sharon Tate was 
slaughtered and at the Wonderland house. 

David McGowan • 223 

Chanel Devon Williams, the next victim, was unlike the others in two signifi- 
cant ways: she was killed by a single gunshot wound to the neck, rather than 
being bound and strangled, and she was the only black victim. Friends said that 
she had been forced into prostitution and was planning to leave town to escape 
from her pimp. Her body was found on October 7. Kimberly Kyle Hopps’ mum- 
mified and headless corpse was found on Halloween day alongside a road that 
had been bulldozed just the day before. The circumstances of the discovery sug- 
gested that her remains had just been dumped there, though she had been miss- 
ing since October 4, and had obviously been dead for quite some time. Just 
before she disappeared, she had had a fight with her pimp/boyfriend Donald 
Jones, who waited three days before bothering to report her disappearance. 

Karen Dinsfriend was abducted, raped and strangled on October 13, and 
found just twelve hours later. Like most of the victims, she was a prostitute and a 
drug addict. Unlike the others, however, she was from a very wealthy family. 
Karen had been arrested on four separate occasions for forging prescriptions for 
the drug Dilaudid, known on the street as ‘hospital heroin.’ Virginia Lee Johnson 
vanished on October 14, just one day after Dinsfriend. Virginia was, not surpris- 
ingly, a prostitute with alcohol, cocaine and heroin addictions. Just eighteen years 
old, she had already compiled a lengthy rap sheet. Her sister, one year her junior, 
had been murdered the year before. Both of the girls had reportedly been alco- 
holics since the ages of nine and ten. Both had been physically and sexually 
abused by their stepfather. Despite the fact that Johnson’s corpse remained undis- 
covered for nearly a month, during which time scavenging animals scattered her 
nearly skeletal remains over a large area, some of those tenacious carpet fibers 
from Long’s car allegedly clung to her scalp. 

Kim Marie Swann’s nude and badly beaten body was discovered on November 
12. The large-framed girl had been lifted over a guardrail and rolled down a hill. 
She was a prostitute who had been working for a man known as “Fat George.” 
Kim likely began her career in prostitution at an early age; she reportedly began 
hanging out in bars at the age of thirteen. She had recently reported two distur- 
bances at her apartment, both involving men trying to break down her front 
door. Like some of the other victims, her absence was not reported for several 
days. Her clothes, found near her body, allegedly contained yet more of those 
notorious carpet fibers. 

Lisa McVey was the next to vanish, but, unlike the others, Lisa reappeared 
just twenty-six hours later. Lisa had a very interesting history, to put it mildly. 
Only seventeen years old, she had dropped out of school and was living with a 
man who posed as her father. That man, Marce Rhodes, a wheelchair-bound 
double amputee, held her hostage in his home as his captive sex slave. McVey’s 

224 • Programmed to Kill 

grandmother, a former girlfriend of Rhodes, was aware of, and apparently 
approved of, her granddaughter’s living arrangements. 

Lisa was snatched off the streets of Tampa after leaving work at about 2:30 
AM. Her grandmother placed a telephone call to Marce just a half-hour later. She 
later claimed that she had just called to see how he was doing — at 3:00 in the 
morning. Throughout the time that Lisa was held captive, she was raped repeat- 
edly, though this was little different, it should be noted, from the life that she led 
with Rhodes. And even before she moved in with Rhodes, she had established a 
long history of being victimized. Incredibly enough, relative to her past experi- 
ences with men, her abductor and rapist, Bobby Joe Long, did not seem so bad. 
Not only did he free her after just one day, but he kept a spotlessly clean house 
and he went out of his way to make sure that she was as comfortable as possible 
under the circumstances, or so she later told the police. She also provided a 
description of her abductor that seemed to be deliberately tailored to throw the 
police off course, if Bobby was indeed the guilty party; she described him as being 
57” tall and weighing 150 pounds, when in fact Long was 6’ tall and weighed 
180 pounds. 

Lisa’s surrogate father, Marce Rhodes, was later arrested for sexual battery. 
Long was also arrested. At the time of his arrest, the very first thing that one of 
the detectives on the scene did was to cut a swatch of carpet from the floor of 
Long’s car, purportedly to compare with the fiber evidence that had been secretly 
compiled by the FBI. It is questionable though whether that fiber evidence even 
existed prior to the time that that swatch was cut. 

The initial interrogation of Long lasted for five-and-a-half hours, even though 
Bobby Joe requested early on that he be provided the services of an attorney. That 
interrogation allegedly yielded a confession. The media wasted no time in trying 
the suspect in the court of public opinion. By the time of his first public appear- 
ance, at his presentment hearing, he had already been convicted in that most 
important of forums. 

Bobby was presented to the public as though he posed a clear and present dan- 
ger, even while in custody; he was brought out with his ankles manacled and his 
handcuffed wrists shackled to a body belt. He was formally charged with nine 
counts of kidnapping, eight counts of sexual battery, and eight counts of first- 
degree murder. A grand jury was convened within twenty-four hours, and mur- 
der and rape indictments were returned on November 28. Long was moved from 
his isolation cell to a special holding cell in the infirmary where he was prevented 
from having contact with other inmates or with prison personnel. 

Interestingly, it was reported in the local press that a group who claimed to be 
investigators from Tampa had been tailing Long for several months before his 
arrest, from long before he was ever considered a suspect. Members of this group 

David McGowan • 225 

apparently questioned witnesses in the case before police arrived to do so. 
Though locally reported, the matter was never investigated. Who these men were 
remains a mystery. 

On April 15, 1985, the first of Bobby Joe Long’s many trials began. He was 
first tried not for the murders, but for the series of rapes in one of the adjoining 
counties. Within two days, the trial was over and Bobby Joe had been convicted 
of armed robbery, armed burglary, kidnapping, and sexual battery. He was sen- 
tenced to 693 years in prison, a sentence far in excess of the state of Florida’s sen- 
tencing guidelines. Just days later, on April 22, jury selection began in Dade 
County for Long’s first murder trial, for the killing of Virginia Johnson. As would 
become a pattern throughout his trials, the defense readily conceded Bobby’s 
guilt, but maintained that he was unable to control his actions. Presentation of 
evidence began on April 25; that presentation consisted almost entirely of the 
fiber evidence that was purportedly recovered from the hair of a skeleton. No 
defense case of any kind was presented; not a single witness was called to rebut 
the flimsy case presented by the state. 

As would also become a pattern throughout his trials, Bobby’s parents and ex- 
wife were barred from the proceedings with the dubious claim that they were 
potential witnesses. The detectives that had worked on the case were, needless to 
say, potential witnesses as well, but they were not prevented from sitting in on the 
trial. Long is not the only serial killer to have had his family and friends barred 
from the courtroom. That is a tactic that is used frequently to bias juries by lead- 
ing them to believe that the defendant is such a loathsome creature that his own 
family does not care enough to attend the trial. 

By April 26, the jury was deliberating over Long’s fate. They returned in just 
forty-four minutes with a guilty verdict. By the next day the penalty phase of the 
trial was over and the jury once again retired to deliberate. They were back in just 
thirty-five minutes with a recommendation that Long be executed. On May 3, 
the judge formally sentenced Bobby to death by electrocution. Long was back in 
court again the next month to face rape charges in another county. He saved the 
court the trouble of staging another trial and pled guilty, thereby earning six life 
sentences, again far in excess of state guidelines. 

By that time Long had received one death sentence, six life sentences, and an 
additional 693 year sentence; he had spent perhaps ten days in court for the three 
trials combined. The state was just getting warmed up. 

On September 24, defense and prosecuting attorneys met to discuss the 
remaining eight murder counts, and various other outstanding charges. Long 
inexplicably agreed to enter guilty pleas to all the outstanding murder, kidnap- 
ping and sexual assault charges. He was sentenced to twenty-six life sentences, 
with the provision that the district attorney could still seek an additional death 

226 • Programmed to Kill 

sentence if he should choose to. Bobby gained absolutely nothing from this plea 
agreement. Even if it had guaranteed him that he would not receive another 
death sentence, it was far from an attractive offer. It is difficult to believe that 
Long would have taken the deal if he was acting of his own free will. 

Not surprisingly, Long was brought to trial once again, as the state attempted 
to pile on one more death sentence. Guilt was not an issue at the trial, since the 
defendant had already entered a guilty plea to the charge. The jury was only to 
consider the appropriate sentence. Putting on a rather unorthodox defense, 
Long’s attorney focused on the fact that Bobby was a confessed serial killer, going 
so far as to credit Long with one more murder than had previously been publicly 
credited to him. This ‘defense’ was supposedly intended to demonstrate that 
Long was insane and unable to control his actions. After little more than an 
hour’s deliberations, Bobby Joe received another death sentence. 

In November 1987, the Llorida Supreme Court ordered a new trial in the 
Johnson case, based on the fact that the ‘confession’ introduced at Long’s previous 
trial had resulted from an illegal interrogation. The confession was tossed out and 
disallowed for all future trials. In June 1988, the high court tossed aside Long’s 
second death sentence as well. 

Not to be deterred, prosecutors ordered a new trial for Johnson’s murder. This 
time around, they used what they claimed was another confession: a two-minute, 
heavily edited clip from a ninety-minute television interview that Long had 
given. The defense presented a few psychiatric witnesses and then rested without 
challenging any of the elements of the state’s case. The jury deliberated just sixty- 
two minutes before finding Long guilty once again. Thirty more minutes of 
deliberations resulted in a nine to three vote in favor of a death sentence, which 
the judge obligingly affirmed. 

In June 1989, a new sentencing hearing for the Simms case was convened. 
Three days after it began, the jury returned yet again with a recommendation for 
death, which the judge not only affirmed but also decided to supplement with 
two additional life sentences. Bobby had by then accumulated two death sen- 
tences, 34 life sentences, and an additional 693 years. His saga was not quite over 

In October 1992, the Llorida State Supreme Court once again overturned the 
decision in the Johnson case. All three key elements of the state’s case — the edited 
videotape, the testimony of Lisa McVey, and the evidence of other murders — 
were deemed to have been inadmissible as evidence. The higher court’s decision 
specifically noted the fact that only four hours of testimony had been presented 
on the Johnson murder, while three entire days had been spent admitting preju- 
dicial evidence of other murders that Long was not being tried for. On January 
31,1 994, a jury was seated to once again hear the case against Bobby Long in the 

David McGowan • 227 

matter of the death of Virginia Johnson. By the end of the week, he had been 
found guilty and sentenced to death. 

With the exception of the highly questionable fiber evidence, no physical evi- 
dence ever linked Bobby Joe to any of the murders. No witnesses could tie Long 
to any of the dead girls or to any of the crime scenes. There were quite obvious 
signs that Bobby had been set up, including the dubious fiber case, the unex- 
plained and unidentified surveillance team, and the indications that the bizarre 
abduction of Lisa McVey was facilitated by others, in order to provide the state 
with an ‘eyewitness.’ 

There also were signs that Bobby Joe was involved in any number of heinous 
crimes. He had a collection of photographs of rapes in progress, and authorities 
believed that additional photos, perhaps even more violent and disturbing, were 
in the hands of others. At a deposition hearing, a lead investigator on the case 
told the court: “It’s believed that Mr. Long photographed his victims as he killed 
them and he has those photographs.” Though such images were never produced, 
Bobby’s former wife told police of finding a collection of photos of nude women, 
some of whom she described as having a very blank look in their eyes. 

As in so many other cases discussed thus far, there were also signs that Long 
did not act alone if he was in fact involved in the killings. Semen evidence, for 
instance, was recovered from at least two of the victims, and yet there is no indi- 
cation that that semen was ever matched to Bobby Joe. As in other cases, evidence 
that conflicted with the official story was consistently ignored by both the prose- 
cution and the defense, and by most media outlets as well. In a letter that Bobby 
wrote during his incarceration, he referred to others who may have been involved: 
“I talked, but never mentioned my kinky friends. They’re all gone, her back to 
California, him back to Miami.” 

Standing by Long’s side throughout a portion of his legal odyssey, allegedly 
serving as his advocate, was ‘defense’ counsel Ellis Rubin — the very same Florida 
attorney who represented the Collier brothers and received honorable mention in 
their dubious conspiracy tome Votescam. 

Perhaps nowhere have the trappings of Satanism in a string of serial killings 
been more readily apparent than in the case of Richard “The Night Stalker” 
Ramirez. Indeed, Ramirez’s embrace of Satanism was so obvious that the main- 
stream media was unable to deny it. Instead, Ramirez was labeled as a “self- 
styled” satanist, as though he had come up with the ideas that he espoused 
entirely on his own. Nothing could be further from the truth. 


Programmed to Kill 

Richard was bom in I960 to Julian and Mercedes Ramirez. Julian endured 
repeated beatings by both his father and his grandfather before growing up to 
become a policeman in — of ail places — Juarez, Mexico. He eventually left the 
Juarez force and relocated the family to El Paso, Texas, but he continued to visit 
several times a week with his police friends in Juarez. 

Julian reportedly had an explosive temper that sometimes manifested itself in 
acts of self-mutilation that his children bore witness to. He once repeatedly 
bashed his head against a wall until blood ran down his face. On another occa- 
sion, he took a hammer to his own head. There were also hints that he may have 
been sexually abusive towards his wife and children. And there were other adults 
in the Ramirez children’s world who most certainly were abusive. 

In El Paso, Julian’s two older sons were enrolled in a special class at the local 
junior high school for kids who were ‘slow learners.’ The teacher of that special 
class, Frank McMan, was later identified as a molester of dozens of kids. Shortly 
after the Ramirez kids were enrolled in his class, McMan began visiting them at 
home, and taking them away for visits to his own home. Julian and Mercedes 
appear to not have had a problem with the teacher’s peculiar interest in their chil- 
dren. Another pedophile, with whom Richard was known to have had occasional 
contact, lived just a block away from the Ramirez family. 

It is said that the Ramirez family was very private and that they tended to keep 
to themselves for the most part. Richard was known to spend a considerable 
amount of his time alone; he could amuse himself for hours acting out various 
roles in the fantasy world that he frequently inhabited. Later, as an adult, he had 
a tendency to ‘space out.’ 

Richard had an older cousin named Mike who became something of a mentor 
to the young boy. In 1965, Mike was sent to Vietnam where he appears to have 
functioned as a Phoenix assassin. After two tours of duty, and twenty-nine con- 
firmed kills, he returned a hero. His souvenirs of the war included eight shrunken 
human heads that he had made himself, and a large collection of Polaroid photos 
that graphically depicted rape, torture, mutilation and murder. These he gleefully 
shared with young Richard, while regaling him with tales of his barbaric treat- 
ment of the Vietnamese people. Mike also taught young Richard techniques of 
jungle warfare and survival, just as he had been taught before he had been sent off 
to kill. 

On May 4, 1973, Mike casually shot his wife in the face from point-blank 
range, killing her instantly in full view of his thirteen-year-old protege. The dead 
woman’s mother, strangely enough, was said to be a skilled practitioner of black 
magic. Following the shooting, Richard reportedly returned to the crime scene, 
with his father, and located the slug that had passed through the victim’s head. 
They took it with them as a keepsake, and also gathered some things that Mike 

David McGowan • 229 

had asked them to retrieve for him. How they were able to enter what should 
have been a secure crime scene to find evidence that the police should have 
already found remains a mystery. 

Cousin Mike was judged not guilty by reason of insanity and sent to a state 
mental hospital. Richard, meanwhile, ventured off to Los Angeles, where his 
older brother Ruben taught him the finer points of the burglary trade. After that, 
he headed back to El Paso, where he got a job at a Holiday Inn. While working 
there, Richard bound and attempted to rape a woman in her room. The attack 
was thwarted when the woman’s husband unexpectedly returned to the room and 
promptly gave Ramirez a beating. All charges against the fifteen-year-old were 

In late 1977, cousin Mike was released after serving just four-and-half years 
for the cold-blooded killing of his wife. He promptly resumed his role as mentor 
to his young disciple. Not long after that, in February 1978, Richard once again 
left El Paso destined for Los Angeles. This time though, he traveled by way of San 
Francisco, where he was granted a rare one-on-one meeting with high priest 
Anton LaVey, and where he also attended a Church of Satan ritual. Ramirez, who 
as a young man frequently slept in a local cemetery, was reportedly a big fan of 
LaVey’s Satanic Bible. He also read and admired the writings of the Marquis 
deSade, whose exploits will be covered elsewhere in this book. Once in Los 
Angeles, Ramirez lived a shadowy existence; he reportedly preferred to live and 
hang out in the seedier neighborhoods of the city, and he frequently employed 
the services of prostitutes. He had at least one run-in with the police, not long 
before the killings began. On that occasion, he was arrested for stealing a car and 
leading five LAPD cruisers on a high-speed chase. Strangely though, there is no 
indication that any charges were filed against him. 

The murders attributed to Richard Ramirez officially began on June 27, 1984. 
However, there is nothing that indicates that the stabbing death of Jennie Vincow 
in Glassel Park that night had anything to do with the killings that came later; 
Vincow’s murder took place nearly a year before the others, which were all com- 
mitted in fairly rapid succession. Ramirez’s defense team later implied that 
Vincow’s own sons had killed her, or had had her killed, for her money. One of 
the sons was an unemployed pharmacist who was known to have hit his mother 
in the past. He was described by investigators as evasive and difficult to interview, 
and he refused to take a polygraph exam. When Ramirez was ultimately brought 
to trial for Vincow’s murder, Michael Tynan, the presiding judge, refused to allow 
any questions pertaining to Vincow’s financial affairs. 

It was not until March 17, 1985 that the Stalker struck again. Two young 
women, Maria Hernandez and Dayle Okazaki, were shot in their Rosemead 
home with a .22 caliber weapon. Okazaki did not survive the attack, but 


Programmed to Kill 

Hernandez did, and she was the first to provide a description of the man who 
would soon become Los Angeles’ most feared serial killer. She said that her 
attacker was about 5’ 10” tall, thin, and had black hair and dark, scary eyes. He 
had walked up to her quite casually, assumed a military firing stance, pointed the 
gun at her without saying a word, and then fired a single shot. What she 
described was the actions of a cold and mechanical professional assassin. 
Strangely, however, the gunman did not take aim for her head, as he did in almost 
all subsequent attacks. 

Maria first tentatively identified a man named Paul Samuels, a military vet- 
eran who was known to dress all in black and who had a habit of following 
underage girls. Samuels matched the physical description given by Hernandez 
and he was observed by police following two young women and trying to coax 
them into his car. The suspect was arrested, and the arresting officers discovered a 
gun in his possession, but it was of a different caliber than the one used in the 
Rosemead shooting. Samuels was let go, and Ramirez later took the rap, although 
Maria was unable to identify him in court. 

In yet another of those bizarre coincidences that are forever surrounding serial 
killer cases, Maria Hernandez just happened to be very closely connected to Gil 
Carrillo, who was one of the two lead detectives on the Night Stalker task force. 
Carrillo’s mother was Maria’s godmother, and Maria’s mother was a good friend 
of Carrillo’s sister. Carrillo was assisted in running the task force by our old friend 
Frank Salerno, who also led the Hillside Strangler task force. 

On the very same night that Hernandez and Okazaki were shot, Veronica Yu 
was shot twice with a .22 caliber weapon in Monterey Park. She did not survive 
her wounds. Two witnesses who claimed to have been near the scene of the crime 
offered similar descriptions of the gunman — descriptions that clearly did not fit 
Richard Ramirez. One described the assailant as possibly Asian, 5’6” to 5’8” tall, 
with wavy hair. The other saw a man who was 5’7” to 5’8” tall, 145-150 pounds, 
with a light complexion and long, shaggy hair, and possibly with slanted eyes. 
Both eyewitnesses told police at the scene that they did not get a good enough 
look at the suspect to be able to identify him. In court, one of the two claimed 
that he had heard arguing and that he had seen the shooting and heard the shots. 
None of that was consistent with his earlier statements, nor was his account of 
how the shooting occurred consistent with the forensics evidence. 

Ten days after the shooting deaths of Yu and Okazaki, Vincent and Maxine 
Zazzara were shot in the head as they lay sleeping in their Whittier home. Both 
died from the .22 caliber bullet wounds. The hopelessly deformed slugs could not 
be matched to the slugs recovered from previous victims, as would be the case 
throughout the investigation. Following the shootings, the Zazzara home was 
frantically ransacked and Maxine was hideously mutilated. Her eyes were gouged 

David McGowan • 231 

out and an inverted cross was carved into her left breast. A search of rhe crime 
scene revealed that Maxine had a .45 caliber handgun in her purse. That search 
also uncovered a fingerprint at the point of entry that had not been left by either 
of the Zazzaras or by Ramirez. 

Peter Zazzara, a son of the slain couple, told at least two officers that the 
killings were a drug-related mob hit. Nevertheless, all evidence and testimony 
pertaining to drug trafficking and organized crime was later stricken from the 
pre-trial record, and no questions were allowed at trial about Vincent Zazarra’s 
prison time, the guns found in the house, or the family’s ties to organized crime. 

The next Stalker attack, like the Zazzara murders, looked very much like a 
professional contract killing; William Doi was shot and killed with a .22 caliber 
slug to the head as he lay sleeping in his Montebello home on May 14. His wife, 
Lillian, was raped and left in thumbcuffs, but she was not killed. Just as in the 
Whittier attack, the Doi home was ransacked. Among the missing items was Bill 
Doi’s Masonic ring. A 9mm handgun was found in Bill’s nightstand, and several 
other guns were found strategically placed around the house, as though the Dois 
had reason to fear for their lives. As at the Zazzara home, an Avia shoeprint was 
allegedly found outside of the house. Along with it was a combat boot print that 
was purportedly left by an officer at the scene. At both crime scenes, the Fire 
Department was, curiously, the first to respond. 

Lillian Doi was the second living witness to provide a description of the sus- 
pect. Working with her daughter, she filled out a crime scene report that 
described an assailant other than Richard Ramirez. 

Just over two weeks later, Mabel Bell and Nettie Long, both in their eighties, 
were viciously attacked. The crime bore little, if any, resemblance to the previous 
killings. Rather than being summarily executed, the victims were tortured with 
an electrical cord and then brutally bludgeoned with a hammer. Pentagrams were 
drawn on the wall and on one of the victims. The home in which the pair were 
attacked was isolated, accessible only by way of a difficult-to-navigate drive up a 
long and winding route. It was not a house that a random killer would have 
stumbled upon. To get there, one had to know where one was going. Purportedly 
tying Richard to the crime was an Avia shoeprint, allegedly left on a clock, but a 
human hair found at the scene had been left by someone else. 

The next attack occurred at the home of Carol Kyle in Burbank. Kyle was 
raped and sodomized and her home was ransacked, but she was left very much 
alive. As in the Zazzara and Doi cases, the Fire Department was the first to 
respond. Working with investigators, Kyle created a composite sketch that looked 
nothing like the one created earlier by Maria Hernandez, which had somewhat 
resembled Ramirez. Carol described her assailant as a very good-looking, light- 
skinned Mexican with an unknown accent who engaged her in a twenty-minute 


Programmed to Kill 

conversation. She later helped create a second composite that looked more like 

The Night Stalker next purportedly attempted to break into the home of an 
L.A. County Sheriff’s deputy, just a few blocks from the Carrillo family home 
and a half-mile from the Zazzara home. The break-in was aborted, but not before 
the perpetrator had left an Avia shoeprint in the ground below a window. He 
then reportedly tried to abduct a girl in Eagle Rock, but failed in that endeavor as 
well. None of the previous victims, it will be recalled, had been abducted, and 
there were no further abduction attempts. Just after the failed abduction, the sus- 
pect was stopped by LAPD officer John Stavros for running a red light. While 
Stavros was writing the man a ticket, descriptions of the would-be kidnapper and 
his car were broadcast over the officer’s radio. Although he allegedly had both the 
man and the car right in front of him, the officer failed to make the connection. 
The suspect supposedly then drew a pentagram on the car before fleeing on foot. 
The car was impounded and then largely forgotten; no attempt was made to 
search the vehicle for fingerprints, although the suspect would surely have had to 
leave some. 

On June 27, Patty Elaine Higgins was brutally beaten and nearly beheaded in 
her Arcadia home. The attack on Higgins was initially credited to Ramirez, until 
serological tests demonstrated conclusively that someone else had committed the 
crime. The charges against Richard were quietly dropped. The defense later 
attempted to introduce the Higgins case in court, but that attempt was thwarted 
by Judge Tynan, who quickly prompted prosecutors to object to the introduction 
of the evidence. The prosecution team complied and Tynan then sustained what 
was essentially his own objection. Among the details that had emerged from the 
investigation of the murder was that a pathologist from the Medical Examiner’s 
office had used an ATM directly across the street from the crime scene just before 
or just after the crime had been committed. 

The next attack occurred on July 2, in the Arcadia home of Mary Louise 
Cannon. She was beaten with a vase while sleeping and her home was ransacked. 
Cannon’s killer apparently cut himself when the vase broke from the force of the 
blows. Blood found on the murder weapon did not come from either Richard or 
the victim. A light brown hair was found in the bed where Mary was killed and a 
fingerprint was recovered from the scene. Neither had been left by Ramirez. 
What he did allegedly leave behind were two Avia shoeprints on the carpet. 
Neither could be discerned by jurors either on the carpet swatches that were sub- 
mitted as evidence or in photos that were taken at the crime scene. Not to be 
deterred, the prosecution team presented a tissue containing the shoeprint that 
they rather preposterously claimed had been found on the floor of Cannon’s 

David McGowan • 233 

The next attack was on Whitney Bennett, a teenager who was asleep in her 
family’s home in Sierra Madre on July 5, 1985 when an intruder beat her about 
the head with a tire iron so severely that 478 stitches were required to close her 
wounds, and yet she miraculously survived. The rest of the family was home 
sleeping as well at the time of the attack; they were all left alone and the house 
was not ransacked. A complete Avia shoeprint was supposedly found stamped in 
blood under the covers of the bed, although it initially had not been seen by 
police on the scene. A beer bottle of unknown origin that was found in the house 
yielded a fingerprint. More prints were found near the point of entry that the 
assailant had used. None of these prints were left by Ramirez, nor were the blood- 
stains found on the bed sash. 

On July 7, Joyce Lucille Nelson and Sophie Dickman were attacked in sepa- 
rate incidents in their respective Monterey Park homes. Nelson was beaten to 
death and her home was ransacked. Avia shoeprints were claimed to be every- 
where, including on both the front and rear patios and stomped into the victim’s 
face. Brown hairs and fingerprints recovered from the scene were not, alas, left by 
Richard. Dickman’s house was also searched, but she was not killed. She claimed 
that the intruder had attempted to rape her before leaving her handcuffed to her 
bed, but he was unable to achieve an erection. Evidence, however, indicated oth- 
erwise; semen was recovered from her body and she showed evidence of tearing 
from violent penetration. Her description of her attacker did not fit Richard 
Ramirez; she recalled him being 5’8” tall and dressed like a hiker or mountain 
climber, and she specified that he was not Latino, Oriental or Black. She also 
noted that he wore dark canvas shoes, not the notorious Avias. 

Ramirez was considerably taller than the assailant described, and he was quite 
obviously Latino. He also, according to law enforcement claims, always commit- 
ted his crimes while clad entirely in black. Interestingly, Sophie Dickman lived 
right across the street from a female Sheriff’s deputy who had worked the Doi 
crime scene. The deputy’s husband, also a deputy, had recently been murdered. 
He had been a good friend of Gil Carrillo’s. 

On July 20, Max and Leila Kneiding were butchered in their Glendale home. 
The crime scene was a veritable bloodbath. Both had been shot multiple times 
with a .22 and viscously hacked with a machete. Blood was splattered in all direc- 
tions, indicating that the attack came from a number of different angles. That 
fact strongly suggested multiple assailants. The bodies of the Kneidings were 
autopsied by Dr. Irwin Golden, who was later discredited during the OJ Simpson 
trial, much to the embarrassment of the prosecutors on that case. Hairs found on 
both the nightstand and atop the pillows did not come from Ramirez. 

On the very same night as the attack on the Kneidings, Chainarong 
Khovananth was killed instantly with a .25 caliber shot to the head. His wife 

234 • Programmed to Kill 

Somkid was raped, sodomized and left tied up in their Sun Valley home, which 
was ransacked. On the day of the attack, Somkid told her sister-in-law that her 
husband’s killer was a black man with curly black hair. The by now obligatory 
Avia shoeprints were found in the hallway and on the rear patio. 

Just over two weeks later, Virginia and Chris Petersen were both shot in the 
head with a .25 caliber automatic. Amazingly, both survived the attack. There 
were no Avia shoeprints found and their Northridge home was not ransacked. 
Just days later, Sakina and Elyas Abowath were attacked in their Diamond Bar 
home. Elyas was killed with a single .25 caliber round to the head; it was claimed 
that the killer was also armed with a .38 caliber handgun and an Uzi. 30 Sakina 
was raped and sodomized and the house was thoroughly searched, as was the car 
in their garage. As at so many of the other crime scenes, the killer appeared to be 
looking for something. As with the Bell and Long home, the Abowath home was 
in a neighborhood that was difficult to navigate. Some elements of the descrip- 
tion given by Sakina fit Ramirez, but others clearly did not, such as the dirty 
blond hair, the lack of an accent, and the boots. The requisite brown hairs and 
unidentified fingerprints were found at the scene, as was an African-American 
pubic hair. 

On the day of the Abowath killing, Frank Salerno called in the FBI’s fabled 
Behavioral Sciences Unit. By the end of the month, Richard Ramirez was in cus- 
tody, charged with an array of crimes. 

Before the arrest of Ramirez, Peter and Barbara Pan were both shot in the head 
in their San Francisco home. The house was ransacked and a pentagram was 
drawn on the wail. The double murder was blamed on L.A.’s Night Stalker, who 
reportedly revisited the Bay area on several occasions. Some investigators have 
blamed Ramirez for at least four unsolved murders in the area, along with a rape 
and ten burglaries. San Francisco, alas, has more than its share of unsolved homi- 

The final Night Stalker attack came on August 17, at the home of Bill Cams 
and Carole Smith in Mission Viejo. Cams took three shots to the head, another 
witness was left alive, and the house was ransacked. So ended the alleged killing 
spree of the notorious Night Stalker. 

Ramirez was captured by a group of irate citizens after his face was plastered 
on television screens and newspapers ail across the city. The hastily assembled 
posse gave the suspect a fairly severe beating. That beating likely saved his life. An 
L.A. Times reporter working the case has said that an explicit order was given to 

30 Ballistics tests would indicate that at least four different guns were used in the Night 

Stalker killings. As the trial judge would later advise the jury, one of the handguns 

linked to the crimes went missing from the LAPD evidence inventory. 

David McGowan • 235 

police: “we don’t want a trial for this guy.” In other words, Ramirez was wanted 
dead, not alive. He was, nevertheless, turned over to police very much alive. He 
was taken by the LAPD to their Hollenbeck Station, although the arresting offi- 
cer was an L.A. Sheriff’s deputy and the arrest was made in the Sheriff’s jurisdic- 
tion, not the LAPD’s. 

The police wasted no time in getting Ramirez into a line-up — a line-up that 
was fraudulent by any reasonable interpretation. Richard’s face was staring out 
from every TV screen and every newsstand, hopelessly compromising any identi- 
fication. He had a wound on the back of his head from the well-publicized beat- 
ing he received, and the bandages covering that wound were clearly visible. The 
various witnesses were, incredibly enough, allowed to converse and compare 
notes. Richard was standing in the second position in the line-up, and at least two 
officers in the room held up two fingers, signaling to the witnesses the proper 
choice. That was later denied in court, but it can be clearly seen on videotape and 
in still photos. Jurors never saw those images. 

After the line-up, Ramirez was transferred to the county jail and placed in the 
hospital ward, where he was kept in solitary confinement. He began complaining 
of headaches and claimed that he was being poisoned. As legal counsel, he chose 
Daniel and Arturo Hernandez, who had, between the two of them, just five years 
experience practicing law; neither had ever tried a murder case. The judge 
assigned Public Defender Ray Clark to assist the pair. 

Among Richard’s visitors in jail, once he was allowed to have visitors, were 
Zeena LaVey and the earless Nikolas Schreck. Zeena told Richard that her father 
and the Church sent their blessings and were praying for him; she also informed 
him that he was being made an honorary member of the Church of Satan. 
Occupying the cell next to Richard, for a short time, was actor Sean Penn. Penn’s 
wife at the time, singer Madonna, reportedly tried to arrange a meeting with 

Ramirez was tried on fourteen counts of murder, five counts of attempted 
murder, fifteen counts of burglary, five counts of robbery, four counts of rape, 
three counts of forced oral copulation, and four counts of sodomy. Prosecuting 
the case was Phil Halpin, who had served as co-counsel on the Manson prosecu- 
tion. Virtually every decision in the preliminary phase of the trial went against 
the defendant. For example, an early motion for a change of venue, necessary 
because Ramirez had already been tried and convicted by the local press, was 
summarily denied. On one occasion, Ramirez was dragged from the courtroom 
and beaten by bailiffs. The Ramirez family, not surprisingly, was banned from the 
courtroom, although detectives working the case attended regularly. Richard’s 
defense attorneys had to fight for disclosure throughout the trial; prosecutors 
were consistently allowed to stall on handing over evidence. 

236 • Programmed to Kill 

Perhaps the most prominent feature of Richard’s trial was the steady stream of 
prosecution objections, the overwhelming majority of which were sustained. 
Another salient feature was the spectacle of Ramirez being kept shackled like an 
animal throughout the trial, while the media continued to demonize him and the 
non-sequestered jury soaked it all in. 

The Los Angeles Times did more than its share to prejudice the jury. Before the 
trial had begun, the newspaper reported that jailers had purportedly overheard a 
plan by Ramirez to shoot the prosecutor (although he obviously had no access to 
a firearm). In response, metal detectors were prominently displayed outside the 
courtroom. On the day the trial began, the Times ran a story in which it was 
claimed that Ramirez had bragged in jail of being a “super criminal” responsible 
for twenty murders. A sheriff’s deputy quoted Ramirez as having said, “I love all 
that blood.” 

A large portion of the prosecution’s physical evidence consisted of the Avia 
shoeprints and what were said to be latex glove prints, but all that that evidence 
proved, even if the prints were in fact found at the crime scenes, was that whoever 
committed the murders wore shoes and gloves. The state did have one ace up its 
sleeve: on May 9, 1985, the home of Clara Hadsall in Monrovia had purportedly 
been burglarized by Ramirez, who allegedly left highly incriminating evidence at 
the scene. Though Richard was never charged with the alleged crime, the judge 
readily admitted the evidence offered by prosecutors, even though, as previously 
noted, he disallowed evidence from another uncharged crime that would have 
aided the defense’s case. 

The officer called to the Hadsall crime scene, Tom Wright, claimed that he 
had discovered — in the sink below the window through which entry had been 
gained — an Avia shoeprint. Right alongside that alleged shoeprint was a palm 
print and fingerprints. Luckily, officer Wright, in a preposterously unlikely sce- 
nario, happened to have what must have been the most fully stocked LAPD 
squad car that the department had to offer. Without calling in evidence techni- 
cians, the officer claimed that he single-handedly lifted the various prints, utiliz- 
ing a fingerprint kit that he just happened to have with him. He also just 
happened to have the extra-long lifting tape that was required to preserve the 
oversized shoeprint. Wright also claimed that he made plaster casts of additional 
prints that he discovered in the ground outside the window, and that he then 
took photographs of all of this evidence at the scene. The elderly owner of the 
house, conveniently enough, had passed away, so there was no one to dispute the 
officer’s account. 

This rather obviously manufactured evidence was the only way in which the 
state was able to tie the infamous Avia shoes to Richard Ramirez. The shoes 
themselves were never found, nor was any receipt for the shoes ever recovered, 

David McGowan • 237 

and no witnesses were produced who ever saw Ramirez wearing the shoes. In fact, 
there is absolutely no evidence to suggest that Ramirez ever owned or wore a pair 
of Avia shoes. 

In order to believe officer Wright’s account, we have to accept that Richard 
Ramirez, who managed to avoid leaving a single fingerprint at the scenes of any 
of the crimes for which he was charged, inexplicably left pristine palm and fin- 
gerprints at the Hadsall home, and left them right alongside his trademark Avia 
shoeprints. And he did all that at a crime scene where no witnesses and no evi- 
dence could be produced showing that a crime had even been committed there. 
To account for the fact that detectives were unable to produce any fingerprints 
from any of the real crime scenes, the state argued that the wily killer had worn 
latex gloves throughout his crime spree. And yet, at the very same time, the state 
argued that no gloves had been worn at this one particular crime scene. That 
rather obvious contradiction in the prosecution’s case was never explained. 

Other than what was recovered from Hadsall’s sink, the only other fingerprint 
evidence that was presented were prints lifted from items in Richard’s car and 
from items in a bag of his that was recovered from a locker at the local 
Greyhound station. All that that evidence proved was that Richard left his finger- 
prints on items of his own personal property. 

The defense team did manage to offer into evidence testimony that tended to 
clear Richard of involvement in at least some of the murders. Ramirez’ father, for 
instance, testified that Richard had been in El Paso at the time that two of the 
attacks occurred. Though some questioned the father’s credibility, two other wit- 
nesses confirmed his account. One of them even attempted to introduce into evi- 
dence a Polaroid photo taken of Richard in El Paso. The witness informed the 
court that she had personally witnessed the taking of the photo, but the judge 
refused to allow it entered into evidence. 

One of the most bizarre of the sideshows surrounding the lengthy trial 
involved Richard’s devoted girlfriend, Doreen, and one of his surviving victims, 
Somkid Khovananth: Doreen sat outside the courtroom and babysat Somkid’s 
five-year-old daughter while Somkid testified. Khovananth apparently had no 
problem entrusting the care of her child to the girlfriend of the man who had 
allegedly raped her and killed her husband. And Doreen had no qualms with pro- 
viding a service that allowed a witness to enter the courtroom for the express pur- 
pose of offering incriminating testimony against her boyfriend. 

The circus-like atmosphere of the trial continued after the jury began deliber- 
ations. Two jurors had to be replaced, one within a week of beginning delibera- 
tions, after having sat through a nearly year long trial. One of the two, Phyllis 
Singletary, was murdered in a brutal, Night Stalker-style attack. She was purport- 
edly killed by her boyfriend for reasons unconnected to her jury service. The 


Programmed to Kill 

boyfriend, conveniently enough, allegedly killed himself before police could get 
to him. One of the two replacement jurors, seated without protest, had a family 
history of violent crime victimization: both of her brothers had been murdered. 

Ramirez was ultimately found guilty over forty separate counts. During the 
sentencing phase of the trial, his defenders opted not to call a single witness. The 
jurors bestowed nineteen death sentences upon him, even though a few of them 
later said that they thought the defendant had been railroaded. 

Before his capture, Ramirez had talked of plans to buy a house and set up a 
torture room in the basement. He planned to film his exploits and sell the tapes. 
He knew, he told others, that there was a market for such things. He also said that 
the idea of having sex slaves appealed to him. While these goals remained but 
depraved dreams for Douglas Clark and Richard Ramirez, in the next chapter we 
will meet some men who attempted to make those dreams a reality, with varying 
degrees of success. 

Chapter 16 

The Collectors 

“J e jf re y [Dahmer] thought he was the devil. Jeffrey thought he 
was so evil that he was equal to the devil” 

— Attorney Gerald Boyle 

Leonard Lake was a collector. He started collecting in the San Francisco area as 
early as July 1984. Bob Berdella was also a collector. He started collecting in 
Kansas City, Missouri in July 1984. Gary Heidnik was another collector. He did 
not start collecting in Philadelphia until November 1986, unless you count his 
first failed attempt in 1978. Jeffrey Dahmer was probably the best known of the 
collectors. He started collecting in Milwaukee in 1990, around the same time 
that Herb Baumeister started collecting in Indianapolis. 

In 1963, John Fowles published The Collector, a disturbing tale of a man 
obsessed with control. A butterfly collector in the beginning of the book, he soon 
enough reveals his desire to collect and control women. His first young victim 
was named Miranda, which would later become the code name Leonard Lake 
used for his master plan. The Collector was apparently a very influential work. 
Leonard had a copy of it prominently placed in his concrete bunker, along with 
Carl von Clausewitz’s Principles of War. Bob Berdella cited the movie of the same 
name as having an enormous impact on his life. 

In November 1961, Gary Heidnik joined the U.S. Army and requested that 
he be trained as a military policeman. The Army though opted to send him to Ft. 
Sam Houston near San Antonio, Texas for training as a medic. When that train- 
ing was completed, he was sent to an Army hospital in West Germany to work as 
an orderly. That did not work out too well, however, especially after the Army 
began experimenting on him with powerful hallucinogenic drugs, as his records 
would later reveal. He was sent back to a military hospital here in the States and 
then released early with an honorable discharge. He later became a collector. 


240 • Programmed to Kill 

In January 1979, Jeffrey Dahmer joined the U.S. Army and requested that he 
be trained as a military policeman. The Army though opted to send him to Ft. 
Sam Flouston near San Antonio, Texas for training as a medic. When that train- 
ing was completed, he was sent to an Army hospital in West Germany to work as 
an orderly. That did not work out too well, however, and Jeffrey was released early 
with an honorable discharge. He later became a collector. 

Now that seems a little odd. And while we are on the subject of Jeffrey 
Dahmer, his hometown of Bath, Ohio was just fifteen miles from Bob Berdella’s 
hometown of Cuyahoga Falls. That seems a little odd as well. 

Collectors generally have much in common. Their primary concern is with 
control, which they attempt to gain by torturing their victims into submission. 
Along the way, they tend to take numerous photos and shoot a number of home 
videos. Some of these they keep for themselves, and some they sell to others. 
Collectors also like to keep various body parts lying around the house and they 
generally keep their freezers well stocked with unmarked meat. Some collectors 
are prone to race-war diatribes and have grand plans to keep large stables of 
female sex slaves as breeders. These collectors are not unlike Charles Manson, 
except that their techniques are somewhat cruder. Leonard Lake and Gary 
Heidnik are examples that type of collector. Other collectors are not concerned 
with acquiring breeders; they prefer to collect young men and boys. These collec- 
tors are not unlike John Wayne Gacy. Bob Berdella, Jeffrey Dahmer and Herb 
Baumeister all fit into that category. 

Here are the stories of the collectors and the havoc they wreaked in the late 
1980s and early 1990s. 

Leonard Lake was born in San Francisco and raised primarily by a grand- 
mother who reportedly was a strict disciplinarian. His father was said to be abu- 
sive and cold. His mother was a licensed practical nurse with experience working 
in mental wards. She later said that the family always encouraged Leonard to take 
an interest in the naked human form and to take pictures of girls, including his 
sisters and cousins. Leonard’s brother was reportedly abusive to animals and he 
had a keen interest in fire. ‘Mental illness’ ran in every generation of the Lake 

In January 1964, Lake joined the U.S. Marines and served for seven years. Part 
of that time was spent in Vietnam, where he earned several medals. His second 
tour of duty there was cut short due to unspecified medical conditions and he was 

David McGowan • 241 

shipped back to the States and given a medical discharge. After that, he entered a 
YA hospital for psychological treatment. 

Lake later became a member of the Society for Creative Anachronism (SCA), 
described by chronicler Joseph Harrington as a “cult based on medieval worship 
involving sacrifices.” Lake’s ex-wife, who sometimes modeled for the hardcore 
S&M videos that Leonard produced and sold, admitted that her former spouse 
had a longstanding affiliation with a San Francisco “witches coven.” Some of 
Leonard’s friends later recalled that he often boasted of membership in a secret 
“death cult.” According to chronicler Joel Norris, Lake “supported himself by 
making snuff videos and selling drugs.” He also was known to stockpile guns. In 
his free time, he worked with kids at a local 4-H Club. According to one report, 
that club was later the target of allegations of ritual abuse. 

Partner Charles Ng was the son of a wealthy family in Hong Kong. As a child, 
he was regularly chained and beaten unmercifully by his father. Later he was 
shipped off to attend an exclusive prep school in Leeds, England, where his uncle 
taught. He was arrested in September 1979, after entering the United States, for 
hit-and-run. All charges were dropped the next month after Ng agreed to enlist in 
the Marines — despite the fact that he was underage and not a U.S. citizen, and 
should therefore have been deported. 

His military service began on Aleister Crowley’s birthday, October 12, 1979. 
Exactly two years and one day later, Ng robbed a U.S. Marine armory on Oahu 
and reportedly made off with machine guns, grenade launchers, night scopes, and 
pistols. He went AWOL a month later after being questioned about the robbery. 
He remained at large until the eve of Walpurgisnacht, 1982, when he and Lake 
were both arrested by an FBI SWAT team. On August 15, Ng was convicted and 
sent to the brig at Fort Leavenworth to begin serving a two-year sentence. Lake, 
who was not involved in the armory robbery, apparently was not charged. 

The next year, Lake’s brother Donald disappeared and was never seen or heard 
from again. Leonard was later posthumously credited with Donald’s murder, 
although it is unclear if there is any evidence to support that charge. In July 1984, 
the entire Dubs family disappeared without a trace. The family was reportedly 
abducted from their apartment, but no blood or other signs of a struggle were 
found, and there was no evidence of forced entry. Two neighbors across the street 
were watching the house at the time of the purported abductions and neither of 
them saw anything unusual. They did see Charles Ng, who had been released by 
that time and was reunited with Leonard Lake, leave the apartment, but he did so 
alone. Henry Dubs, the patriarch of the family, had been a photographer who 
specialized in shooting children’s parties. 

A number of other people disappeared from the San Francisco area in the fol- 
lowing months. Their remains would later be discovered on the grounds of a 

242 • Programmed to Kill 

ranch in Wilseyville, California, just 130 miles east of the city. The property was 
owned by the Balazs family, Leonard Lake’s former in-laws. Leonard called the 
ranch home. Among the victims found there were Lonnie Bond and Brenda 
O’Connor, who had been running a methamphetamine lab on the adjacent prop- 
erty. Killed along with the couple were their son, Lonnie Bond, Jr., and Robin 
Stapley, who had been one of the founders of the San Diego chapter of the 
Guardian Angels. Stapley had been involved in running the meth lab. 

Lake was arrested and taken into custody on June 2, 1985 on a shoplifting 
charge. A .22 caliber Ruger fitted with a silencer was discovered in a search of his 
car trunk at the time of the arrest. Sidekick Charles Ng was with Lake at the time, 
but he managed to escape and quickly find his way to Canada. Less than three 
weeks before the arrest, a meter reader for PG&E had visited the Wilseyville 
property and been greeted by a rather macabre scene: Leonard Lake standing 
shirtless in his front doorway, covered in blood and wearing a blood-encrusted 
apron. It is unclear whether this incident was reported; there is no indication that 
any action was taken at the time. 

While Leonard was being interrogated, following his arrest, he popped a 
cyanide capsule that he conveniently, and rather improbably, had hidden in the 
collar of his shirt. He died without ever regaining consciousness. Before popping 
the capsule, however, he gave his arresting officers the name of his escaped 

Police promptly made an appointment to see Claralyn Balazs, Leonard Lake’s 
former wife. When they arrived to question her, she was in the company of 
Gloria Eberling, Lake’s mother, and two of his sisters. The officers arranged with 
the women to conduct a search of the Wilseyville property. Claralyn told them 
that the ranch was difficult to find and she offered to lead them there at an agreed 
upon time. When the officers met Claralyn at the prearranged time, she was 
again in the company of Eberling. The two women had already been to the prop- 
erty in advance of the search. Balazs admitted that she had removed items from 
the property, including about a dozen videotapes. She was not arrested for delib- 
erately tampering with the evidence, even though it soon became apparent that 
she had lied to police about the difficulty of finding the property so as to allow 
herself the opportunity to visit the ranch before the officers got there. Authorities 
later claimed that the evidence that she had removed was returned, though there 
is of course no way of knowing whether the tapes that were returned were the 
same ones that had been removed. There was also no way of knowing if any other 
items had been removed. 

With the Wilseyville search underway, the first thing that investigators noticed 
was that the interior of the house on the property contained numerous bullet 
holes and bloodstains. Also noted was that there were eyebolts anchored to the 

David McGowan • 243 

bedroom floor at all four corners of the bed, and a powerful 250W floodlight 
mounted to the wall directly over the bed. Police quickly deduced that the room 
might have been used as a snuff film studio. Luckily, they happened to have an 
expert on such things. Tom Eisenmann, a former Navy man, was a veteran inves- 
tigator of sex crimes involving children. He had in the past worked on cases 
involving child pornography and snuff films. Why he happened to be around for 
the initial search, given that the suspect had only been charged with shoplifting at 
that point, remains a mystery. 

Leonard’s diary was found under the bed; found therein were such notations 
as: “I plan to build a prison for sex slaves. . .The perfect woman for me is one who 
is totally controlled...” Leonard’s prison had already been constructed, in the 
form of a large concrete bunker that Lake and Ng had reportedly just finished 
building on April 15. The bunker contained a vast array of military and police 
equipment, including boots, fatigues, canteens, bayonets, gun belts, rifles, shot- 
guns, assault rifles, machine guns, manacles, handcuffs, hunting knives, a 
starlight scope, tripods, pistols, butcher knives, and switchblade knives. Also in 
the bunker was a copy of The Collector. Incorporated into the design of the build- 
ing was a secret, soundproof cell outfitted with a one-way viewing window, hid- 
den cameras, and a list of rules for prisoners. Also found were numerous 
photographs of children in various stages of undress that had been taken at the 
South City Juvenile Hall, where Claralyn worked. 

Adjacent to the bunker was an incinerator, which investigators logically con- 
cluded had been used to dispose of bodies. Hundreds of bone fragments were 
recovered from the property, most of them burned and then cut into 2-4 inch 
pieces, making identification all but impossible. A final body count was never 
achieved, but evidence indicated that as many as twenty-five people had been 
killed and disposed of at the Wilseyville ranch. 

Buried on the grounds of the ranch were five-gallon buckets containing video- 
tapes. The contents of most of those tapes have never been revealed. One of them 
reportedly featured Leonard’s mother, Gloria Eberling, Leonard’s former wife, 
Claralyn Balazs, and Claralyn’s parents, Louis and Grace Balazs, listening as Lake 
animatedly described his plans for the coming Armageddon. He saw himself as 
the new Adam, and he spoke of building a series of bunkers, each to be stocked 
with weapons and food and staffed with a sex slave. These slaves were to serve as 
the mothers of the New World Order that would arise from the ashes of 
Armageddon. The Wilseyville structure was apparently the prototype for this 
planned network of bunkers. Lake dubbed his plan “Operation Miranda,” in 
honor of the heroine of Fowles’ novel. 

Another videotape featured Lake and Ng physically and psychologically tor- 
turing two different women, one of whom was their former neighbor, Brenda 

244 • Programmed to Kill 

O’Connor. On the tape, Lake can be heard telling Brenda: “Suffer. . .There’s peo- 
ple that are going to want to know that we did our job.” Additional videotapes 
were recovered from the abandoned former residence of Charles Ng. The con- 
tents of those tapes also remain a mystery. 

Early on in the investigation, the local chief of police issued a telling state- 
ment: “This may be a case of mass murder or a cult situation... A cult case is a 
possibility we’re not going to exclude at this time.” The Department of Justice 
and the FBI soon descended upon the scene and the official story quickly became 
that only two men, Leonard Lake and Charles Ng, were involved in the murders. 

As the investigation continued, the home of Louis and Grace Balazs was 
searched. Investigators hauled off six bags of potential evidence, including audio- 
tapes, copies of the photographs of the girls at Juvenile Hall, and a variety of 
S&M gear. No members of the Balazs family were ever arrested. As the search at 
Wilseyville continued, body parts continued to be unearthed. Few of these were 
ever identified, but one skull, featuring a .22 caliber bullet hole next to where the 
ear had been, had belonged to Randy Jacobson, a Vietnam veteran who had 
served with Lake. His last known address had been at the Pink Palace in San 
Francisco’s Tenderloin District. 

In December 1985, Ng was convicted by a Canadian court on shoplifting and 
assault charges and given a four-and-a-half-year prison sentence. He had been 
arrested in early July. Six years would pass before Ng was extradited to the U.S. to 
face charges arising from his complicity in the Wilseyville operations. Seven more 
years would pass before his trial got underway. 

The lengthy delay in extraditing Ng was due to the fact that he was facing near 
certain execution in the United States. As in most of the ‘civilized’ world, capital 
punishment is considered barbaric in Canada. Canadian law therefore prohibits 
the extradition of suspects accused of capital crimes. Nevertheless, under pressure 
from U.S. authorities, the Supreme Court of Canada approved Ng’s transfer to 
America. He was back in the States on September 26, 1991. Ng’s attorneys later 
argued his case before the UN Human Rights Committee, whose members con- 
demned the actions of the Canadian government, but by that time it was a moot 

The American people, with their famously short memories, had largely forgot- 
ten about the Ng case — but that was soon to change. In November 1991, a pur- 
ported witness took to the national airwaves to claim that he had known Ng in 
Leavenworth in 1982. The witness said that Ng had talked incessantly about tor- 
ture and mutilation and had allegedly discussed his fantasy of owning sex slaves. 
The inflaming of public opinion had begun. 

Ng’s long and convoluted journey through the U.S. criminal justice system 
began in early 1992. Throughout that seven-year journey, the media consistently 

David McGowan • 245 

portrayed the defendant as the party responsible for the repeated delays in the 
legal proceedings. In truth though, it was the state that was responsible for the 
vast majority of the delays, as prosecutors manipulated the system in their cease- 
less efforts to stage yet another sham ‘serial killer’ trial. 

Ng’s first attorney, at his first preliminary trial, was Michael Burt, who was 
simultaneously serving as an attorney for Richard Ramirez. Over Ng’s objections, 
the presiding judge opted to appoint him new counsel. Ng appealed the judge’s 
decision, but the California Supreme Court denied the appeal and the change of 
attorney order stood. Throughout the preliminary proceedings, every effort was 
made to present the defendant as a dangerous, uncontrollable animal. He was 
shackled to his courtroom chair and surrounded by heavily armed deputies at all 
times. During court recesses, he was literally kept in a steel cage. 

The purpose of a preliminary trial is for the state to present a body of evidence 
sufficient to convince a judge that the defendant should be held over for trial. 
This preview of the state’s case can be very beneficial to the defense. However, 
since no defense is offered at such a proceeding, the public initially gets a very 
one-sided version of events. For that reason, defense attorneys on high-profile 
cases tend to air their side through the media. At the outset of Ng’s preliminary 
trial, however, a gag order was issued. The result of that order was that the general 
public only heard the prosecution’s case. 

Ng repeatedly filed motions for a change of counsel. All such motions were 
routinely denied. In fact, Ng was not even allowed an evidentiary hearing to pres- 
ent his case for why a change of counsel was needed. He also filed a motion to 
have the judge dismissed. That motion was not only denied, but was stricken 
from the trial record. 

The preliminary proceedings resulted in indictments on twelve counts of 
murder. As Charles awaited trial, a Superior Court judge agreed to hear his law- 
suit against his new attorneys. The judge indicated that Ng’s suit was not, con- 
trary to what the trial judge had ruled, a frivolous one. That soon became a 
moot point, however, when the trial was moved in September 1994 to Orange 
County. A new judge took the helm and new attorneys were appointed on both 
sides. A moving van delivered a mountain of evidence to the offices of both the 
Orange County District Attorney and Public Defender. The OCPD’s office 
complained loudly about the condition of the evidence they received. Six tons of 
documents had been stuffed haphazardly and seemingly randomly into produce 
boxes. Five hundred pages of police reports were missing. All files pertaining to 
the Justice Department’s investigation of the case were missing. The documents 
produced by the former defense team were reportedly illegible. Hundreds of 
photographs were unlabeled and unorganized. Thirteen boxes containing the 
most crucial documents were clearly marked “shred.” Well over a hundred 

246 • Programmed to Kill 

videotapes were included among the evidence, but only one was ever shown at 

As the PD’s office struggled to make sense of the evidence, while meeting 
resistance from the Justice Department and others, the new presiding judge opted 
to order the replacement of the new defense team. Charles Ng filed a request to 
have his team reinstated, but his motion was denied. The dismissed attorneys had 
been working to effect the removal of the judge from the case. The Fourth 
District Court of Appeals ultimately reinstated Ng’s attorneys and strongly rec- 
ommended that the judge be disqualified. A new judge was assigned to the case in 
February 1 997. Through all of that legal maneuvering, it was Ng who was vilified 
by the press for purportedly manipulating the legal system to delay his fate. 

In October, the new presiding judge postponed the start of Ng’s trial yet again. 
A week later, the San Francisco Police Department made the remarkable 
announcement that it had lost many of its files on the case. Even more incredibly, 
bullets and blood samples had allegedly been disposed of. 

On April 20, 1998, Charles Ng asked the court that he be allowed to represent 
himself. The next day he requested that his attorneys be dismissed. In May his 
request to serve as his own counsel was granted. In June, a man to whom Ng had 
allegedly confessed in prison, and who had been billed as a star witness for the 
prosecution, died in a single-car crash. The media hinted ominously that Ng had 
somehow arranged the man’s death, but it was actually the state that benefited. 
The witness’s purported testimony was read into the record by a U.S. Marshall. 
The jury, of course, was not able to gauge the credibility of the man whose words 
were read in court, and the defense was unable to cross-examine the deceased wit- 
ness. Those are precisely the reasons why such testimony is virtually always disal- 
lowed — except in the Ng case. 

On June 17, Charles Ng made his debut as a defense attorney. By August 21, 
he had lost the right to represent himself. 

By mid-September, the preliminary proceedings had been wrapped up and 
jury selection began. On October 26, 1998, the long awaited trial of Charles Ng 
finally began. Prosecutors began their presentation by showing the graphic video- 
tape of the two women being tortured and raped. The images on the tape were 
disturbing, to say the least. Airing it for the jury did considerable damage to the 
defense’s case. The tape, however, did not answer the question of whether Charles 
Ng was guilty of murder, since the murders of the women were not captured on 
tape — at least not on the particular tape that was aired in court. What the airing 
of the videotape did accomplish was to radically inflame the emotions of the jury. 

After that first airing in court, excerpts from the video promptly showed up on 
the evening news. The next day, prosecutors again played the video for the jury. It 
soon became apparent that that tape was the main plank of the state’s case. It was 

David McGowan • 247 

aired repeatedly throughout the duration of the trial, both in the courtroom and 
by the media. Two of the jurors though only saw the first couple of airings of the 
tape, since they were replaced the very first week, before opening arguments had 
even concluded. 

In late January 1999, the prosecution began its closing argument by, surpris- 
ingly enough, playing the tape again. Following that, the case would have ordi- 
narily then gone to the jury for deliberations. But this was no ordinary case. So 
what happened next was that, as the San Francisco Chronicle noted, “Ng testified 
as a surprise witness for his own defense — two days after his own attorneys had 
rested their case, and one day after prosecutors finished their own final summa- 
tion of the evidence for the jury.” 

On February 1, the state got a shot at cross-examining the surprise witness. 
The first thing that prosecutors did was to play the tape again. Then they intro- 
duced inflammatory illustrations that Ng had drawn while imprisoned in 
Canada. That evidence had been previously disallowed, before Ng made the inex- 
plicable decision to take the stand. Prosecutors then played the tape yet again. 
Needless to say, it is difficult to see how Ng aided his cause with his eleventh-hour 
appearance as a witness. 

After more than two weeks of deliberations, the jury returned with verdicts on 
eleven of the twelve murder counts: guilty. Ng’s trial then moved on to the 
penalty phase, during which one of the jurors was dismissed and an investigator 
was charged with prosecutorial misconduct. The judge opted not to declare a 
mistrial, although such a ruling would seem to have been warranted. 

On April 20, that most infamous of dates, Ng’s father was called by the 
defense. On the stand, he admitted to the severe physical abuse he had inflicted 
on his son. The next day, Ng’s mother took the stand and confirmed the horren- 
dous level of abuse to which the boy had been subjected. The jury was not 
swayed. On May 3, they returned from deliberations with the recommendation 
that Charles be put to death. The next day it was claimed that Ng had somehow 
managed to contact a juror during deliberations. Two weeks later, that juror’s 
phone number was allegedly found in his cell. On June 30, 1999, a sentence of 
death was formally imposed upon Charles Ng, thus ending his fourteen-year legal 

Michael Rustigan, a criminologist from San Francisco State University, had 
this to say about that odyssey: “I think it’s perhaps the strangest case in the annals 
of serial killers from the standpoint of the trial. In terms of legal process, Fd have 
to say it’s one of the most bizarre, confusing, and outrageous cases I have ever 
seen.” Perhaps Rustigan just needs to spend a little more time studying serial 
killer cases, for as bizarre as the Ng case was, it did not really differ dramatically 
from other serial killer cases — although it was perhaps pushing the boundaries 


Programmed to Kill 

just a bit when Claralyn Balazs, billed as a star witness, took the stand and then 
was promptly dismissed after both sides failed to ask her a single question. 

Joel Norris, a psychologist, author, and ‘expert on serial crime, has written 
that Lake and Ng were in possession of “snuff videos that combine violent sex 
with vivid scenes of actual murders committed on camera, photo portraits of 
women in chains, snapshots of dead victims moments before their burial, and 
bags of human bones that had been boiled down into soup.” If such evidence did 
exist, it is inconceivable that it would not have been presented in court. But there 
is ample reason to believe that such images did exist amongst the hundreds of 
videotapes and photographic images. Why then was it not produced? 

The most logical conclusion is that the images either depicted Ng acting in 
conjunction with other unacknowledged perpetrators, or they showed that Ng 
did not actually participate in the murders. 

Robert Berdella, Sr., a World War II veteran and member of the Knights of 
Columbus, was reportedly a physically and emotionally abusive father. His son 
and namesake was beaten regularly with a leather strap. The elder Berdella died 
suddenly at the young age of thirty-nine, reportedly of a heart attack. His widow 
remarried shortly after her husband’s untimely death. Her son lived a solitary life, 
rarely playing outside the family home. He had very few friends. At the age of six- 
teen, he was raped by a restaurant co-worker. 

In 1968, while a sophomore at college, Robert Berdella, Jr. was arrested for 
selling drugs to an undercover federal agent. He received a five year suspended 
sentence. Just a month later, he was again arrested on drug charges, but those 
charges were dropped. The next year, while still a student, Bob financed the pur- 
chase of his home. He also performed a bizarre ritual on the grounds of the cam- 
pus in which a duck was decapitated. 

After college, Berdella worked as a chef at many of the most renowned restau- 
rants and country clubs in Kansas City. The ingredient lists of the dishes he pre- 
pared became the subject of morbid curiosity and speculation when evidence 
later emerged of Berdella’s possible cannibalism. When Bob was not occupied 
with his culinary endeavors, he spent much of his time collecting bizarre artifacts, 
some reportedly fashioned from human body parts. By 1981, his hobby had 
become his full time job; Berdella was the proprietor of a flea market stand 
known as Bob’s Bizarre Bazaar. 

Berdella also helped set up a Neighborhood Watch program, and then served 
as the liaison to the police and to a couple of nearby youth homes. According to 

David McGowan • 249 

neighbors, he had a constant flow of young men coming and going from his 
home. Many of them lived in the home for varying periods of time. One twenty- 
five-year-old former boarder said that at times as many as four boarders lived at 
the house, and that large groups of young men regularly attended parties there. 
These boarders and visitors were a constant feature of the home throughout the 
1980s. During that time, an indeterminate number of young men were tortured 
and killed in the house. Officials claimed that none of the boarders were involved 
in any of the crimes. 

One of Berdella’s boarders, a young hustler identified as Freddie Kellogg, took 
a rather interesting route to reach Bob’s house. Kellogg was picked up by an 
unidentified man who handcuffed and then brutally assaulted him. The assault 
was stopped by a second unidentified man, who then introduced Kellogg to 
Berdella. Kellogg thereafter served as what was described as Berdella’s “liaison to 
the streets.” 

Many of Berdella’s young companions, perhaps significantly, regularly signed 
up as volunteers for unspecified ‘medical experiments’ at the nearby Quincy 
Research Center. One group of such volunteers reportedly staged a party at Bob’s 
house to celebrate the completion of a thirty-day program at the center. Many of 
Berdella’s young proteges later said that he frequently claimed to know powerful 
people who were able to “get things done.” He reportedly did have a rather large 
network of connections for an owner of a flea market stand, including contacts in 
Africa, Asia, South America, and along the Pacific Rim. 

Berdella’s first known victim, Jerry Howell, disappeared in July 1984. At least 
two witnesses told police that they suspected that Berdella had given the young 
man what they described as a “hot shot.” Another witness reported “word on the 
streets is he [Berdella] does bad things to kids.” The police department’s Fugitive 
Apprehension Unit purportedly questioned, watched and harassed the suspect, 
but there is little indication that any serious effort was made to investigate 
Berdella. The next known victim disappeared in April 1985, followed by a third 
on the summer solstice of that same year. In September, Walter James Farris dis- 
appeared as well. His wife told investigators that when her husband was last seen, 
he had been headed for Bob’s house. This was the first time in the history of the 
Fugitive Apprehension Unit that the same suspect was positively linked to two 
missing persons cases, yet even then little effort was made to investigate Bob 
Berdella. In June 1986, both Todd Stoops and Larry Pearson disappeared. 
Pearson was abducted right after Bob returned from a trip to Ohio. He was held 
captive in the home for six weeks, while boarders and guests freely came and 
went. After he was killed, his severed head was kept in Berdella’s freezer for a 


Programmed to Kill 

There is little doubt that the known victims represent only the tip of the ice- 
berg. Evidence indicated that many more young men were tortured and killed, 
although authorities denied that fact and made concerted efforts to downplay 
and cover up the facts of the case. 

On March 29, 1988, Chris Bryson was abducted and imprisoned in Bob’s 
house. Bryson, unlike the others, managed to escape from Berdella’s three-story 
home, and in doing so brought about the exposure of Bob’s operations. On April 
2, Chris leapt to freedom from a window. He was naked and dazed, with visible 
wounds from the depravities that had been inflicted upon him. During his days 
of confinement, he had been kept heavily drugged and subjected to severe torture 
that was designed specifically to affect his vision, hearing, voice and hands. 
Fingers and chemical swabs had been jabbed into his eyes, his hands had been 
beaten with a tire iron and tightly bound with piano wire, and electric shocks had 
been administered to his eyes, ears and genitals. His ears had been packed full of 
caulking compound. He had been injected with various chemicals, including 
drain cleaner. He had been branded, subjected to Bob’s version of acupuncture, 
and beaten about the head with a rubber mallet. And throughout it all, he had 
been photographed repeatedly. 

Officers Lloyd Harvey and Larry Lewis were the first officers to respond to the 
call of Bryson’s escape. They were soon joined by officers John Metzger and 
Cynthia Cherry, who appear to have taken charge of the scene. Metzger volun- 
teered to take the report. At least some of the officers on the scene were skeptical 
of Bryson’s claims, despite the fact that he had severely reddened eyes, visible scars 
and burns on his face, arms, legs and back, and unmistakable rope burns on his 
wrists, mouth and ankles. 

Bryson initially claimed that Berdella had been assisted in the abduction by a 
blond woman; that fact was later expunged from the official story. He also 
reported that Berdella had told him that there were others with whom he would 
later be shared. Bob had also warned him that he might be sent off to a remote 
location in Wyoming where his abuse would continue indefinitely. 

Police promptly assembled a twelve-man task force to investigate the case. 
Assigned to lead that task force was a man named Troy Cole, who later co- 
authored a self-serving book about the Berdella case. The selection of Cole was a 
provocative one: he was, by his own admission, a ‘former’ employee of the CIA. 
Cole’s law enforcement career began at CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia in 
1968. He was assigned to the White House. Two years later, he left the employ of 
the CIA, officially at least, to work for the District of Columbia police force. In 
1972, he joined the Kansas City force, where he was assigned to homicide and, 
naturally enough, the department’s intelligence unit. 

David McGowan • 251 

The search warrant for Berdella’s home was obtained by officer Tom Eikel, 
who had been to Bob’s house previously, with two young male hustler/inform- 
ants, on an undercover assignment to make a drug purchase. No arrests had been 
made and no charges had been filed following that transaction. The search of 
Bob’s Bazaar was led by detective Lee Floyd, who had been a visitor to the shop in 
the past. Floyd knew Bob and he knew Bob’s landlord at the flea market, who 
happened to be a former Kansas City police officer. 

Multiple searches of the home, which reportedly had a putrid odor, uncovered 
a wealth of evidence. Voluminous notes kept by Berdella were found, as well as 
meticulously detailed logs of the tortures he had inflicted upon his victims. 
Flundreds of photographs taken into custody depicted as many as twenty differ- 
ent men being tortured. Numerous videotapes, audiotapes and films were taken 
into custody as well, but their contents were never revealed. Human skulls were 
found. Tests revealed that two large plastic trash barrels and a smaller bucket had 
at one time been filled with blood. A sizable stockpile of powerful pharmaceuti- 
cals was seized, including Acepromazine, Chlorpromazine, and Ketamine. In the 
yard were human vertebrae that had been cut into pieces with a Skilsaw, just as 
Leonard Lake and Charles Ng had done at Wilseyville. 

Amazingly enough, despite all the evidence, Troy Cole announced that the 
investigation was not being treated as a homicide case. That stance became some- 
what harder to justify when the housing of a chainsaw discovered at the house 
was found to be packed with human flesh, blood and hair. Around the time of 
that discovery, the FBI was brought in to assist on the case. 

Victim Chris Bryson had been taken, strangely enough, to the Research 
Psychiatric Center to recover from his injuries. Berdella had been arrested and 
placed in a medical unit; his cell was a steel box with no bars and no windows. He 
was cut off from all contact with other inmates and kept heavily drugged with 
sleeping pills. Bob’s dogs had been sent to the city pound, where they reportedly 
refused to eat dog food. At home, they had dined on “mystery meat.” Boarders 
spoke of eating “mystery meat” as well. Many in the community recalled with 
horror how Berdella had often prepared casseroles for potluck dinners at the flea 
market, and for neighborhood functions. 

Bob was allowed one frequent, though quite clandestine, visitor — a Reverend 
Roger Coleman. The two men had a longstanding relationship, as evidenced by 
the fact that Coleman had been at the grand opening of Bob’s Bazaar. In a bid to 
get him released from prison, he offered to let Berdella stay at his home, with his 
family, if the state agreed to release him on bond. Coleman later held a press con- 
ference and arranged a public television interview on Berdella’s behalf. 

More information about Berdella emerged as investigators continued to talk 
to witnesses. Some reports linked Bob to the disappearances of two paperboys in 


Programmed to Kill 

Des Moines, Iowa — the same disappearances that were linked to Larry King and 
Michael Aquino. Some witnesses claimed that Berdella had been killing his vic- 
tims in satanic ritual sacrifices. Others told of Bob making regular trips to a farm 
south of the city, frequently accompanied by heavy trash bags. Three different 
farms in the area were later identified, but it was deemed impractical to search 

As frequently happens in serial killer cases, prosecutors chose to take their evi- 
dence to a grand jury, whose proceedings are conducted in secrecy, rather than 
holding a public preliminary trial. The grand jury handed down an indictment for 
the murder of Larry Pearson. Evidence reportedly included a detailed torture log, 
about sixty Polaroid photos, and Pearson’s skull. A public defender appeared in 
court to represent Berdella, but the judge informed him that his services would 
not needed; instead, the judge had opted to appoint private counsel for the defen- 
dant. Bob promptly entered a plea of guilty to the single count of first-degree mur- 
der. As the judge questioned him about his plea, he gave responses that his 
chroniclers described as “flat” and “emotionless.” He was given a life sentence with 
no possibility for parole. Berdella’s trial was over before it had even begun. 

In September 1988, Bob was arraigned on additional murder counts. This 
time, he entered pleas of not guilty. The next month, Geraldo Rivera hosted a 
Halloween special on Satanism as only Geraldo can — which means that the sub- 
ject was relegated to television’s equivalent of the tabloid press. Nevertheless, 
Geraldo managed to round up a number of witnesses who claimed that Berdella 
had been involved in a satanic cult. One of those witnesses was detective Lee Orr 
of the Kansas City, Kansas police force. One woman claimed to have witnessed 
Berdella performing a ritual murder. 

It should not have come as much of a surprise to the investigators who 
searched Berdella’s house and shop to find that Bob had a keen interest in the 
occult. Satanic and occult artifacts were scattered throughout the house. At least 
twenty books on Satanism and/or witchcraft were found, along with books on 
sadism and a literary work entitled How to Create Poisons and Antidotes to Them. 
A record album entitled Black Mass for Lucifer sat atop Bob’s turntable. Clippings 
of serial killer stories were scattered about. Buried in the yard was a jar containing 
bird feathers. The Bizarre Bazaar was filled with occult paraphernalia. 

Lead investigator Troy Cole, nevertheless, scoffed at the claims made on the 
show and insisted that the Berdella case had nothing to do with Satanism. Cole 
was not the only one to scoff at the claims; Michael Aquino did as well. Aquino 
was one of those to appear on Geraldo’s special. His primary goal appeared to 
have been to denounce any and all prosecutions of satanic crime as “witch hunts.” 
The morning after the special aired, police received a call from the wife of one of 
Berdella’s known victims. She told them that she had information for them but 

David McGowan • 253 

could not talk about it at the time. She promised to call back. She was never 
heard from again. 

With Berdella serving a life term, a rather morbid auction was scheduled to dis- 
pose of all his property, both from his home and from his place of business. A local 
millionaire and convicted bank robber named Delbert Dunmire consistently outbid 
all other bidders for such items as a custom-designed torture bed and a collection of 
ceremonial robes. The auction was ultimately cancelled when Dunmire offered to 
purchase the remaining inventory. The next month, he bought Bob’s house as well. 
He then leveled it, destroying all remaining evidence, and sold the vacant lot. It 
seems very likely that those actions were taken to hide evidence of the involvement 
of others, including possibly Dunmire himself .^ 1 

Cole’s team claimed that Berdella gave full confessions to his crimes. But they 
appear to have been very carefully crafted ‘confessions’ that were given in total 
secrecy. All of the confession sessions were held in a private room in the county 
jail. Rather than employing the services of a court reporter, the task force brought 
in a private stenographer. All aspects of the resulting confessions were tailored to 
conform to the state’s version of events. Bob confessed to precisely six murders, 
which was the official tally. No new names appeared in the confessions. Bob 
claimed that he disposed of the bodies in the trash, not at the farms that he fre- 
quently visited. He denied having any links to any satanic groups. He took sole 
responsibility for all of the crimes. He quashed the recurrent rumors of police 
involvement. He claimed that a torture log that did not match up with any of the 
six official victims referred to experiments he had performed on a stray dog. And, 
most provocatively, he explained away a specific reference in one of his logs to Lt. 
Col. Oliver North. His claim was as follows: “We just had the TV on, and appar- 
ently something about Ollie North came on.” There is no indication that 
Berdella felt compelled at any other time to dutifully record in his logs what was 
transpiring on the television. 

3 1 It will be recalled that Henry Lee Lucas claimed that the upper echelons of the cult 
that he was involved with included men of wealth and power. Berkowitz has made the 
same claims of the ‘Son of Sam’ cult. Journalist Maury Terry has uncovered evidence 
suggesting the involvement of such figures as high-rolling art dealer Andrew Crispo 
and would-be Cotton Club producer Roy Radin. Crispo admitted to being present at 
the scene of a ritual homicide, accompanied by the son of a UN executive, but he 
denied participating in the grisly murder. Radin, on the other hand, became a victim 
of one of the cult’s ritual executions. He was shot repeatedly in the head with a shot- 
gun by three of magazine publisher Larry Flynt’s former bodyguards. One of them 
was Manson associate Bill Mentzer. 

254 • Programmed to Kill 

Berdella ultimately received two life sentences and two conditional life sen- 
tences. They would prove to be very short life sentences. He served only a few years 
at a maximum-security facility before he died, officially of a heart attack. Many sus- 
pect the true cause of death was poisoning. Bob Berdella was just forty-three. 

Gary Heidnik was born in 1 943 to a father who was described as a strict disci- 
plinarian. In the ninth grade, Gary enrolled at the prestigious Staunton Military 
Academy in Virginia. In 1961, he joined the Army and was, as previously noted, 
sent for medic training and then assigned to a field hospital in West Germany. 
After three months there, he went on sick call and was given Stelazine, a powerful 
tranquilizer normally used to treat severely psychotic states. Records do not indi- 
cate that Gary was suffering from such a condition at that time. 

In January 1963, Heidnik was honorably discharged with a service-related 
mental disability. Not long after that, he earned a degree as a licensed practical 
nurse and then began training as a psychiatric nurse at a VA hospital. Over the 
next two-and-a-half decades, he would be hospitalized as a psychiatric patient at 
least twenty-five times, and he would attempt suicide at least seventeen times. 
And those figures are far from complete, since there is an unexplained six-year 
gap in Gary’s medical records. 

On Halloween night, 1966, Heidnik drove his motorcycle into a head-on col- 
lision. Four years later, his mother succeeded in doing what Gary and his brother 
Terry had failed at repeatedly: she killed herself. 

In the spring of 1971, Gary paid a visit to Malibu, California. It is unclear 
what the purpose of that trip was, but just after returning to Philadelphia 
Heidnik decided to start his own church. On October 12, 1971, the birth date of 
Aleister Crowley, the United Church of the Ministers of God was formally incor- 
porated. Gary and Terry Heidnik were both founding members. Most of the ini- 
tial members of the congregation were institutionalized black women whom the 
state had labeled ‘retarded.’ At that same time, elsewhere in the country, Jim 
Jones was getting his church up and running as well — and he was going about it 
the same way: by recruiting institutionalized black women. 

In September 1972, Heidnik was released from one of his numerous stays in 
institutions. From that point forward, there is a six-year gap in Gary’s records. 
Very little can be discerned of his activities during that time period. No one, 
including Heidnik, can account for most of that six-year span. It is almost as if 
Gary Heidnik ceased to exist for an extended period of time, and then he reap- 
peared. All that is known is that in 1975, on the vernal equinox, ‘Bishop’ Heidnik 

David McGowan • 255 

opened a tax-free Merrill Lynch account on behalf of his church with an initial 
deposit of $1,500. It was not long before that account was valued at an astound- 
ing $545,000. In 1976, Heidnik reportedly fired a gun at an unidentified man. 
The bullet grazed the victim’s face. Gary was charged only with aggravated assault 
and carrying a gun without a license, although assault with a deadly weapon and 
attempted murder would have been more appropriate charges. After one week, 
the charges were dropped entirely. 

Heidnik was not heard from again until 1978. It was at that time that he came 
up with the idea of checking a girl out of an institution and chaining her in his 
basement, where he could repeatedly torture and rape her. Gary was caught in 
fairly short order and charged with an array of crimes, including kidnapping, 
rape, false imprisonment, unlawful restraint, involuntary deviate sexual inter- 
course, interfering with the custody of a committed person, and recklessly endan- 
gering another person. In November 1978, Gary waived his right to a jury trial 
and placed his fate in the hands of the judge. It proved to be a wise decision. The 
judge dropped all the felony counts after determining that the victim was too 
‘retarded’ to testify. Heidnik was found guilty only of various misdemeanor 
charges. He received a 3-7 year prison sentence, but never set foot in an actual 
prison. Instead, he spent four-and-a-half years institutionalized at various hospi- 
tals and was set free on April 12, 1983. By 1986, his church was thriving and he 
had a steady flow of women passing through his home. On November 26, 1986, 
one of them, Josefina Rivera, found herself imprisoned in Heidnik’s basement. 

Three days later, Sandra Lindsay joined Rivera in the basement. Lindsay had 
known Gary since the two had been institutionalized together at the Elwyn 
Institute, where she had been formally classified as ‘mildly retarded.’ Lindsay’s 
family knew Heidnik as well, and they knew a man named Tony Brown, who 
sometimes lived at Gary’s house. Brown was a regular visitor to the Lindsay 
home. Heidnik and Brown reportedly shared a number of girlfriends. 

Sandra’s mother reported her daughter’s disappearance and she gave the inves- 
tigating officers Heidnik’s name, address and telephone number. Little effort was 
made to contact him. In his basement, Sandra was subjected to all manner of 
physical and psychological torture. Gary’s prisoners were either not fed at all or 
they were fed dog food. That was later supplemented with the ground flesh of the 
prisoners who did not survive their ordeal. Survivors were given a choice between 
starvation and cannibalism. They were repeatedly raped by their captor and 
forced to sexually assault each other. They were kept chained at all times, some- 
times in a manner that forced them to remain in an awkward standing position 
for hours. They were tortured with electric shocks. On occasion, they were forced 
into a covered pit. Their eardrums were gouged with a screwdriver to prevent 
them from hearing when their captor came and went from the house. 

256 • Programmed to Kill 

On the winter solstice of 1986, Gary added Lisa Thomas to his collection. 
Deborah Dudley was added as well, around the same time. Heidnik by then had 
several women chained in his basement, and yet, throughout the time that he was 
collecting his sex slaves, he continued to have consensual sexual encounters with 
other women, some of whom he regularly brought to his home. One of those 
women later said that Josefina Rivera sometimes accompanied Gary on his dates, 
and appeared to do so voluntarily. 

In January 1987, Heidnik appeared in court, acting as his own attorney, to 
answer charges that he had fallen behind on support payments to his ex-wife. The 
previous January, following attacks on his estranged wife, Gary had been charged 
by the DA’s office with spousal rape, involuntary deviate sexual intercourse and 
indecent assault. Those charges were all dismissed. 

On February 7, 1987, one of Heidnik’s sex-slaves-in-training, Sandra Lindsay, 
died. Shortly afterwards, the remaining prisoners heard the sounds of a power saw 
and an industrial food processor that Gary had rushed out to buy. He reportedly 
ground up some parts of Lindsay’s corpse and cooked others. His remaining cap- 
tives wisely began to work out an escape plan, but Rivera tipped Heidnik off and 
the plan was foiled. Three days after Sandra’s death, neighbors became concerned 
about the stench of burning flesh emanating from Heidnik’s home. The police 
were called and quickly discovered that it was impossible to see into the home 
and difficult to gain entry. The shades were all drawn tight and rips in them had 
been carefully and thoroughly duct taped. A security steel door had been installed 
and all the home’s windows were heavily barred. Neighbors demanded that the 
responding officer knock down the door and search the residence, but he 
declined to do so. It does not appear that there was any follow-up investigation 
after that initial visit to the house. 

About five weeks later, Gary lost another of his prisoners: Deborah Dudley 
was electrocuted while immersed in the water-filled pit. Around that same time, 
Josefina Rivera began going out with Gary to troll for replacement sex slaves. On 
March 23, just after the spring equinox, the two of them abducted Agnes Adams. 
The next day the prisoners broke free, looking very much like they had just 
emerged from a prisoner-of-war camp. Heidnik was promptly arrested, along 
with Tony Brown, who was initially charged as an accomplice. Gary was taken to 
the Philadelphia Detention Center and held in isolation, cut off from contact 
with other inmates. Brown was the first to relate to detectives the morbid details 
of the crimes. He claimed that he had seen Heidnik cutting up and raping a 
corpse. The freezer in the house was partially filled with human body parts. 
Human bones were found in the yard, cut up with a saw — just as Lake and 
Berdella had done. Also discovered in the home, not surprisingly, was a large 
cache of Thorazine. 

David McGowan • 257 

Investigators soon discovered that Heidnik had considerable financial 
resources. In addition to his church’s investment account, valued at well over 
$500,000, he had at least one personal account with a substantial balance. He 
also had a new, fully-loaded Cadillac, a Rolls Royce, a Dodge van and a Dodge 
Dart. When taken into custody, he had $2,000 cash in his pocket. 

Heidnik’s preliminary hearing began in April 1987. The prosecution team was 
led by Ronald Castille, a former Marine platoon commander in Vietnam. 
Heidnik was charged with an array of crimes, including murder, kidnapping, 
rape, aggravated assault, involuntary deviate sexual intercourse, indecent expo- 
sure, false imprisonment, unlawful restraint, simple assault, recklessly endanger- 
ing another person, indecent assault, criminal solicitation, and possession and 
abuse of a corpse. Gary’s victims were called to offer their testimony at the pre- 
liminary proceedings. Josefina Rivera reportedly spoke in a detached, flat, emo- 
tionless voice. The other women testified that Rivera frequently beat them, even 
when Gary was not there, and seemed to enjoy doing so. She was referred to as 
the “boss of the basement.” 

On April 6, victim Lisa Thomas filed a civil petition asking for the assets of 
Heidnik’s church to be frozen and a conservator appointed pending resolution of 
a civil suit brought against Heidnik by the victims. The church’s assets were 
frozen, but the judge opted to hold off for two weeks on appointing the conser- 
vator, who was appointed on April 20. Two hours before that appointment, how- 
ever, Heidnik filed for Chapter 1 1 bankruptcy protection. Eight days later, 
federal courts claimed jurisdiction over the assets case. Strangely, Heidnik’s will 
specified that those assets should go to the Veteran’s Administration and the Peace 

On May 1 , Tony Brown was quietly released from custody. Two weeks after 
Heidnik’s trial concluded, all charges against him were dropped and authorities 
thereafter pretended as though he had never been named as an accomplice. 

On August 9, 1987, police raided a local apartment and made a gruesome dis- 
covery. The remains of five women were found in a bedroom that had been nailed 
shut. Another body was found in a closet that had also been nailed shut. Parts of 
a seventh body were found on the roof of the building and in the basement of a 
neighboring building. A ‘retarded’ black man named Harrison “Marty” Graham 
was taken into custody and dubbed the “Madman of Marshall Street.” He con- 
fessed that his killings had begun the previous winter, about the time that Gary 
began collecting his victims. Graham also confessed to having committed acts of 
necrophilia. Officials denied that there were any connections between the 
Heidnik and Graham cases. Their homes were less than two miles apart. 

Chuck Peruto was assigned as Heidnik’s defense counsel. Trial watchers 
noted that he had a penchant for young, shapely women. Lynne Abraham was 


Programmed to Kill 

the presiding judge. She had previously worked for District Attorney Arlen 
Specter, most notable for concocting the ‘single bullet theory’ to explain the 
Kennedy assassination. She had also worked for HUD and for Mayor Frank 
Rizzo’s Redevelopment Authority before being elevated to the bench. During 
her tenure as a prosecutor, Abraham had been known to surprise the city’s med- 
ical examiners by showing up to view autopsies, for reasons best known only to 
her. During the opening phase of Heidnik’s trial, she distinguished herself by 
repeatedly interrupting the questioning of potential jurors. Even so, the jury 
was seated in just one-and-a-half days, a notable feat for such a high-profile 

Gary was kept heavily dosed with Thorazine throughout the trial. He sat at 
the defense table staring straight ahead, saying nothing and, by all appearances, 
hearing and seeing nothing. He was described by trial watchers as nearly cata- 
tonic. His fitness to stand trial and participate in his own defense was apparently 
never questioned. His attorney’s opening statement would have been remarkable 
were it not for the fact that it was virtually the same opening statement that has 
been offered by so many other serial killer advocates: “The judge said something 
this morning about people being innocent until proven guilty. My client is not 
innocent. He is very, very guilty.” 

All testimony concerning the medical treatment that Heidnik received while 
in the military in Germany was disallowed. The jury never saw the documenta- 
tion of Gary’s unwitting participation in military LSD experiments. The jury 
never heard that only 1 in 79,000 military veterans who apply for benefits due to 
a mental disability get a 1 00% disability rating and are awarded benefits for life. 
Heidnik had received such a deal, and he had not even filed for it. A man named 
Jack Apshe — a former helicopter door-gunner in Vietnam turned psychologist 
specializing in records research — arrived in court with extensive, meticulously 
organized records of Heidnik’s psychiatric history (minus the six years for which 
no records exist). Virtually all of Apshe’s well-documented evidence was disal- 
lowed. The ruling by the judge to disallow the introduction of that evidence was 
a most unusual one, however, in that it seemed to bar only the defense from 
introducing the material, but not the prosecution or the judge herself. The state 
was allowed to pick and choose which documents it wanted entered into evi- 
dence, and Judge Abraham even handpicked some of the documents and read 
them into the record. 

The judge also disallowed all questions pertaining to the possible involvement 
of Tony Brown. What she did allow introduced into evidence was Heidnik’s past 
criminal record. While that would normally be inadmissible, Abraham allowed it 
in through a back-door route: the testimony of his former captives to whom he 
had bragged of his past exploits. He had also told them that he had killed six 

David McGowan • 259 

women in all, though no other victims were ever identified. The picture of 
Josefina Rivera that emerged at trial was of a mind-controlled accomplice to 
Gary. Victim Agnes Adams testified that she had seen Josefina working the streets 
two weeks before her own capture, which occurred several weeks after Rivera had 
been imprisoned. Rivera herself admitted on the stand that there were times 
when she was left unsupervised and could have escaped. The other victims named 
her along with Heidnik in the civil suits that were filed. 

A Dr. Clancy MacKenzie was called as a witness for the defense, but his testi- 
mony certainly did not benefit the defendant. Peruto went so far as to label his 
own witness a “flake” in comments that appeared in print. He did not bother 
though to explain why it was he who had called that flake to the stand. 

Following the feeble attempt to mount a defense, the jury was sequestered to 
begin deliberations. Strangely, a gag order that had been issued early on, purport- 
edly so as not to contaminate the jury, remained in effect. The jury returned 
guilty verdicts on two counts of murder and multiple counts of rape, kidnapping, 
aggravated assault, and involuntary deviate sexual intercourse. During the penalty 
phase that followed, not a single defense witnesses was called. Peruto’s closing 
argument, with his client’s life on the line, lasted just four minutes. Two death 
sentences were delivered after less than two hours of deliberations. 

A psychiatric report prepared after the trial stated: “From Gary Heidnik’s his- 
tory it was clear that his first psychosis was facilitated by a near lethal dose of hal- 
lucinogenic substance given to him while he was in Germany in the military.” 
The same report noted, “Heidnik’s recall of the four months with the women is 
very hazy and dream-like.” Whether such information would have influenced the 
jury, whose members likely had no awareness of the implications of the MK- 
ULTRA projects in which Heidnik was verifiably involved, is largely a matter of 
speculation. One of those jurors was, oddly enough, a research chemist with PPG 

Jeffrey Dahmer was born in I960, the son of a research chemist with PPG 
Industries. Father Lionel Dahmer, Ph.D. — who admitted that he, as a boy, had 
been fascinated with fire and the art of bomb making — recalled that at thirteen he 
had wanted to hypnotize a girl so that he “could control her entirely.” Lionel 
Dahmer also said that Jeffrey had been molested at the age of eight, purportedly by 
a neighborhood boy. By the age of ten, Jeff was experimenting with dead animals 
and learning to use acid to dispose of the bodies. In 1975, three neighborhood 

260 • Programmed to Kill 

kids found a mutilated dog in the woods behind the Dahmer home, its decapi- 
tated, gutted carcass hanging from a tree. A cross of sticks was nearby. 

Three years later, while on a senior class trip to Washington, D.C., Jeffrey 
Dahmer made a call from a payphone and then announced to his high school 
classmates that he had secured them an appointment to visit the office of the vice- 
president of the United States. Though his friends naturally were skeptical, Jeffrey 
did indeed lead them on a tour of Walter Mondale’s office, followed by a visit to 
the office of prominent writer Art Buchwald. It has never been explained how the 
aspiring serial killer had established such impressive contacts in Washington. And 
it has never been revealed who it was that Dahmer called that day to arrange the 
impromptu private tours. 

A girl who dated Jeffrey briefly during their senior year recalled one date dur- 
ing which a seance was conducted at the Dahmer home. Someone in the group 
had suggested that it might be a good idea to try to contact Satan. The girl made 
a hasty exit from the house. Just after Jeffrey’s graduation, in 1978, his parents 
filed for divorce, both of them accusing the other of extreme cruelty. Jeffrey later 
claimed that he killed for the first time that summer, but no evidence was ever 
produced to support that claim. The identity of the purported victim was deter- 
mined by having Dahmer choose from a collection of photographs of boys who 
had been reported missing around that time. 

Jeff enrolled at Ohio State University but attended for just one quarter before 
being taken to a military recruiter by his father. He began his military career on 
January 12, 1979. Like Heidnik, Dahmer sought training as a military policeman 
but was instead trained as a medic. He completed his training on the summer sol- 
stice and he was then assigned to a West German military hospital. Dahmer was 
processed out of the service at Fort Jackson, South Carolina on March 26, 1981. 
His release came early, allegedly due to chronic alcoholism, but it was an honor- 
able discharge with full benefits. 

Jeffrey next surfaced in Miami, Florida, where he briefly stayed before moving 
back home and in with his father and stepmother. In October 1981, he was 
arrested for disorderly conduct, possession of an open container of alcohol and 
resisting arrest. He paid a $60.00 fine and was sent on his way. Shortly after that, 
he moved in with his paternal grandmother. In 1982, he was arrested for indecent 
exposure. He again paid a nominal fine. In January 1985, he began working at 
the Ambrosia Chocolate Company. At about that same time, he began regularly 
visiting Milwaukee’s gay bars and bathhouses, experimenting on unsuspecting 
victims with surreptitious druggings. The Club Bath Milwaukee was a favored lab 
for his field experiments. The bathhouse owners were well aware of Jeffrey’s activ- 
ities, but little if anything was done to curtail them. 

David McGowan • 261 

In March 1987, Dahmer was again arrested for indecent exposure, after mas- 
turbating in front of two young boys. He paid $42 in court costs and was given 
a one-year suspended sentence, from which he was released in March 1988. At 
that time, Dahmer was still living with his grandmother. It was in her basement 
that he allegedly began dismembering and dissolving bodies. His first victim was 
purportedly killed in a hotel and then brought back to grandmas house in a suit- 
case transported by taxi. The body of his second victim was allegedly allowed to 
ripen in her basement for a week. The odor, needless to say, would have been 
unbearable. Nevertheless, it was claimed that grandma had no idea what Jeffrey 
was up to in the basement. 

In September 1988, Dahmer got his own apartment, which soon became one 
of America’s most infamous death houses. That very same month he was accused 
of molesting a young boy. The following May he was convicted of second-degree 
sexual assault. Despite an appeal to the court by Lionel Dahmer, Jeffrey received 
a three-year sentence. He served just ten months in a minimum-security facility 
on a work release program that allowed him to continue working at the chocolate 
factory. He reportedly kept a mummified head and genitals in his work locker 
during that time. On Thanksgiving, Dahmer was given a rare gift: twelve hours 
of freedom. He returned late and visibly intoxicated, with no repercussions. 

In early 1990, Dahmer was released on parole. He remained on parole 
throughout his killing spree, but no one ever visited his home to check up on 
him. 52 That would later become the basis of a lawsuit filed by the survivors of 
some of Dahmer’s victims. The suit plausibly contended that a routine visit 
would have saved countless lives. Before Jeffrey’s parole records were made public, 
they were, in the words of chronicler Don Davis, “well vacuumed” and “mostly 
blanked out.” The Wisconsin Department of Corrections ordered Dahmer’s 
parole officer, Donna Chester, not to talk to the press. 

In July 1990, Dahmer hit a fifteen-year-old boy over the head with a rubber 
mallet and then attempted to strangle him. Following the attack, he then inexpli- 
cably called the kid a taxi and sent him on his way. The victim was taken to a 
medical center where he gave police an address and a description of his assailant. 
No one bothered to investigate the incident. At about that same time, Jeffrey 
acquired a 57-gallon drum of acid, which he purportedly brought home in a taxi 
(he never owned a car) and muscled up to his apartment by himself. Two men 
and a moving dolly were required to remove the drum. 

32 Dahmer’s situation was not a unique one; Ed Kemper was supposed to have regular 
contact with both a parole officer and a social worker throughout his killing spree, but 
he never contacted either of them and no one was ever sent to check on him. 

262 • Programmed to Kill 

In May 1 99 1 , a fourteen-year-old boy was seen fleeing Dahmer’s apartment by 
two young women who called the police to report the incident. The boy was 
naked, bleeding and drugged into a near-stupor. The responding officers chose to 
believe Dahmer’s tale of a lover’s quarrel, even though the witnesses, who were 
still on the scene, angrily informed them that they had seen the terror-stricken 
boy actively resisting Dahmer’s efforts to restrain him, and despite the fact that 
the victim was clearly a minor. The witnesses claimed that the officers told them 
go away and refused to take their names. They opted not to run a routine back- 
ground check on the possible suspect, which would have revealed that Dahmer 
was a convicted child molester who was still on parole from his previous molesta- 
tion conviction. The victim of that previous molestation was the brother of the 
bleeding, terrified young boy in front of Jeffrey Dahmer’s apartment. 

Amazingly enough, the three officers on the scene claimed that they actually 
accompanied the pair back to Dahmer’s apartment and noticed nothing amiss 
there. That was in spite of the fact that there was a three-day-old rotting corpse 
lying on the bed, with the attendant smell of death permeating the apartment. 
There was also an abundance of morbid artifacts and photos lying about the 
home. Nevertheless, the officers purportedly saw nothing wrong and left the 
scene with the victim still in Dahmer’s custody. As soon as they left, Dahmer 
killed the boy and then raped and disemboweled the corpse. The mother of one 
of the two witnesses called the police after reading a newspaper account of a miss- 
ing boy who closely resembled the naked young man, but her concerns were dis- 
missed. She then contacted the local FBI office, but she was rebuffed there as 
well. The woman claimed that she was instructed not to talk to the press. 

Dahmer’s last intended victim was Tracy Edwards, a thirty-one-year-old father 
of six. Edwards had recently jumped bail in Mississippi on charges of sexually 
battering a thirteen-year-old girl. He escaped from his would-be abductor and 
went to authorities with a description of the assailant and his rancid smelling 
apartment. Edwards told police that he had seen Dahmer undergo a sudden, rad- 
ical transformation: “His face was completely changed. I wouldn’t have recog- 
nized him. It was as if the devil himself stood in front of me.” The apartment, he 
said, was filled with photos of male torsos. 

It was filled with considerably more than that. There were bloodstains on the 
bed. There was an extensive collection of photos depicting bodies in various 
stages of dismemberment. Four intact heads were found, one in the refrigerator 
and three in a freezer. Another freezer was filled with wrapped, unmarked meat 
and a human heart. A file drawer was filled with bones. The barrel of acid was 
brimming with miscellaneous body parts. One kettle was filled with skulls and 
another contained severed hands and penises. Seven skulls in all were found. 
Gruesome photo albums were scattered about the house. 

David McGowan • 263 

Dahmer was initially charged with four counts of murder, and his bail was set 
at $1,000,000. Prosecutors soon added eight additional murder counts and raised 
the bail amount to $5,000,000. Another three counts were then added, although 
there were no body parts or photos to support the additional charges. Prosecutors 
claimed that one photo album had been destroyed. They also claimed that the 
bodies of the victims depicted in that particular album had been, conveniently 
enough, tossed out with the trash. 

Jeffrey’s trial began in January 1992. His attorney, Gerald Boyle, who had pre- 
viously set his sights on becoming the city’s District Attorney, had waived his 
client’s right to a preliminary trial. Boyle had also allowed his client to give 
detailed confessions to his crimes during lengthy interrogations. Dahmer entered 
a plea of guilty but insane. He was given a 937-year prison sentence. By the end 
of the year, his apartment building had been destroyed. The three police officers 
who had, unknowingly or otherwise, aided and abetted the serial killer were 
cleared of any wrongdoing. 

There were, inevitably, questions that were left unanswered by the trial. Two of 
the victims had been abducted from Chicago, and Dahmer did not own or have 
the use of a car. How were those victims transported? The remains of some vic- 
tims were never found. Were their bodies really disposed of in the trash? And if 
so, why did Dahmer choose to dispose of only a select few bodies? Some aspects 
of Jeffrey’s confessions were completely unsupported by the evidence. To what 
extent did Dahmer’s interrogators shape those confessions? One victim’s grand- 
mother reported receiving several phone calls during which she heard groaning, 
choking and faint cries of “help me, help me, help me.” Those calls came a few 
weeks after the disappearance of her grandson. Was he kept alive for an extended 
period of time? 

Dahmer, like all collectors, was obsessed with gaining control over his victims. 
His preferred means of doing so, and of disposing of the bodies that accumulated 
from his failed experiments, was through the use of chemicals — an interest that 
was acquired, perhaps, from his research chemist father. Jeff was reportedly work- 
ing on perfecting a home lobotomy procedure that involved drilling a hole in the 
victim’s forehead and then injecting various combinations of chemicals. 

Dahmer has been described as a ‘dabbler’ in Satanism, but it is likely that he 
was more than just a dabbler. In his apartment, he had a detailed plan for con- 
structing a satanic altar. The plan incorporated the human skulls and other arti- 
facts that he had been collecting. He told authorities that he believed that by 
constructing the altar, and by consuming the flesh of his victims, he would be 
infused with “special powers and energies” that would help him to succeed 
socially and financially. Oddly enough, in March 1999 the brother of one of 

264 • Programmed to Kill 

Dahmer’s victims was found stabbed to death. Police described the young man’s 
death as a ritual sacrifice. 

Dahmer served just two years of his prison sentence before he was inexplicably 
paired with two homicidal inmates on an unsupervised work detail. Only one of 
the three made it through the day. It was not, needless to say, Jeffrey Dahmer. 
After his death, Lionel Dahmer waged a macabre battle with Jeff’s mother over 
preserving his brain for study. 

As a child, Herb Baumeister reportedly never showed any emotion, even when 
his father became physical, which apparently happened quite frequently. Herb 
Baumeister, Sr. had served in WWII, after which he graduated from Indiana 
University’s School of Medicine and began work as an anesthesiologist. His son 
and namesake initially set out to follow in his father’s academic footsteps, by 
enrolling in college as an anatomy major. Unlike his father, however, Herb, Jr. 
dropped out of school. He then married Juliana Saiter, the daughter of a superin- 
tendent at the Naval Air Warfare Center. Herb and Juliana were both members of 
the Young Republicans, as was Ted Bundy. 

Not long after the marriage, Herb’s father had his newlywed son committed to 
Larue D. Carter Memorial Hospital, a state-run mental hospital. The Carter 
facility catered to patients with serious mental impairments, yet there is no indi- 
cation that Herb was, at that time, seriously impaired. And if he had been, his 
father was an extremely wealthy man who could have easily afforded to get his 
son private care. Herb, Sr.’s choice of facilities, therefore, was a rather odd one. 
Long before the confinement at Carter, Herb, Sr. had reportedly secreted his 
young son off to be administered ‘mental examinations.’ 

Herb was released from the Carter facility after two months. His diagnosis 
noted that he exhibited two or more distinct personalities. Following his confine- 
ment, Baumeister took a job at the Indianapolis Star. The position that he took at 
the newspaper was known to be regularly filled by the sons and daughters of the 
wealthy and powerful. Herb’s next job, driving a hearse, provided him with his 
requisite ‘blooding.’ Herb, Sr. then once again pulled some strings to land Herb, 
Jr. a position with the Bureau of Motor Vehicles, where one of his duties was serv- 
ing as the Bureau’s liaison to the Indiana state police. 

Herb left the Bureau in 1985 and thereafter remained unemployed while wife 
Juliana occupied her time doing volunteer work. In 1986, warrants were issued 
for Herb’s arrest on charges of theft and conspiracy to commit theft. True to 
form, Baumeister opted to waive his right to a jury trial and place his fate in the 

David McGowan • 265 

hands of a judge. The bench trial, such as it was, was over in just one day; Herb 
was found not guilty on all counts. 

By that time, the Baumeisters had been living quite well for an extended 
period of time, even though neither of them was gainfully employed. Herb then 
decided that the time was right to start up his own business. With a $350,000 
loan from his mother, he opened a thrift store. In 1988, in conjunction with the 
Children’s Bureau of Indianapolis, he founded Thrift Management, Inc. Herb’s 
close association with the Children’s Bureau — which primarily catered to 
orphans, the type of victims who aren’t likely to be missed — hints at the possibil- 
ity that his thrift store business was a cover for more profitable, and nefarious, 
business pursuits. 

By 1990, Herb’s company was growing rapidly and a second Sav-A-Lot outlet 
opened its doors for business. To staff his stores, Herb assembled a workforce of 
attractive, young, male employees — just as John Gacy had done. By all outward 
appearances, things were going quite well for the Baumeisters. In November 
1991, Herb, Juliana and their three kids moved into a new home: a four-bed- 
room, five-bathroom estate with an indoor pool situated on 18.5 acres. Known as 
‘Fox Hollow Farm,’ the property also featured a barn and horse stables. The fam- 
ily maintained a second home as well, and also had access to a condominium on 
Lake Wawasee owned by Herb’s mother. 

Three years after moving to Fox Hollow Farm, thirteen-year-old Erich 
Baumeister discovered a skeleton in the backyard. He dutifully reported his find 
to his mother, but Julie told no one, including the police, of her son’s discovery. 
By that time, young gay men and male prostitutes in the Indianapolis area 33 had 
been disappearing for a very long time. From about 1980 on, their bodies began 
surfacing in Indiana and western Ohio. Many were strangled and deposited along 
Ohio’s Interstate 70. One victim had his arms, legs and head severed and his torso 
completely drained of blood. The severed parts were never recovered. Four bodies 
were found clustered together on October 14, 1983, in what was described as a 
private graveyard. A nearby barn was found to contain both a pentagram and an 
inverted cross. 

In the mid-1980s, a man from Terre Haute, Indiana named Larry Eyler con- 
fessed to kidnapping, torturing and murdering as many as twenty-three of the 
victims. The second victim that he took credit for killing disappeared on the eve 
of Halloween, 1982; the sixth went missing on the spring equinox of 1983. Eyler 
claimed that for six of the torture murders, he worked with accomplices. Among 
the accomplices he fingered was Robert David Little, a professor at Indiana State 

33 Indianapolis, interestingly enough, is where the Reverend Jim Jones launched the first 
incarnation of his People’s Temple and gathered his first recruits. 

266 • Programmed to Kill 

University and the former head of the Terre Haute chapter of the ACLU. Little 
and Eyler had lived together since 1975. 

In May 1983, a task force was formed. The following month, dozens of law 
enforcement officials gathered for a summit to review the case. The task force 
made little progress, however, until an anonymous tipster turned in Eyler. From 
that point on, Eyler was purportedly under constant surveillance, but the disap- 
pearances and killings continued. 

Eyler had previously been arrested in August 1978 after attacking and stabbing 
a hitchhiker, who he then left for dead. When taken into custody, Eyler was in 
possession of a sword, three knives and a canister of tear gas. He was charged with 
attempted murder and his bond was initially set at $50,000. After one day, his 
bail was lowered to $10,000, allowing his friends to free him. Eyler’s attorney 
paid off the victim with a check for $2,500 and all charges were dropped. On 
November 13, the presiding judge dismissed the case and ordered Eyler to pay 
just $43 in court costs. Three years later, in 1981, Eyler was again arrested, for 
drugging a fourteen-year-old boy and then dumping his unconscious body. It is 
unclear how that case was disposed of. 

When Eyler was arrested on suspicion of involvement in the 1-70 murders, 
officers reportedly found a bloodstained knife in his truck. The boots that he was 
wearing, which were also bloodstained, matched plaster casts of boot-prints taken 
from one of the crime scenes. The tires on his truck also matched plaster casts of 
tracks present at one of the murder scenes. As legal counsel, Eyler retained David 
Schippers, who later achieved notoriety as the Democratic attorney who pre- 
sented the Republican-controlled House Judiciary Committee’s legally specious 
case for the impeachment of President Clinton, and who later still achieved yet 
more notoriety by raising his voice to question limited aspects of the official 
September 1 1 story. 

In the Eyler case, Schippers promptly filed a motion to suppress all evidence 
seized in the case. His motion was granted and the state’s case against his client 
essentially evaporated. Eyler was freed and he immediately packed up and moved 
to John Gacy’s Chicago, where he was later seen dumping trash bags filled with 
body parts into the trash bin of an apartment building. He was described as hav- 
ing a “glassy” look in his eyes as he went about his task. In addition to his finger- 
prints on the trash bags, investigators who searched his apartment found 
bloodstains, a hacksaw, more trash bags, and a T-shirt belonging to the dismem- 
bered victim. Schippers opted not to represent Eyler again, but he did serve as an 
adviser to the defense team. 

Eyler was convicted and, on October 3, 1986, sentenced to death. Four years 
later, he fingered Professor Robert David Little as the mastermind behind the 
killings. He also claimed that the professor had photographed the sadistic murders 

David McGowan • 267 

in progress. Eyler was administered a polygraph examination, which he reportedly 
passed. Search warrants were served at the home that Little had shared with Eyler 
as well as at Little’s University office. A number of videotapes and photographs 
were seized. Seized phone records revealed that Eyler had established a pattern of 
making late-night telephone calls to the house from various locations, though it is 
unclear if those locations corresponded to the locations of the disappearances. 
Little was indicted, brought to trial, and then acquitted on April 17, 1991. Eyler 
though continued to supply information to investigators, who were attempting to 
build a case against Little and other accomplices. Those efforts came to an abrupt 
end in March 1994, when Eyler died, reportedly from AIDS. 

Many of his victims disappeared from the very same two-square-mile section 
of Indianapolis, peppered with gay bars, that served as Herb’s hunting grounds. 
Like Eyler, who was supplied by a doctor with Placidyl to drug his victims, Herb 
had ready access to drugs, thanks to his father’s prescription pads. Herb had also 
been to Ohio dozens of times in the late 1980s and early 1990s. 

Police first approached Herb and Julie to question them about the disappear- 
ances in November 1995. Herb immediately retained an attorney: James Voyles, 
the lawyer who a few years before had won an acquittal for Robert David Little. 
In May 1996, the Children’s Bureau terminated its contract with Herb and began 
publicly distancing itself from his operation, purportedly because the Sav-A-Lot 
stores were in financial trouble. On June 20, Herb informed his wife that he was 
taking the kids for physical examinations and then enrolling them in a summer 
program at the Culver Military Academy — where aspiring serial killer Doug 
Clark once resided. Julie had other plans, however, and on June 23 she consented 
to a police search of the property. 

When the search began the next day, Herb was away at the lake house with his 
son Erich. Investigators almost immediately discovered human bones and bone 
fragments on the property. They were not hard to find, since they were scattered 
about in plain sight — and there were literally thousands of them. Even though 
indications were that this was a multiple homicide case, it was assigned to 
Detective Sergeant Kenneth Whisman, who had never handled a homicide case. 
Police promptly, and rather ridiculously, claimed that they were days, if not 
weeks, away from being ready to question Herb Baumeister. 

The majority of the bones found at Fox Hollow Farm had been burned, 
crushed and scattered, making identification nearly impossible. It was not possible 
to even estimate the number of victims, though it was determined that there were 
no less than eleven. More than 6,000 bones and bone fragments were recovered. 
Strangely though, no skulls were ever found. Although the site where the bodies 
had been burned, readily identifiable by the scorched ground, was in clear view of 
the home’s kitchen window, Julie Baumeister swore that she knew nothing about 


Programmed to Kill 

the murders. Neighbors, however, questioned how the avid gardener, who spent a 
good deal of time in her yard, could have been unaware of thousands of bones, 
many of them visible to the naked eye. 

Julie Baumeister told police investigators that her husband was an avid video- 
grapher who maintained a private collection of hundreds of tapes. When she led 
them to the storage closet where the tapes were normally kept, however, ail of 
them had suddenly gone missing. Investigators noted that a vent in the wail 
appeared to have been used to hide a video camera for surreptitious filming. A 
witness who had been taken to Fox Hollow Farm by Herb, and whose tips had 
led to the initial questioning of the Baumeisters, reported seeing a closet filled 
with professional video equipment, including cameras, lenses, tripods, and light- 
ing equipment. No such equipment was found during the search. Police seized 
only ten items from the house; five of those items were videotapes. 

Two days after the search of the property began, Julie Baumeister obtained an 
emergency order for temporary custody of her son, Erich. Officers were dis- 
patched to the lake house where Herb was staying and the child was brought 
back. Despite the fact that authorities had already spent two full days excavating 
Baumeisters eighteen-acre graveyard, he was not questioned about the discoveries 
on his property. As soon as the officers left with Erich, Herb promptly disap- 
peared, which did not seem to concern police investigators. Over the next few 
days, searchers discovered a drainage ditch on the property that contained an 
abundance of large bones, but still no skulls. Whisman still insisted that there was 
not enough evidence to issue a warrant for Baumeisters arrest. 

On July 2, a Canadian police officer found Herb sleeping in his car near 
Ontario Park. The officer observed a number of items in the car, including an 
overnight bag, envelopes, newspapers, piles of other, unidentified papers, and 
what appeared to be videotapes. The next day, police again found Herb. This 
time he was in the park by the water’s edge, with a .357 magnum bullet hole in 
his head. His car had been emptied of all personal items. A search of the area 
yielded no evidence that Herb had disposed of any of the items that had been in 
his possession just the night before. None of his possessions were ever recovered 
or accounted for. What was said to be a suicide note was found. It was addressed, 
rather bizarrely, “Attention Canadian Authorities.” 

Around that same time, Baumeisters older brother Brad was found floating in 
a hot tub in Texas. Brad’s death remains an unsolved mystery. Perhaps the 
Baumeister family just had a run of bad luck. 

The day after Herb Baumeisters body was discovered in a park, it was 
autopsied by Canadian authorities, who promptly announced that the autopsy 
report would not be ready for release for “about a year.” Since some of the 1-70 
murders remained unsolved, Indianapolis officials were under intense pressure 

David McGowan • 269 

to investigate any possible connections to the Baumeister case. Police had two 
key pieces of physical evidence that had been gathered from the scenes of the 
unsolved killings: a semen sample and a palm print. The semen sample, how- 
ever, just sort of disappeared. With only the palm print remaining, a technician 
was duly dispatched to obtain a print from Herb’s corpse, still in the custody of 
Canadian officials. 

What followed, purportedly, was a ridiculous series of errors. The technician 
purportedly returned from Canada with a print that was unusable. The official 
story holds that the print simply “didn’t take,” but it was never explained why the 
technician got all the way back to the States before realizing that. He was sent 
back to try again, and once again returned with a print that ‘didn’t take.’ Not to 
be deterred, the technician was sent back a third time, only to find that the corpse 
had been cremated, destroying the last chance that authorities had to definitively 
tie Herb to the 1-70 murders with hard physical evidence. Why officials would 
have repeatedly sent the same obviously incompetent technician has never been 

Through witness statements and circumstantial evidence, however, 
Baumeister was ultimately tied to at least one of the 1-70 victims. No one, need- 
less to say, ever stood trial for the unsolved 1-70 killings, or for the mass murder 
that occurred at Fox Hollow Farm. Herb was posthumously declared solely 
responsible for the deaths of the four victims whose remains could be identified. 
All were local gay men who had been reported missing. They were just four of at 
least ten local men who had been reported missing after frequenting area gay bars 
over the previous three years. The police, and the local press, had consistently 
ignored and/or downplayed the disappearances. 

The Herb Baumeister story would not be complete without the mention of a 
colorful character named Virgil Vandagriff, who played a prominent role in the 
Baumeister investigation. Vandagriff was a former sheriff turned private investi- 
gator. In the mid-1970s, he had been sent to the LAPD academy for hypnosis 
training. His father reportedly ‘dabbled’ in hypnosis as well. In 1977, not long 
after receiving that special training, Vandagriff worked on the case of Brett 
Kimberlin, the so-called Speedway Bomber. The very same Brett Kimberlin 
resurfaced in 1988, claiming that he had been vice-presidential nominee Dan 
Quayle’s college drug supplier. Kimberlin was promptly put into solitary confine- 
ment and cut off from press access. 

Vandagriff was hired by the families of two of the missing victims, both of 
whom felt that the police were doing next to nothing to find their sons. In August 
1994, the aforementioned witness who survived a visit to Herb’s house first talked 
to Vandagriff. He described Fox Hollow Farm and the strange man who had 
taken him there. One of Vandagriff’s associates reportedly located Fox Hollow 


Programmed to Kill 

based on the man’s description. For unexplained reasons, the associate obtained 
aerial photographs of the property that he presented to the witness for identifica- 
tion. The witness, who of course had never seen the ranch from the air, was 
unable to ID the property from the photographs. As a result, there was a consid- 
erable delay in identifying Herb Baumeister as the prime suspect. Why 
Vandagriff’s investigator did not present the witness with surveillance photos of 
the property from the perspective that he had actually viewed it is another of the 
lingering mysteries surrounding the Baumeister case. 

In November 1997, Vandagriff’s secretary, Connie Pierce, who had worked 
closely with the witness in the Baumeister case, died suddenly at the age of 
forty-six. In the spring of that same year, bones were still being uncovered at 
Fox Hollow Farm. 

Chapter 17 

Patsies and Assassins 

“It has always been my theory that for every person arrested and 
charged with multiple homicide there are probably a good five 
more out there. ” 

— Theodore Robert Bundy 

In the dark and ugly netherworld where violent crime and covert operations col- 
lide, there appear to be two general categories into which a large majority of those 
we label ‘serial killers’ can be sorted: controlled assassins, and controlled patsies. 
In this chapter, we will look at what could be described as textbook cases’ of both 
of these recurring archetypes. 

We begin with the case of the man whom the New York Times referred to in 
December 2001 as “the first of America’s modem serial killers”: Albert Henry 
DeSalvo, otherwise known as the Boston Strangler. Nearly forty years after the 
infamous murders, and almost thirty after the purported killer was permanently 
silenced, it is now being acknowledged by some in the law enforcement commu- 
nity that DeSalvo was innocent. What is not acknowledged, even today, is that 
DeSalvo was deliberately framed to take the fall for the crimes. The story gener- 
ally put forth by those who acknowledge DeSalvo’s innocence is that he willingly 
confessed to crimes that he did not commit in the belief that he could make a 
good deal of money from his notoriety. The facts of the case, however, suggest 

At the other end of the spectrum are men like Arthur Shawcross, who began 
killing for the United States Army in 1968, the year after DeSalvo was convicted. 
It was nearly a quarter-century later before Shawcross was first convicted of homi- 
cide. There is little question that he was guilty of a number of violent crimes, first 
in the late 1960s, then again in the early 1970s, and yet again in the late 1980s. 
There is some question though as to whether Arthur was acting alone during his 
various murder sprees. 



Programmed to Kill 

The third alleged serial killer profiled here is Danny Rolling, a man whose 
story has parallels to both Shawcross and DeSalvo. 

Albert Henry DeSalvo, the purported Boston Strangler, ranks as one of the 
most infamous of all the serial killers, despite the inconvenient fact that, in the 
four decades since the notorious murders were committed, no one has been able 
to produce a shred of evidence indicating that DeSalvo ever killed anyone. The 
task of manufacturing a case against DeSalvo was largely led by a legendary attor- 
ney by the name of F. Lee Bailey, 34 who received a considerable amount of help 
from a cast of characters whose surnames should be familiar to any serious stu- 
dent of U.S. politics — names like McNamara, Donovan, Mellon, Moynihan and 

Frank DeSalvo, Albert’s father, regularly beat his wife and kids with his fists, as 
well as with belts and a pipe. He once reportedly pulled a gun on his wife. 
Another time he reportedly broke her fingers one-by-one as her young son 
watched in horror. Frank was also fond of bringing prostitutes home and having 
his way with them in front of his children. On one rather noteworthy occasion, 
he actually sold his kids as slaves to a farmer in Maine. Though the details of that 
transaction remain murky, family friends and social workers have confirmed that 
the incident did occur. The boys’ mother spent nearly six months searching for 
her sons. 

Albert was first arrested in 1943, at the age of thirteen, for assault and battery 
with intent to commit robbery. He was sentenced to a reformatory, but his sen- 
tence was suspended. Later that same year he was again arrested on the same 
charge and again convicted. That time his sentence was enforced. He was paroled 
from the reformatory on October 26, 1944. Two years later, he wound up back 
again for making unlawful use of a car. Early in 1 947, he was again paroled. 

In September 1948, Albert was inducted into the U.S. Army. He was just sev- 
enteen years old and on parole, but Uncle Sam did not seem to mind. DeSalvo 
first served from September 16, 1948 to June 25, 1951, when he was honorably 
discharged. Strangely though, he re-enlisted the very next day and served from 

34 A minor role was also played by San Francisco attorney Melvin Belli, with whom 
Bailey consulted on the case. It was not too many years later that Belli played his 
notorious role in the Zodiac case. He later became involved in the McMartin case, 
and then later conferred with Richard “The Night Stalker” Ramirez and considered 
representing him. 

David McGowan • 273 

June 26, 1951 to February 15, 1956, when he was again honorably discharged. 
Much of rhat seven-and-a-half-year stretch was served in West Germany, where 
Gary Heidnik was subjected to MK-ULTRA experimentation not too many years 
later, and where Jeffrey Dahmer later served as well. While in Germany, Albert 
reportedly mastered the art of hand-to-hand combat and became a boxing cham- 

On January 5, 1955, while still in the military, DeSalvo was arrested in New 
Jersey on suspicion of carnally abusing a nine-year-old girl. The case was never 
prosecuted. In March, he was arrested again, for loitering. For that offense, he 
was fined. Two years later, in the spring of 1957, Albert spent two months in a 
YA hospital, where he reportedly was treated for an unspecified problem with his 
left shoulder. In the early months of 1958, he was arrested repeatedly for the 
crime of breaking and entering. The first arrest was on January 8, the second on 
February 15, and the third on April 18. Fie was convicted all three times, and 
each time he received a suspended sentence. 

Three years later, on March 17, 1961, DeSalvo was again arrested for breaking 
and entering. Once in custody, he reportedly began spontaneously confessing to 
a wave of notorious sexual assaults that had been dubbed the “Measuring Man” 
attacks. Fie was promptly sent to Westborough State Flospital for a psychiatric 
examination. On May 3, he went to trial on multiple counts of breaking and 
entering and assault and battery. Fie was convicted of the charges, but in a rather 
remarkable turn of events, the judge opted to sentence him to just two years for 
each offense, with all of the sentences to be served concurrently. Even more 
remarkably, that same judge later reduced the already bizarrely lenient sentence 
and in April 1962, Albert was released after serving less than one year for his mul- 
tiple convictions. Two months later, a fifty-six-year-old Latvian immigrant 
named Anna Slesers became the first victim of the Boston Strangler. 

Anna was strangled with her housecoat cord and had a gaping laceration to the 
back of her head. She had been sexually assaulted with an unidentified object and 
her apartment had been searched. As would be the case with all the murder 
scenes, there was no sign of forced entry, indicating that the killer(s) may very 
well have been known to the victims. Nina Nichols, age sixty-eight, was the sec- 
ond victim. Nichols was strangled with two nylon stockings. Flelen Blake, sixty- 
five, was likewise strangled with two stockings on the very same day. Both women 
had dried blood in their ears and both suffered genital lacerations from a sexual 

Just a week- and- a-half later, on July 11, 1962, Margaret Davis was found dead 
in a hotel room. She had been manually strangled. Other than the victim’s age, 
sixty, there was no indication that her death was connected to the deaths of the 
other women. Margaret had checked into the hotel with an unidentified man. 

274 • Programmed to Kill 

The couple had registered as Mr. and Mrs. Byron Spinney. Davis was also known 
to use the names Ethyl Johnson, Anne Cunningham, Winnie Hughes, andTobey. 
Exactly what her business was with her male escort is largely a matter of specula- 
tion, but there is little doubt that that is what got her killed. 

After a brief lull, the killings resumed on August 19. The victim was Ida Irga, 
who was strangled both manually and with a pillowcase. Like the earlier victims, 
Irga had genital injuries, but unlike the others, the seventy-five-year-old woman 
was left posed, her splayed legs facing the front door. Just two days later, Jane 
Sullivan was strangled and left partially submerged in her bathtub. She had two 
stockings around her neck and matted blood on her scalp. The sixty-seven-year- 
old was found on her knees with her posterior jutting out of the tub. 

The next victim, Modeste Freeman, was found on October 13. She hardly fit 
the victim profile that had been previously established: Freeman was just thirty- 
seven and was the first black victim. She was both strangled and brutally bludg- 
eoned, her head reduced to a bloody pulp. She was also the first victim found 
outdoors, in a yard. She had a wooden stick protruding from her vagina and an 
alarmingly high blood- alcohol level. Her body was nude when it was discovered. 
On December 5, the killer claimed his next victim — another black girl, this one 
just twenty years old. She was found with a stocking and a half-slip around her 
neck. There was no sign of genital injuries, but there was a semen stain on the 
rug. It was left by someone other than Albert DeSalvo. 

By that time, the city of Boston was in a full-scale panic. The killings of the 
young black victims sent a clear signal that all women, regardless of age or eth- 
nicity, were fair game. The demand for dogs, locks and guns skyrocketed. 

Patricia Bissette was the next victim claimed by the Strangler, on December 
31, 1962. Like the previous two victims, Bissette was young — just twenty- 
three — but like the earlier victims, she was white. She had a blouse and three 
stockings tied around her neck, and her bedcovers were discretely pulled up to 
her chin. She had had intercourse and showed signs of injury to her rectum. She 
was also carrying a one-month-old fetus. On March 6, 1963, Mary Brown 
became the next Strangler victim. Like the first batch of victims, Brown was in 
her sixties. Unlike the others, her death was attributed to bludgeoning, though 
she was also strangled and stabbed. She was found with degenerated sperm in her 
vagina and a kitchen utensil buried up to the handle in her left breast. 

The next victim, killed on May 8, was stabbed seventeen times in and around 
her left breast in what was described as a ritual pattern. Beverly Samans was also 
slashed four times about her neck, around which a scarf and two nylon stockings 
were tied, though it was the knife wounds that killed her. There was no evidence 
of rape or sexual assault. After a four-month break, the purported Strangler struck 
again. The victim was Evelyn Corbin, whose age was listed as either fifty-one or 

David McGowan • 275 

fifty-eight. She had two stockings around her neck and one around her left ankle. 
There was blood on the scene, including in both of the victim’s ears. Semen was 
found in her mouth, and traces of dried semen were found elsewhere. 

Two-and-a-half months later, twenty-three-year-old Joanne Graff was stran- 
gled with a leotard leg and two stockings. She had been raped and her vagina was 
lacerated and bloody. The final victim was Mary Sullivan, the youngest at just 
nineteen. She was killed on January 4, 1964. Her death scene was the most grue- 
some of them all. She had two scarves and a stocking around her neck and a 
broom handle protruding from her vagina. Her breasts had been mauled. She was 
posed in a sitting position on her bed with fresh semen dripping from her mouth. 
A macabre greeting card was propped up by her foot. 

There were no further murders attributed to the Boston Strangler, even 
though Albert DeSalvo remained free for ten months after the death of Sullivan. 

Two weeks after the discovery of Sullivan’s body, Massachusetts Attorney 
General Edward Brooke took over the investigation of all fourteen murders, 
which had been being handled by five different city police departments and three 
district attorney’s offices. Brooke assembled a task force and assigned Assistant 
Attorney General John Bottomly to lead it, even though Bottomly had no expe- 
rience whatsoever with criminal law. Considering that the Strangler case was 
arguably the most high-profile criminal case in the state’s history, it was a very 
unusual assignment. 

Bottomly had been involved in telepathic’ experiments conducted at NASA. 
Such experiments, it should be noted, were and are one of many covers used to 
veil various aspects of the intelligence community’s MK-ULTRA program. 
Bottomly’s mother was said to be fascinated with ESP. At one point in the inves- 
tigation, the task force leader brought in famed ‘psychic’ Peter Hurkos, who a few 
years later helped Roman Polanski ‘investigate’ the Tate murders. Hurkos identi- 
fied a suspect who had, it was claimed, already been considered by the task force. 
The suspect subsequently voluntarily (according to reports) committed himself 
to a mental hospital and was quickly forgotten. According to some reports, he 
later surfaced at Bridgewater State Hospital. 

Among those working under Bottomly were a medical/psychiatric committee 
and Special Officer James Mellon of the Boston Police Department. Also deeply 
involved in the investigation was the Boston Police Department’s new 
Commissioner, Edmund McNamara, who had formerly worked for the FBI. 
John Donovan, the former chief of the BPD’s homicide squad, was the top detec- 
tive on the case. Seven months into the investigation, Brooke’s office wrote up a 
progress report that stated: “At an early stage of the coordinated deliberations it 
was concluded that certain homicides bore little relationship to the so-called 

27 6 • Programmed to Kill 

‘stranglings’ or to each other.” That rather self-evident fact was later swept under 
the rug. 

In the fall of 1964, Albert DeSalvo was arrested and charged with various 
crimes that he allegedly committed during a series of sexual assaults in the state of 
Connecticut. Those crimes, dubbed the “Green Man” assaults, had been perpe- 
trated during the ten-month period following the death of Mary Sullivan. We are 
to believe then that DeSalvo, having successfully committed fourteen murders, 
decided to stop killing and instead cross state lines to commit sexual assaults. 

Albert was arraigned on November 3, 1964 for the Green Man attacks. He 
was not, at that time, among the more than 300 Strangler suspects listed by the 
task force. There was no evidence of any kind that suggested that he was involved 
in any way with the brutal killings. Three days after his arraignment, he was sent 
to Bridgewater State Hospital, where he remained until December 10, when he 
was sent back to jail. On January 14, 1965, DeSalvo was again sent to 
Bridgewater. Four days later, he was joined there by a man named George Nassar, 
who had been arrested for a murder committed on September 29, 1964. The vic- 
tim had been shot six times at close range and then stabbed in the back. The get- 
away car used in the crime had reportedly been stolen from near prestigious MIT 
in Cambridge, and later abandoned adjacent to the exclusive Phillip’s Academy in 
Andover. The vehicle was registered to an unidentified Navy lieutenant, as were 
the two handguns found under the front seat. 

Nassar had previously served sixteen years of a life sentence he received for an 
earlier murder conviction. He had been paroled in 1961. Following his release, he 
reportedly worked as a reporter and a hospital attendant, and also taught Sunday 
school and occasionally was allowed to take over the pulpit to deliver sermons. In 
his free time, he reportedly participated in between seventeen and thirty contract 
murders during a period of gang warfare in Boston. Nassar is frequently described 
as a genius and a “master manipulator” who quickly took Albert under his wing 
at Bridgewater. So tight was his control over DeSalvo that Albert’s own family 
complained that they were unable to visit him without Nassar being present. 

A committee was quickly formed to raise legal fees for Nassar. His innocence 
was loudly proclaimed by his supporters, including a minister and a local talk- 
radio host. As legal counsel, Nassar retained F. Lee Bailey, already a national fig- 
ure at the age of thirty-one. The flamboyant attorney and former Marine pilot 
was known to carry a gun and enormous rolls of cash. 

It was Nassar who purportedly first obtained a ‘confession’ from Albert 
DeSalvo. He then arranged for DeSalvo a meeting with Bailey, even though Lee 
was not DeSalvo’s attorney of record. That was only the first breech of legal ethics 
by Bailey. There would be many more. 

David McGowan • 277 

Bailey promptly contacted John Donovan and obtained classified information 
on the case, purportedly to check the veracity of Albert’s confessions, though it 
appears that the details of the murders were in fact fed to DeSalvo by Bailey and 
Nassar — with assistance from CLA-connected hypnotist William Jennings Bryan 
III, 3 ^ W B 0 was brought onboard by Bailey on the spring equinox. Bryan’s ‘ques- 
tions’ to DeSalvo while under hypnosis were loaded with incriminating details of 
the crimes. The ‘confessions’ that resulted from this collaboration between Bailey, 
Nassar and Bryan, using information supplied by Donovan, were taped by Bailey 
and turned over to the police. They were, to put it bluntly, blatantly fraudulent. 

Many of the crime-scene details recounted by Albert, who was said to have a 
photographic memory, were incorrect. No physical evidence corroborated his 
accounts and no witnesses could place Albert near any of the crime scenes or con- 
nect him to any of the killings. The problem was not that there were no witnesses 
available; there were in fact a number of them, but none who identified Albert as 
the man they had seen. At least three of the witnesses described the suspect as a 
light-skinned black man with combed-back hair. None of the composite sketches 
created from witness descriptions resembled DeSalvo. Any reasonably skilled 
interrogator, through a thorough questioning of the suspect, could have quickly 
revealed the ‘confessions’ for the shams that they were. No police, however, were 
ever allowed to question DeSalvo, who was kept under constant guard. 

On April 8, 1966 — just three weeks before Anton LaVey declared the dawn of 
the Age of Satan — Assistant Attorney General Bottomly abruptly resigned his 

35 Bryan was later connected to two other rather notorious individuals. One of them was 
Sirhan Bishara Sirhan, the purported assassin of Robert F. Kennedy. Bryan was known 
to boast of having ‘treated’ Sirhan. Oddly enough, the name “Albert DeSalvo” is writ- 
ten repeatedly throughout Sirhan’s diaries, in what appears to be a display of a hyp- 
notic phenomenon known as “automatic writing.” Researcher and author Jonathan 
Vankin quotes a former U.S. intelligence officer who tested Sirhan: “Everything in the 
PSE (Psychological Stress Evaluation) charts tells me that someone else was involved 
in the assassination — and that Sirhan was programmed through hypnosis to kill 
RFK.” Like other players in this sordid cast, Sirhan had a keen interest in the occult; 
researchers have connected him to both the Rosicrucians (a ‘secret society’ claiming 
origins in ancient Egypt), and the ever-popular Process Church of the Final 
Judgment. Bryan was also linked to Candy Jones, the famous model who told her tale 
of being a mind-controlled courier (and possibly assassin as well) in The Control of 
Candy Jones. Not long after publication of the book, Bryan was tied to the Candy 
Jones case by journalists investigating her claims. He soon thereafter turned up dead 
in a Las Vegas hotel room. 


Programmed to Kill 

post, taking with him the original confession tapes. He quickly went to work as 
an attorney for DeSalvo’s ex-wife, and also contracted out his services to Fox as a 
consultant on the screen version of Gerold Frank’s The Boston Strangler. Bailey 
had convinced DeSalvo to sign an agreement with Frank to pen the disinforma- 
tional book, which declared Albert guilty of not only the stranglings but of some 
2,000 rapes as well. Bailey served as a witness to the signing of the release, and 
Bottomly ordered his task force to cooperate fully with Frank. The book was an 
immediate bestseller. The widely read work, and the widely viewed film, rein- 
forced in the public’s mind the idea that the killings had been solved. Bailey, 
meanwhile, pocketed the advance money that was supposed to go to DeSalvo, 
prompting Albert to file complaints with the state bar association. Those com- 
plaints were consistently ignored. The money for the film rights likewise ended 
up in Bailey’s pocket. 

In mid- April 1966, Bailey and Brooke agreed to bring DeSalvo to trial to face 
the charges arising from the Green Man case. By that time, several members of 
the task force had left to work for Bailey — which amounted not to them having 
switched sides, but to them having taken a more active role in the railroading of 
the designated patsy. The key players decided not to bring Albert to trial for the 
stranglings, no doubt reasoning that the ‘evidence’ was so glaringly fraudulent 
that it would not withstand public scrutiny even in a carefully controlled trial. 
The public, however, was clamoring for resolution of the case. Luckily then, 
Bailey came up with a way to indirectly try Albert on the murder charges — by 
presenting what had to be the most preposterous and unethical defense in the his- 
tory of American jurisprudence. As Bailey himself described his ‘strategy’: “I 
wanted the right to defend a man for robbery and assault by proving that he had 
committed thirteen murders.” 

In other words, rather than defending his client against the relatively minor 
charges that he was actually facing, Bailey opted to proclaim DeSalvo’s guilt on 
those charges, but argued that he should be found innocent by reason of insanity 
based on the fact that he had also committed thirteen murders'. Now that’s a hell of a 

The trial commenced in January 1967 with Albert standing before Judge 
Cornelius Moynihan accused of rape, robbery, and the commission of unnatural 
acts. He had already been convicted by the media and the public of far more seri- 
ous crimes. The first witness called by the state was a Bridgewater inmate who 
knew both Nassar and DeSalvo, and who, strangely enough, listed F. Lee Bailey as 
his attorney of record. As would be the case with all the prosecution witnesses, 
Bailey did not bother to cross-examine his own client. In fact, he made no effort 
whatsoever to rebut the charges DeSalvo was facing. Instead, he presented a 
ridiculously flimsy case for DeSalvo’s guilt in the Strangler killings — a case that 

David McGowan • 279 

would never have stood up to cross-examination. That was not really a concern, 
however, since when it is the defense attorney presenting the state’s case, there 
isn’t anyone to conduct a cross-examination. 

Just days into the trial, a recess was called as a mysterious meeting took place 
between Bailey, prosecutor Donald Conn and Judge Moynihan. The purpose of 
that meeting has never been revealed. 

Closing arguments, such as they were, were delivered on January 18, and the 
jury was then sent off to deliberate. They returned the same day. There was never 
any question about what the verdict would be. The jury was not sequestered for 
the trial, and media headlines, not to mention Hollywood’s offerings, regularly 
proclaimed DeSalvo to be the Boston Strangler. The trial was routinely referred to 
as the “Strangler trial,” despite the fact that Albert had never even been charged 
with those crimes. The book and movie, released before the trial even began, had 
ingrained the official story in the public’s mind. The defendant’s own attorney 
had openly and repeatedly proclaimed his client’s guilt. The jury was well aware 
of what it was expected to do. 

The end result was that DeSalvo was found guilty of robbery and assault by 
the jury, and guilty of murder in the court of public opinion — which is, by all 
appearances, exactly what was intended. Albert was given a life sentence, despite 
the fact that the charges he was convicted of would normally have earned him a 
maximum twenty-five-year sentence with the possibility of parole after ten. As for 
Nassar, he was convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced to death, but the 
sentence was never carried out. He remains incarcerated to this day. 

Just five weeks after his conviction, DeSalvo — perhaps the most feared and 
closely guarded inmate in America — managed to escape from Bridgewater. 
Another wave of panic and fear gripped the city. Albert, however, was quickly 
recaptured. His two brothers were implicated in the escape and indicted on 
charges of aiding and abetting, but they never went to trial for their alleged 
crimes. On January 4 of the following year, Albert’s appeal of his conviction, for 
which there was more than adequate grounds, was quickly denied. 

In 1973, Albert DeSalvo was stabbed sixteen times while in the infirmary of 
the maximum-security prison at Walpole, Massachusetts. 3 ^ The previous evening 

36 Two years later, in March 1975, another of F. Lee Bailey’s former high-profile clients, 
Charles “The Pied Piper of Tucson” Schmid, was stabbed to death in prison as well. 
Schmid sustained some twenty wounds to the face and chest and died ten days later. 
He had been convicted of the murders of three young teenage girls, the first of whom 
was killed just five months after the Boston Strangler claimed his last victim. Charles 
Schmid stood just 5’4” tall and was somewhat odd in demeanor and appearance, but 
he was intelligent and charismatic and had an uncanny ability to attract both women 


Programmed to Kill 

he had placed an urgent call to Dr. Ames Robey, a prison psychiatrist who had 
spent a considerable amount of time with the inmate. DeSaivo had told Robey 
that he wanted to meet with the doctor and a reporter early the next morning. 
Robey recalls what happened next: 

He was going to tell us who the Boston Strangler really was, and 
what the whole thing was about. He had asked to be placed in the 
infirmary under special lockup about a week before. Something was 
going on within the prison, and I think he felt he had to talk quickly. 
There were people in the prison, including guards, that were not happy 
with him... Somebody had to leave an awful lot of doors open, which 
meant — because there were several guards one would have to go by — 
there had to be a fair number of people paid or asked to turn their 
backs or something. But somebody put a knife into Albert DeSalvo’s 
heart sometime between evening check and the morning. 

and devoted young followers, not unlike Charles Manson. Also like Manson, Schmid 
had a passion for singing and playing the guitar and he claimed to possess psychic 
powers. Several of his followers were complicit in either committing, or covering up, 
the three murders; two of those followers pled guilty to various charges and served 
prison time. The subtext of the Tucson murders included talk of a teenage drug and 
prostitution ring, the involvement of a shadowy group referred to as the “Tucson 
Mafia,” and Schmid’s quickie Mexican wedding to one of his fifteen-year-old admir- 
ers just a couple weeks before his arrest. At one bizarre juncture of the investigation, 
suspect Schmid was arrested for impersonating an FBI agent after he reportedly had 
been questioning people in San Diego, California. He was supposedly in San Diego 
working on behalf of the “Tucson Mafia”; strangely enough, he had contacted the FBI 
not long before leaving for California. Arrested in November 1965, Schmid first faced 
trial in February 1966. He was quickly convicted of two of the murders, although his 
trial was marked by the usual irregularities, one of which was that testimony concern- 
ing the third murder, which Schmid had not yet faced trial for, was allowed into evi- 
dence. In fact, the third murder was a key element of the state’s case, with prosecutors 
arguing that the second and third victims were killed to cover up the murder of the 
first girl. It took the jury just two hours to return the guilty verdicts, which earned 
Schmid a death sentence. In June 1966, F. Lee Bailey made his entrance into the 
Schmid case, as “Smitty’s” defense attorney for the second trial. Bailey, who had just 
finished obtaining De Salvo’s ‘confessions’ and was awaiting trial on that case, was 
brought on board the Schmid case by writer John Gilmore, who was working on a 

David McGowan • 281 

Richard DeSalvo had a similar recollection: 

He was going to, at some point in time, when it was right, he was 
going to talk, and name names — heads were going to roll. He said real 
big, important people were going to, their heads were going to roll 
when he opens his mouth. 

Richard DeSalvo, who spoke to his brother by telephone on the evening of his 
death, has also said that Albert may have been drugged that night. That would 
explain why he was unable to fend off his attackers, since he was otherwise quite 
proficient at the art of hand-to-hand combat. Three inmates were indicted and 
twice faced trial for the murder, which prosecutors rather preposterously por- 
trayed as motivated by a desire to prevent DeSalvo from entering the prison drug 
trade. The first trial ended with a deadlocked jury and the second with a mistrial, 
after which the charges were dropped. 

book on Schmid. Shortly after the second trial began, again with the usual irregulari- 
ties, Bailey and his co-counsel convinced a reluctant Schmid to enter a guilty plea to 
the lesser charge of second-degree murder, thereby short-circuiting the trial. Schmid 
received a 5 0-year- to-life sentence. The following January, Bailey returned to Boston 
to deliver his craven performance in the Albert DeSalvo trial. Meanwhile, Charles 
Schmid wrote a letter to the judge asking for a new trial and accusing his attorneys of 
coercing him to take the plea deal. The judge agreed to hear the motion, but Schmid 
then inexplicably withdrew his request. In 1971, Schmid’s death sentence was set 
aside when the state of Arizona temporarily abolished capital punishment. Schmid 
subsequently escaped, but, like De Salvo, he was quickly recaptured. John Gilmore, 
the son of an LAPD officer and a former child actor, went on to write a book about 
Charles Manson. Years later, he penned a book on the 1947 murder of Elizabeth 
Short, better known as the Black Dahlia. Gilmore’s book appears to be little more 
than an effort to close the Dahlia case by pinning the notorious, unsolved crime on a 
very unlikely patsy. Playing the role of F. Lee Bailey, Gilmore — possibly acting in col- 
lusion with elements of the LAPD, including famed homicide detective “Jigsaw” John 
St. John — purportedly obtained ‘confession’ tapes from the alleged suspect. Those 
audiotapes, however, do not actually exist; all that Gilmore has ever produced is a 
photograph of three cassette tapes and transcripts that he likely penned himself. 
Before the alleged suspect, whose ‘confessions’ were entirely uncorroborated, could be 
picked up for questioning, he conveniently burned to death in a seedy Los Angeles 
hotel. The Black Dahlia case remains officially unsolved. 


Programmed to Kill 

Following his death, a manuscript that Albert had been working on was con- 
spicuously missing from his personal effects. A copy of the autopsy report was 
handed to the DeSalvo family by, of all people, George Nassar. And so ended the 
case of the Boston Strangler, except that questions surrounding the killings persist 
to this day, forty years after the last victim was killed. Even as these words are 
being written, surviving family members of both Albert DeSalvo and his last pur- 
ported victim, Mary Sullivan, are clamoring for the investigation to be reopened. 

Sullivan’s body was exhumed in October 2000 and a forensics examination 
revealed that the condition of her corpse was not consistent with DeSalvo’s con- 
fessed version of how she was killed. Her remains also yielded two DNA samples, 
one from a semen stain on her pubic hair. Neither of the samples were a match 
for Albert DeSalvo, whose body was exhumed in October 2001. George 
Washington University law professor James E. Starrs, who is leading the new 
forensics investigation, proclaimed: “We have evidence that is strongly indicative 
that Albert DeSalvo was not the rapist-murderer of Mary Sullivan.” He promised 
a “blockbuster” report once the investigation has been completed. 

There has never been a shortage of suspects in the case. Near the top of the list 
is George Nassar, considered by many in the law enforcement community to be a 
serial assassin. Nassar bore a striking resemblance to one of the composite 
sketches of the Strangler, and he was tentatively identified by some of the crime 
scene witnesses. Investigative author Susan Kelly has identified other suspects as 
well. She has also put forth a convincing argument that many of the murders 
were unrelated. 

In the Sullivan case, police had two suspects before DeSalvo ‘cleared’ them by 
confessing to the murder. The more likely of the two was her former boyfriend, 
William Ivey. Police had built a strong case against him and he had failed two 
polygraph examinations. Nevertheless, Ivey was never prosecuted. 

Patricia Bissette’s death was probably also unconnected to the others. The 
prime suspect in her death was her boss, a defense contractor named Jules 
Rothman. Bissette, who had a flair for foreign languages, frequently traveled out- 
of-state with Rothman, with whom she was having an affair. It was likely 
Rothman’s child that she was secretly carrying. It was also Rothman who discov- 
ered her body and spent time alone in her apartment with the corpse before 
police arrived. A photo album was missing from Bissette’s apartment, as were 
numerous loose photographs and almost all of her personal correspondence, 
which she was known to save. Rothman was very close to being indicted when 
DeSalvo confessed. 

Sophie Clark’s killer was likely Albert Williams, the son of a Cambridge min- 
ister. Williams had received a medical discharge from the army and he was known 

David McGowan • 283 

to suffer from blackouts. He had a long criminal record and was said to be a 
bisexual sadist. Like Ivey, he failed two polygraph examinations. 

The more intriguing suspects identified by Kelly are three men who had con- 
nections to several of the killings. They were, perhaps, the real ‘serial killers.’ The 
three had been friends and classmates at Harvard. One was Bradley Waring 
Schereschewsky, the son of a controller at what Kelly refers to as a prestigious New 
England prep school — very likely Phillips Academy considering that the 
Schereschewsky family lived in Andover. Andover and Philips Academy were just a 
few miles from two of the death scenes. Bradley was first incarcerated on September 
22, 1951, for the Oedipal crimes of savagely beating his father and attempting to 
rape his mother. Since 1959, he had been in and out of various mental hospitals. 
When not institutionalized, he reportedly worked as a gravedigger. 

Friends with Schereschewsky was fellow suspect William Axel Lindahl, the son 
of a Boston cop. Lindahl’s mother died when he was just an infant, and he was 
subsequently raised by his physically abusive father. At Harvard, he joined the 
naval ROTC, where he tried to strangle his drill instructor. He also tried to stran- 
gle his girlfriend. He later obtained a teaching job at Lake Forest Academy in 
Illinois, and he was said to be fluent in fourteen languages. In 1970, the wife of 
one of his Harvard friends, who had long suspected Lindahl of being the 
Strangler, turned up dead. Her husband was tried and convicted for her murder. 
That same year a reporter for the Boston Globe, who was another of Lindahl’s col- 
lege chums, was also accused of killing his wife. 

The final member of the trio was Peter Howard Denton, the genius son of a 
doctor and a nurse. Denton won a congressional appointment to West Point and 
from there went on to Harvard. His first arrest came on April 19, 1961, when he 
and four other Harvard men were found to be in possession of high explosives. 
What he and his cronies were planning to do with the explosives on the eve of the 
Fuhrer’s birthday is unknown. Three years later, Denton wound up in a place well 
known to Albert DeSalvo and George Nassar: Bridgewater State Hospital. Still 
later, he set up a drug lab and was reportedly a heavy drug user himself, with a par- 
ticular fondness for hallucinogens. Violent murders seemed to follow Denton 
wherever he roamed; he lived in Ann Arbor, Michigan when a string of girls turned 
up dead there, and he was in Los Angeles during the reign of the Hillside Stranglers. 

It is extremely unlikely that the new official investigation will reveal the truth 
about the ‘Boston Strangler.’ Meanwhile, the state of Massachusetts recently 
refused to release evidence to a private investigative team, claiming that, forty 
years after the fact, the case was still considered an ongoing investigation. 

284 • Programmed to Kill 

Arthur Shawcross was a brutally efficient assassin who accumulated a career 
total of over fifty kills, although the first thirty-nine were not considered crimes. 
And yet they were murders that were every bit as barbaric as those committed by 
any of the other ‘serial killers’ discussed previously — complete with torture, muti- 
lation, cannibalism and necrophilia. One female victim was decapitated and her 
head displayed on a stake. Shawcross then roasted and ate her thigh — all while 
another victim was forced to watch. The second victim was then beheaded, 
strung up by her feet and gutted like a slaughtered animal carcass. 

How then could these actions not be considered crimes? 

Simply put, it was because the victims were all Vietnamese nationals, and 
Arthur was just doing his job: terrorizing the Vietnamese people into acceding to 
U.S. demands. It was the same job that everyone else involved in the Phoenix 
Program was engaged in. Shawcross did not become a criminal until he brought 
home the skills taught to him by the U.S. military. 

Arthur had a rather interesting history, one that likely made him an ideal can- 
didate to serve as an assassin for Uncle Sam. He was born just before the end of 
World War II in a naval hospital to a naval officer father, who lived a rather shad- 
owy existence, reportedly with a parallel life in Australia complete with another 
wife and son. 37 Young Art grew up in a multi-generational family whose mem- 
bers all lived within about 100 feet of each other at a place the locals called 
‘Shawcross Corners.’ Incest and pedophilia apparently ran rampant within the 
Shawcross clan. Arthur has claimed that he was introduced to sex by his Aunt 
Tina, and that his younger sister “allowed him” to sodomize her at a very young 
age. He also engaged in sexual antics with his cousin and with a young boy and 
girl who lived down the road. At the age of ten, he also began regularly having sex 
with a male friend named Mike. Art and Mike were introduced to bestiality by 
some men who owned a local sheep farm. Sexual partners the pair encountered 
there included sheep, chickens, a cow, a dog and a horse. 

Mike later killed his wife, his kids, and then himself. 

Art’s mother occasionally raped her son with a broomstick, once causing 
severe internal injuries, as confirmed by hospital records. In addition to the sexual 
abuse, Arthur received frequent beatings with a belt and a broom handle. Little 
wonder then that Shawcross had a number of imaginary friends as a child and he 
was known to speak to himself in strange voices. 

At the tender age of eight, Shawcross was alone in a room with the father of a 
friend when the man reportedly died of a heart attack. What he was doing alone 
in the room with the man at the time is unknown, but it is clear that Shawcross 

37 Aviator Charles Lindbergh, who we will return to in the final chapter of this book, also 
lived a parallel life overseas, with a second family that remained a secret for decades. 

Da vid McGo wan • 285 

had his first exposure to death while still quite young. By the age of ten or eleven, 
he was regularly running away from home. By fourteen, he was known to disap- 
pear for as long as four weeks at a time, venturing off alone to places unknown. 
At about that same point in his life, he was reportedly raped by an older man. 

By the age of fifteen, Arthur was committing burglaries with his friend Mike. 
He was convicted and he received probation for one such offense in 1963. Two 
years later, he was again convicted of burglary and again given probation. Not 
long after that, Shawcross began his military service — service that would soon 
take him into the jungles of Vietnam and, by his own accounting, transform his 
life. But before he even left the States, Art reportedly went AWOL, a transgres- 
sion for which he strangely suffered no repercussions. 

Shawcross spent thirteen months in Southeast Asia as a weapons specialist, 
although his apparently falsified military records indicate that he served as a sup- 
ply clerk. Sometime in 1968, he was sent to Hawaii for R&R; he later reported 
that he spent that time champing at the bit to get back to the jungles of Vietnam. 
After his return, he spent long periods of time alone in the bush, becoming — as 
he described himself — a “predator” and a “ghoul.” He claimed that he became 
quite adept at modifying weapons for special purposes. He became, he said, a 
silent assassin — or as he described it: “I was a ghost in the jungle. . .one bullet and 
no sound.” By the time he came home, he had recorded thirty-nine kills; many of 
his victims were women and children. 

Upon his return from Vietnam, he suffered blindingly painful headaches and 
he was treated by an Army psychiatrist. He was stationed at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, 
where he was assigned to train recruits and set up exhibits of weapons for military 
shows. Uncle Sam apparently thought quite highly of the man who once 
explained that if you roast human flesh until it is well done, you can then snack 
on it for several days before it goes bad. Years later, after Art had put his acquired 
skills to work at home on non-Vietnamese victims, police asked him how he was 
“able to kill these girls so easily. . .Where did you learn to do that?” Shawcross 
responded simply: “Ask Uncle Sam.” Asked where he had learned to butcher bod- 
ies so that they would decompose faster, he gave the same response 

Arthur experienced a bit of a surprise upon his return home from Vietnam 
when he was informed that he had married a woman named Linda Neary just 
before he had shipped out. He had no recollection of having done so. 
Nevertheless, Neary had received and spent all of his service paychecks. 
Shawcross later said that Neary’s family, which he claimed was into witchcraft, 
would not allow him to leave. 

Not long after his return to the States, Shawcross burned down both a barn and 
Crowley’s Cheese Company. He then set yet another fire at a paper mill on April 
24, 1 969. In September of that year, he was tried, convicted and sentenced to serve 

286 • Programmed to Kill 

five years, but he was out in just two, after spending time at both Attica and 
Auburn prisons. After his release, Art remarried and worked for the Watertown 
Public Works Department — public works jobs being a popular pastime with many 
serial killers. He was apparently very popular with the local kids, many of whom 
he knew. One of those local kids was Jack Blake, a ten-year-old boy who visited 
with Shawcross frequently and enjoyed fishing with the older man. 

On June 4, 1972, Art raped, strangled, mutilated and cannibalized his young 
friend. He subsequently returned on several occasions to rape the boy’s rotting 
corpse. Three months after Jack’s disappearance, Shawcross similarly assaulted 
and killed an eight-year-old girl. He had been reported previously for wrestling 
neighborhood boys to the ground and stuffing grass into their pants and mouths. 
For that he had been fined ten dollars by the parole board. He was also reported 
by Jack’s mother, Mary Blake, who told police of threats made against another 
boy. Nevertheless, it took authorities a good while to connect the disappearances 
of the two kids to Arthur Shawcross. Once caught, he was charged only with the 
murder of the girl. Despite the fact that he confessed to killing the boy as well, 
and led investigators to the body, he was never charged with any crimes in con- 
nection with the death of Jack Blake. 

He was also never charged with the rape, torture, mutilation, or cannibaliza- 
tion of either victim. Offered an outrageously lenient plea-bargain deal, 
Shawcross pled guilty to one count of manslaughter and received a twenty-five- 
year sentence; he served just fifteen before being released to kill again. This was 
just another example of how the law enforcement and judicial communities fre- 
quently take actions that seem designed specifically to keep America’s real killers 
on the streets — while simultaneously meting out draconian sentences to obvious 
patsies. If that is not the case, then how else are we to explain the incongruously 
lenient treatment afforded certain killers, particularly in a nation with what is 
arguably the harshest criminal justice system in the ‘civilized’ world? 

Arthur was hardly a model prisoner for the first eight years of his incarcera- 
tion. He was repeatedly disciplined for such infractions as fighting, possession of 
contraband, and setting fires. He was also questioned about the deaths of three of 
his fellow inmates. For the last seven years, however, Shawcross did reportedly 
become a model prisoner. He was even given a job counseling mental patients, 
even though he himself was being ‘treated’ by several prison psychiatrists and he 
complained frequently of hearing voices in his head. 

In March 1987, Art was set free. After being chased out of four local commu- 
nities, the probation department decided to ‘hide’ him in Rochester, the home- 
town of Hillside Strangler Kenneth Bianchi. Shawcross was purportedly closely 
monitored and he had very strict conditions placed upon his parole: absolutely 
no contact with children, no drinking, no consorting with prostitutes, no guns, 

David McGowan • 287 

and an 11:00PM to 7:00AM curfew. Nevertheless, Art was well known in the 
part of town where the community’s prostitutes plied their trade. He was 
rumored to be selling drugs to the working girls, as well as to teenage runaways. 
On March 25, 1988, he was ticketed for driving without a license and for having 
two unrestrained children in the car — children that he was not supposed to be 
anywhere near. He was not charged with a parole violation. 

The kids were the grandchildren of Clara Neal, one of many women with 
whom Art was having affairs. Shawcross was also friends with Claras son Donnie 
(his hunting partner), and he occasionally spent time with her daughter Loretta. 
Arthur’s paramours also included several of his victims. When Art was not servic- 
ing and/or killing one of his female acquaintances, he could frequently be found 
hanging out at the local doughnut shop chatting with the city’s police officers. 

The first victims of the serial killer variously referred to as the ‘Rochester 
Nightstalker,’ the ‘Rochester Strangler,’ or the ‘Genesee River Killer,’ were found 
in the summer and early fall of 1989. At the time, Arthur was officially under the 
supervision of the local parole board, mental health workers, and social workers. 
Most of the victims could be directly linked to Shawcross, a known sex offender 
and multiple murderer. As he later said: “I knew ’em all, and they knew me.” 
Nevertheless, eleven women were killed before authorities got around to connect- 
ing the murders to Arthur Shawcross. 

One of the victims was Dorothy Keller, one of Art’s on-and-off girlfriends who 
also knew his wife, Rose Shawcross. Prior to her death, Keller was an occasional 
visitor to the Shawcross apartment. Patty Ives was another victim who was quite 
well known to her killer, as was June Stotts, a ‘mildly retarded’ friend of the 
Shawcross family who was a frequent visitor to their home and who was regularly 
seen with Art at a local eatery. After her death, she was cut open from her neck to 
her anus, gutted, cannibalized and sexually violated. 

None of Art’s victims appeared to have put up a struggle; no defensive wounds 
were present on any of the bodies and there were no signs that the victims had 
been physically restrained. Police reportedly marveled over the killer’s ability to 
completely control both the victims and the crime scenes. Some investigators 
speculated that a stun gun might have been used to disable the women. 

Law enforcement officials initially assumed that two or three separate killers 
were at work simultaneously. The manner in which the women were killed varied, 
not surprisingly, and included beheading, strangulation, bludgeoning, and suffoca- 
tion/drowning. One victim, Lisa Gibson, was found in another county, many miles 
away from where the other bodies were deposited. Some of the corpses that were 
found during Art’s reign were of black prostitutes. One of them, Felicia Stephens, 
was found in the same park where two of Art’s admitted victims surfaced. 
Shawcross, however, declined to take credit for the murders of the black victims. 


Programmed to Kill 

In January 1990, Art was captured and he proceeded to give his captors a full 
confession — after being interrogated without an attorney. Little evidence other 
than his confession directly linked Shawcross to the killings; the crime scenes had 
been left remarkably free of any incriminating evidence. Arthur Shawcross had 
apparently been very well trained. He went to trial in 1991, with his defense 
counsel claiming insanity. He was said to be suffering from Multiple Personality 
Disorder. Under hypnosis, he reportedly spoke as a 1 3^ century cannibal named 
Ariemes, an eleven-year-old boy, and his own mother. 

Dr. Dorothy Otnow Lewis concluded that Shawcross had been “severely” sex- 
ually abused and had, therefore, “developed a dissociative style of coping with his 
intolerable situation.” She added: “this kind of phenomenon is characteristic of 
severely abused children who eventually dissociate to the point of becoming mul- 
tiple personalities.” Dr. Park Elliot Dietz of the FBI’s BSU, called as a psychiatric 
witness for the prosecution, disputed the MPD claims. That is the sort of thing 
that Dietz makes a career of doing. He can be seen with appalling frequency on 
the television screen speaking as an ‘expert’ on serial killer cases. 

The jury rejected the insanity defense and the claims of a dissociative disorder 
and convicted Shawcross of ten counts of murder, largely on the strength of his 
illegally obtained confession. He was sentenced to ten consecutive twenty-five- 
year sentences. There is little question though that Art did indeed have a serious 
dissociative disorder. He suffered from blackouts all of his life. He reportedly had 
a strong tendency to “space out,” to such an extent that he sometimes had to be 
physically shaken to get a response. He also was known to frequently wander off 
and then find himself in an unknown place with no awareness of how he had got- 
ten there. 

Author Joel Norris has written that Shawcross once described the killings to 
him as occurring in “a kind of dream state in which another person inside of him 
was reacting in his place.” During those times, the killer was able to completely 
shut out the world around him, to such an extent that, as Art recalled, he “didn’t 
hear anything around me... I couldn’t figure that out... Other times in my life I 
have had the feeling of leaving my body.” What remained in that body was a 
highly efficient, emotionless, programmed assassin — one of Uncle Sam’s finest. 

There is little question that Arthur Shawcross committed numerous murders 
in his life. But where does the real guilt for his crimes lie? With Shawcross, or 
with those who deliberately and systematically trained him to be a remorseless 

David McGowan • 289 

Daniel Rolling was raised by his mother, Claudia Beatrice Rolling, and his 
physically abusive father, James Harold Rolling. James had served in the Korean 
War, from which he returned as a highly decorated hero. He has been described as 
an extremely controlling man with a violent temper. He reportedly tied his sons 
up frequently, and on one occasion locked then thirteen-year-old Danny up in a 
jail cell for two weeks. He also derived a perverse pleasure from trapping neigh- 
borhood cats, shooting them, and then watching them die. 

The Rolling family had a long history of mental illness, violence and suicide. 
Danny’s great-grandfather had slit his wife’s throat from ear to ear, killing her in 
full view of Danny’s father. The family also had a history of working in law 
enforcement. Danny’s grandfather had worked for the County Sheriff’s Office, 
and his father joined the local force in Shreveport, Louisiana and quickly made 

In June 1971, Danny became an airman in the U.S. Air Force. Like Albert 
DeSalvo, he was just seventeen at the time of his enlistment; his father signed for 
him. Two years later he found himself in a military prison, gaining a discharge 
after an Air Force psychiatrist determined that he had an antisocial personality 
disorder. By late 1973, he was back home in Shreveport where he regularly 
attended church, sang in the choir, and played his beloved guitar. Like so many 
other accused serial killers, Rolling viewed himself as an artist — in this case, a 
singer/songwriter/guitarist, not unlike Charlie Manson. 

On September 6, 1974, Danny married. He was at the time working for the 
local Water Department. By 1 977, Rolling’s wife had filed for divorce. She later 
married a cop. Danny, meanwhile, embarked on a career in crime. In 1979, he 
was charged with two counts of armed robbery. Following his conviction on the 
charges, he was sentenced to a six-year prison term. Not long into his incarcera- 
tion, Rolling managed to escape, but he was recaptured just hours later. For his 
efforts, he had an extra year tacked onto his sentence. In February 1980, he pled 
guilty to a charge of armed robbery in the state of Alabama, earning him a ten- 
year sentence in that state. 

On June 7, 1982, Danny was released by the state of Louisiana after serving 
less than half his sentence. He immediately began serving time in Alabama for his 
conviction there. The very next month he escaped again, but he was recaptured 
after two days. Nevertheless, he was released after just two years, having served a 
total of just five years of his combined seventeen-year sentence. Upon his release, 
he headed west to California, for reasons unknown, and then drifted his way back 
east. In Mississippi he was charged with grand larceny and armed robbery and 
given a fifteen-year sentence, which he began serving on July 25, 1985. Rolling 
was regularly put into solitary confinement in a cold, damp, sewage-infested cell. 
Eventually he graduated up to being put on a chain gang. On July 29, 1988, after 


Programmed to Kill 

serving just three years of his sentence, he was again released. Upon his return 
home, he immediately began attracting neighborhood kids, just as Shawcross had 
done upon his return from prison. 

On May 17, 1990, James Harold Rolling opened fire with his service revolver 
on his son Danny. More than once he had told his wife that he wished the boy 
were dead. But it was not Danny that almost died that day; Rolling returned his 
father’s fire, hitting the senior Rolling and knocking him down. Danny then shot 
him again, in the face, from close range. He then kicked his father’s prone and 
nearly dead body. James though miraculously survived. Danny, meanwhile, fled 
to Sarasota, Florida, allegedly assuming the identity of a Vietnam veteran named 
Michael J. Kennedy who had died in 1975. 

Danny/Michael left Sarasota suddenly on August 18 and headed for 
Gainesville, where he set up camp in a wooded area. Rolling’s arrival in 
Gainesville coincided with Money Magazine’s ranking of the city as the thirteenth 
safest place to live in the United States. It was about to be rocked by five brutal 
and seemingly senseless murders in the space of less than forty-eight hours. 

Gainesville police officer Ray Berber discovered the first two bodies on August 
26, 1990. He was the first officer on the scene and he spent time alone in the 
apartment of the two dead college students, who had been stabbed repeatedly, 
mutilated, and left posed as a macabre greeting for their discoverers. One of the 
girls was in her bed, the other on the floor of the apartment’s living room. One 
had been raped. Both bodies had been washed with detergent to cleanse them of 
forensic evidence. It appeared as though the killer, or killers, had thoroughly 
searched the apartment. One body was left spread-eagle on the floor facing the 
front door, a gaping hole in her chest where her breasts had been removed. Some 
of the parts carved from the two girls had been taken by the killer(s). Evidence 
suggested that duct tape had been used as a restraint, but the tape had subse- 
quently been removed. Most of the blood spilled by the victims had been wiped 

In a remarkably short time, the crime scene was crawling with law enforce- 
ment personnel. Twenty or more officials were on the scene within minutes, 
including the Gainesville police chief and a state’s attorney. Just nine hours later, 
a similar scene played out elsewhere in Gainesville. In a rather unlikely scenario, 
the first officer at that crime scene was officer Gail Berber, the wife of Ray Berber. 
The victim was Christa Hoyt, whom Gail had trained as a Sheriff’s Explorer. 
Christa had subsequently gone to work full-time in the record’s department of 
the Sheriff’s Office. Her head had been cleanly severed and placed on a bookshelf 
facing the front door. Her headless corpse had been carefully posed. Her nipples 
had been removed and placed alongside of the body. Her breasts were then 
removed and wrapped-up to go, but the killer had apparently forgotten to take 

David McGowan • 291 

them. Christa had been sliced open from her breastbone to her public bone with 
surgical precision, without any damage done to any of her internal organs. A&E 
noted, “the cuts were precise — ritualistic.” As with the first crime scene, there was 
evidence of rape and restraint with adhesive tape, and the body had been washed 
with soap and water. The home appeared to have been methodically searched. 

The crime scene clearly suggested that multiple perpetrators were responsible 
for the brutal murder. A bookcase had been moved down the hall, past the bath- 
room and into the bedroom. Investigators doubted that one man alone could 
have moved the heavy and unwieldy unit. Another heavy bookcase had likewise 
been moved — to allow Christa’s head to be positioned for maximum effect. The 
body had been moved several hours after death, indicating that the killer(s) either 
remained at the scene for a considerable amount of time or returned to the scene 
for reasons unknown. It was later claimed that Danny Rolling returned to retrieve 
his wallet, although that claim begs the question of why a serial killer, and veteran 
criminal, would be carrying such an incriminating piece of evidence that could be 
inadvertently left behind. 

Hoyt, who put up a fight against her killer(s), had spent a summer at the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture’s Entomology Lab. She aspired to be a chemist work- 
ing in criminal forensics, and towards that end had joined the Sheriff’s Explorers 
in her senior year of high school. She was reportedly having an office romance 
with a deputy sheriff. She also had a fondness for the color black, with her car, 
most of her wardrobe, and the black roses on her birthday cake chosen accord- 
ingly. She had also, curiously, made mention of a “devil cult” living in the imme- 
diate vicinity. 

A task force, which included no fewer than ten members of the FBI’s 
Behavioral Sciences Unit, was immediately assembled. The principal agent work- 
ing the case for the Florida Department of Law Enforcement was J.O. Jackson, 
who had served in the same capacity on the case of the recently executed Ted 
Bundy. In addition to the FBI’s team of profilers, which included the ubiquitous 
John Douglas, and the FDLE agents, the task force included local police, state 
troopers, and U.S. Navy reservists. The show of force by the police was unprece- 
dented and a highly militarized atmosphere soon enveloped the college town, 
with various law enforcement agencies conducting coordinated paramilitary 

It looked very much like a dress rehearsal for a declaration of martial law . 38 

38 Eleven years later, immediately before the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World 
Trade Center and the Pentagon, Florida Governor Jeb Bush signed legislation that 
paved the way for a declaration of martial law. 


Programmed to Kill 

The day after Christa Hoyt’s body was found, two more victims were discov- 
ered. One of them was a 6’3” tall, 200+ pound, powerfully built college athlete 
who had struggled valiantly with his attacker(s), suffering thirty-one stab wounds 
to his chest, face, arms, hands, and legs, many of them defensive wounds. 
Though it was ultimately claimed that Danny Rolling, acting alone, killed 
Manny Toboada, the truth is that he did not appear to be physically up to the 
task. Toboada’s roommate, Tracey Paules, was killed along with Manny, raising 
further doubts that a single killer was responsible. Paules had been raped anally 
and left on display. There was semen present and five pubic hairs were found. 

There were marked differences between the Toboada/Paules crime scene and 
the two previous ones. Blood was splattered everywhere about the home the two 
students shared. No attempt had been made to clean up the bodies or the crime 
scene. Though the two victims had died exceedingly violent deaths, there were no 
gratuitous mutilations to the bodies. 

A maintenance man discovered the victims when he opened the door to what 
he thought was a burglarized apartment and peered in. He reported seeing a dark- 
colored bag on the floor near Tracey’s head. He immediately turned around, 
locked the door and left to await the arrival of police. When he returned with the 
officers, he found that the door was unlocked and the bag was missing. 

Following the discovery of the last two bodies, the rash of killings ended just as 
suddenly and just as mysteriously as it had begun. 

On the same day that Manny and Tracey were found dead, a known drug 
dealer named Tony Danzy and a man alleged to be Danny Rolling were seen lurk- 
ing in the woods. Though Rolling avoided capture, various items from the pair’s 
campsite were seized as evidence, including a cassette recorder and cash that was 
said to be linked to a bank robbery from the previous day. From this we can sur- 
mise that in the midst of his two-day killing frenzy Rolling took a short break to 
rob a bank with a sidekick, who, of course, had nothing to do with the murders. 

Two days after the last victims were discovered, a man named Edward Lewis 
Humphrey had a violent altercation with his grandmother. Humphrey was one of 
three prime suspects in the case, and he remained a prime suspect throughout the 
next year, although he was never formally charged. Humphrey had made violent 
threats in the past, and he was known for displays of erratic behavior. He was 
aware of unreleased details of the crimes, including the nature of the wounds 
received by the victims. He also lived very close to the Toboada/Paules crime 
scene and his brother George knew victim Tracey Paules. Humphrey was the off- 
spring of an alcoholic mother and an abusive father. He had in the past been diag- 
nosed as manic-depressive and committed to a psychiatric facility. Ed’s sister 
believed that it was while he was institutionalized that he began getting crazy 
thoughts in his head — such as that Satan was after him. Indeed, Ed thought that 

David McGowan • 293 

Satan was everywhere. He also developed a sudden interest in knives and mili- 
taristic behavior. Friends reported that he frequently put on Army fatigues and 
ventured off into the woods saying that he was going out on “recon.” Neighbors 
had seen him returning from the woods late at night carrying a hunting knife. Ed 
also claimed to be the middleman for a high-volume drug dealer — this despite 
the fact that he lived directly below a Gainesville police officer. 

Following his arrest for the attack on his grandmother, Ed was taken to 
Regional Medical Center and questioned for more than twenty-four hours with- 
out an attorney present. Although he was a first-time offender charged only with 
aggravated assault, his bail was set at $ 1 million. Following his conviction, he was 
sentenced to serve twenty-two months at Chattahoochie State Hospital, which 
seemed to please his mother: “you should know this: many of Ed’s friends are bad 
boys and Ed is in a good place now. . .and if he commits suicide, well, that’s life.” 
Humphrey was suspected of being afflicted with Multiple Personality Disorder. 
He admitted to knowing about the killings, but he blamed them on alter identi- 
ties that he said he had no control over. One of his fellow inmates, Stephen 
Michael Bates, claimed that he had participated in the murders with Humphrey 
and a third man. He also said that Humphrey was involved in “satanic stuff.” 

The Gainesville campus was rife with talk of a satanic cult at work. Of the lead 
suspects other than Humphrey, one reportedly had satanic writings in his home 
(another, described as a “charmer with the ladies,” was suspected of a multiple 
stabbing murder in Ohio). Some of the items on the list of evidence sought by 
the task force — which included a black hood; photographs, audiotapes, or video- 
tapes of the murders being performed; human flesh; severed nipples; and human 
blood — hinted at satanic involvement in the crimes. 

On September 25, 1990, investigators announced that semen samples recov- 
ered from two of the crime scenes matched. A full year later, in September 1991, 
Rolling was convicted on robbery charges and sentenced to life in prison as an 
habitual offender. No one had yet been arrested or charged for the five murders. 
Danny had never been considered a suspect. Over the course of the next two 
months, Rolling was convicted on two separate counts of burglary. For the three 
convictions, he was sentenced to a total of three life terms plus an additional 170 
years. And the state of Florida was not done with Danny Rolling. 

While he was in custody, samples of Rolling’s blood and hair were surrepti- 
tiously gathered — the blood from a tooth extraction and the hair from a haircut. 
Prosecutors later returned with a warrant and gathered the very same samples 
from Danny, making no mention of the samples gathered previously. On 
November 1, a grand jury was convened to hear the purported case against 
Danny Rolling for the five grisly murders. Two weeks later, Rolling was indicted 
on murder charges. Following that, he reportedly made several suicide attempts, 

294 • Programmed to Kill 

which led to his being transferred to Chattahoochie State Hospital. Meanwhile, 
the officer who had served as the police spokesman on the murder cases moved 
on to the FBI Academy at Quantico. 

At around that same time, Danny began a relationship with a rather notorious 
character named Sondra London, a serial killer groupie 59 and true-crime writer. 
London — who claims as friends such notables as prolific author Ann Rule and 
the Behavioral Sciences Unit’s resident ritual abuse denier, Kenneth Lanning — 
urged Danny to publicly take credit for the Gainesville murders. Rolling’s cell- 
mate, convicted murderer Bobby Lewis, also played a key role in that effort. 
Danny soon reportedly ‘confessed’ to the murders, but it was actually Lewis who 
did all the talking. Rolling’s role was to sit nearby in a nearly catatonic state and 
occasionally nod in agreement or mumble an affirmative response. The first such 
‘confession’ was audiotaped and the second was videotaped. It is clear from both 
that Rolling was almost completely incapacitated. The killings were blamed on an 
alter-ego named “Gemini,” who acted alone. Danny claimed to have no control 
over the actions of his alter identities (which was probably true). The confessions 
were largely unverifiable, but in an attempt to verify some aspect of them, police 
investigators searched for the murder weapon based on information supplied by 
Rolling. They came up empty handed. 

Rolling’s trial on the homicide charges was repeatedly postponed. First sched- 
uled for September 1992, it did not begin until February 15, 1994. The jury was 
barely seated when its services were rendered unnecessary; Danny shocked the 
court and all involved in the case by entering guilty pleas to all the charges he was 
facing. The trial, therefore, immediately shifted to the penalty phase, with the 
jury reduced to an advisory role. Rolling claimed that he had entered the pleas in 
order to keep the details of the murders from being aired in open court. His 
intent was allegedly to allow Ms. London to publish his exclusive story, just as she 
had gotten Schaefer’s ‘serial killer fiction’ published by Feral House — the publish- 
ing house owned by Adam Parfrey that has exclusive rights to the copious writ- 
ings of Church of Satan founder Anton LaVey. 

Whether that was Rolling’s true intent remains an open question. If it was, 
then the plan failed miserably. Prosecutors proceeded to air their case, such as it 
was, regardless of the guilty pleas. And since guilt was no longer an issue, the case 
that was presented went almost completely unchallenged, with nary an objection 
to be heard from the defense team, despite that fact that the primary evidence 

39 London had previously been romantically involved with Florida cop cum serial killer 
and child rapist, Gerard John Schaefer. Schaefer was found dead in his prison cell in 
1995. Some have blamed our old friend Ottis Toole for his death. 

David McGowan • 295 

was, at best, problematic. The state claimed, for instance, that a Stanley screw- 
driver found at the campsite was the tool used to gain access to the murder 
scenes. Pry marks found at the scenes purportedly matched the blade of that par- 
ticular screwdriver, although it is difficult to conceive how the literally thousands 
of identical screwdrivers manufactured by Stanley could have been excluded. 
Another problem was that the screwdriver, even if it could be linked to the 
crimes, could not be linked to Rolling. There was no evidence that he had ever 
purchased or owned it. The state simply claimed that Danny had stolen the 
screwdriver, but there was no evidence to support that claim. 

Prosecutors also claimed that Rolling had stolen duct tape and two pairs of 
athletic gloves that were allegedly found at the campsite, but there was also no 
evidence to support that contention. No physical evidence, such as fingerprints, 
tied any of the items to Danny. No murder weapon could be linked to the defen- 
dant, but that did not stop prosecutors from claiming, without documentation, 
that Danny had purchased a knife in Tallahassee using an assumed name. A pair 
of black pants that were allegedly recovered from the campsite, and that were 
allegedly stained with Manny Toboada’s blood, were presented as evidence. 
Prosecutors did not bother though to explain how the bloodstains could be on 
the pants when it was known that Toboada’s killer had thoroughly cleansed him- 
self by taking a dip in the building’s pool immediately after the murders. 

Other evidence included: the bizarre, videotaped third party’ confession; a 
clothing fiber purportedly found at one of the crime scenes; a note found at one 
scene that allegedly matched Rolling’s handwriting; and a pubic hair from 
Christa Hoyt that was allegedly found at the campsite. It was never explained 
why all the alleged campsite evidence was not produced until a year after the 
investigation had begun. The state claimed that a “genetic blueprint” in blood 
and semen samples positively identified Rolling as the killer. Such a claim, how- 
ever, would be somewhat more credible if investigators building the case against 
Danny had not clandestinely gathered biological samples from him — samples 
that could easily have been planted as evidence. 

Another item purportedly found at the campsite was a cassette tape-recorder. 
Inside was a tape that Rolling had made for his family. That tape reportedly was 
not listened to until months after it was seized and booked into evidence. Danny 
had ended the tape with the following statement: “Well, I’m gonna sign off for a 
little bit. I got something I gotta do. I love ya. Bye.” That rather innocuous com- 
ment was touted by the state, rather creatively, as irrefutable proof of the defen- 
dant’s guilt. Though it hardly needs to be stated, most people at any given time 
have “something they gotta do.” Very rarely does that involve committing mass 

296 • Programmed to Kill 

In a scenario that precisely mirrored the circumstances ofTed Bundy’s kidnap- 
ping trial, Danny Rolling’s defense attorneys, the presiding judge, and the prose- 
cutors had all been classmates together at the University of Florida law school. It 
is, indeed, a small world that serial killers inhabit. 

Appearing before the court as a defense witness, Rolling’s mother offered testi- 
mony concerning possible demonic possession and detailed the family’s history of 
mental illness and institutionalization. Danny, who was frequently described as a 
“Jekyll and Hyde,” claimed via his ‘confessional’ videotape that he suffered from 
multiple personalities. All the experts called to the stand, however, disputed that 
contention. After just five hours of deliberations, the jury returned with a recom- 
mendation that Rolling be given five death sentences. The judge opted to let a 
few weeks pass before formally imposing sentence on Danny — doing so, appro- 
priately enough, on April 20, 1994. In the interim, Rolling’s father was cited for 
battery of his terminally ill wife. 

“Civilization, it’s not of the lord, it’s of the devil, brother. . . Old 
Lucifer, he was at me for a long time — knocking on the door to 
my mind. ” 

— Danny Rolling, who, curiously, was missing 
a portion of his left ring finger 

Chapter 18 

The Profiler and the Patsy 

“After the use of the hypnotic drug I had the strange compulsion 
to take the blame for all the charges pressed against me. It must 
have been a post-hypnotic influence. ” 

— William Heirens 

The FBI’s Behavioral Sciences Unit, which gave the world the ‘science’ of ‘crim- 
inal profiling,’ first began taking shape around 1969, the year that the Manson 
Family first captured national headlines. The new unit did not really take off 
though until 1972, when the FBI Academy opened in Quantico, Virginia. 
Robert Ressler joined the BSU team in 1974 and, along with John Douglas, he 
became one of the most well known of the unit’s profilers, and one of the most 
prolific of its chroniclers. At the time that he joined, the unit had no operational 
functions; it existed solely for the purpose of teaching the principles of profiling. 
Ressler was taught by the pioneers of the ‘science’: Floward Teeten and Pat 

In 1 977, a pilot program was begun to study the rapid proliferation of what 
were soon to be dubbed “serial killers.” The program included such notable 
members as Robert Ressler, John Douglas, Ann Burgess and Ralph D’Agostino. 
In 1978, Ressler spearheaded the operational unit of the BSU. At around that 
same time, he was credited with coining the now ubiquitous term “serial killer.” 
During his fabled career, Ressler sat down to chat with a number of the high-pro- 
file criminals whose stories have been told in the pages of this book. He was 
among the first to interview Ted Bundy, and one of the last to talk to John Wayne 
Gacy. He held court with Charles Manson, Sirhan Sirhan, Richard Speck, Ed 
Kemper, Jeffrey Dahmer, and many others. He also served as the first Program 
Manager for VICAP, the Violent Criminal Apprehension Program that Ann Rule 
so tirelessly campaigned for. 



Programmed to Kill 

Ressler once gave an interviewer the following capsule history of criminal pro- 

The original profilers pretty much emanated from the behavioral 
science work at Quantico, and it spread from law enforcement to the 
academic. By bringing in Dr. Park Dietz and others like him, we 
started spilling it over into the professional community, and where psy- 
chiatry had initially been at odds with the FBI approach, a lot of men- 
tal health professionals then got on board. Over the years, the forensic 
community has pretty much accepted what we were doing in behav- 
ioral science and absorbed it. 

In other words, in the last 25-30 years the FBI has managed, despite initial 
resistance, to thoroughly co-opt the fields of law enforcement, academia, mental 
health, and the forensic sciences. In doing so, the FBI’s profilers have successfully 
molded public opinion and firmly ingrained in the mind of the average American 
the concept of the ‘serial killer.’ This effort has been so successful that it has 
become all but impossible to question whether the contemporary view of violent 
crime is at all accurate. 

In August 1 990, Ressler ostensibly retired from government service, though he 
has spent his retirement years introducing VI CAP to Japan, South Africa, Poland, 
and several other countries. Since his retirement, he has served as the director of 
an entity called Forensics Behavioral Services International. One of the primary 
goals of the enterprise, according to one of Ressler’s associates, Dr. Christine 
Kokonos, is a complete and seamless merging of the fields of law enforcement 
and psychology. 

Robert Ressler’s bio reads as though it was lifted off the pages of a Flollywood 
screenplay. Fie grew up in Chicago — with a boy whose name may be familiar 
from a previous chapter: John Wayne Gacy. Bobby and John lived on the same 
street and were Boy Scouts together in the same scout troop. It was the classic 
story of two boys whose lives took radically divergent paths. . .at least by outward 
appearances. Ressler later returned to Chicago to assist in investigating the Gacy 
case, and still later helped to prepare the prosecution case against his childhood 

Ressler claims that his first foray into gaining an understanding of the criminal 
mind came as a young boy, when he started his own private investigation firm. 
The agency was founded specifically to look into the case of William Heirens, 
who allegedly stalked the streets of Chicago long before Richard Speck, John 

David McGowan • 299 

Wayne Gacy or Robin Gecht walked that beat. You could say that the Heirens 
case provided Ressler with his first opportunity to try his hand at ‘profiling.’ 

William Heirens was, according to the official narrative, the country’s first 
post-war serial killer. His alleged crimes were committed during a period in 
America’s history when crime rates were soaring all across the nation, particularly 
in the big cities. The year was 1945. World War II had just ended and tens of 
thousands of young men desensitized to extreme levels of human brutality were 
coming home. 

The city of Chicago recorded 109 robberies, 265 burglaries, 109 stolen cars, 
four rapes, and eight murders in just the first ten days of December 1945. Those 
were staggeringly high numbers in those days. It is interesting then that three par- 
ticular murders stunned not just the city of Chicago, but the entire country. The 
first of the three occurred in June 1945, just weeks after the United States had 
declared “Victory in Europe.” The last, and by far the grisliest, was in January 
1946. All three were ultimately attributed to William Heirens, who was just six- 
teen years old at the time of the first murder. 

Heirens was born in November 1928 to a mother and father who were known 
to have frequent violent arguments. Young Bill reportedly developed a habit of 
leaving the house by himself, so as to avoid the violent confrontations. Not sur- 
prisingly, he was often described as a loner. Heirens first ran afoul of the law at the 
age of thirteen, when he was found to be in possession of a loaded gun at school. 
Eight more weapons were found stashed in his home. As punishment, he was sent 
to the Catholic-run Gibault School in Terre Haute, Indiana. The year was 1942. 
Heirens had barely walked out the door of the institution when a new student 
arrived at the Gibault School: Charles Milles Manson. 

Shortly after his release, Heirens managed to get himself arrested once again. 
That time he was sent to the Benedictine monk-run St. Bede’s Academy in Peru, 
Illinois. Following that, he was urged to take a test for admittance to a “special 
learning program” at the University of Chicago. He was reportedly an exception- 
ally gifted student. Soon he discovered girls, however, and his grades began to 
slip. That was when, purportedly, he decided to go on a killing spree. He also 
reportedly developed a fondness for dressing in women’s clothes and an interest in 
Hitler and the trappings of Nazism. 

The first of the victims was Josephine Ross, a forty-three-year-old, thrice- 
divorced woman who was said to be on a quest for husband number four; she was 
known to visit psychics and fortune-tellers to assist in attaining that goal. Ross 


Programmed to Kill 

was found sprawled on her bed in a room heavily splattered with blood. Her 
throat had been slashed multiple times and her bloodied head was wrapped in a 
dress. There was blood on the walls, the floor, the drapes and the furniture. 
Bloody water and clothes were left in the bathtub, where the body had been 
washed. No fingerprints could be found anywhere at the scene. 

About four months later, on October 5, 1945, a prowler allegedly entered the 
apartment of an Army nurse. Surprised by the occupant, the intruder hit her and 
fled, leaving behind fingerprints and an eyewitness. The prints were allegedly 
later identified as belonging to William Heirens. Strangely though, the prints 
were not initially identified at all, despite the fact that Heirens’ prints were on file 
with the police. Authorities never explained why the alleged ‘serial killer’ chose 
not to attack the victim. 

Two months later, on December 10, a former U.S. Army WAV named Francis 
Brown was brutally shot and stabbed to death. Her nude body was found 
sprawled over her bathtub, her head wrapped in pajamas. There was a butcher 
knife buried in her neck and a bullet in her head. A blood trail led from the splat- 
tered bed to the bathroom. As in the Josephine Ross case, the home had been 
thoroughly searched, though nothing appeared to be missing. A bloody finger- 
print was allegedly left behind on a doorjamb, but it was only belatedly ‘discov- 
ered.’ A man described as being 35-40 years of age was reportedly seen leaving 
the property. Heirens was less than half that age. 

A local butcher named George Carraboni confessed to murdering Francis 
Brown, but police discounted his confession, claiming that Carraboni’s story kept 
changing. Carraboni was at that time already under investigation in Cleveland for 
thirteen murders involving beheadings and mutilations. 

On January 7, 1946, the six-year-old daughter of an official with the Office of 
Price Administration disappeared from an occupied home in a kidnapping/mur- 
der case that seemed to borrow heavily from the infamous Lindbergh kidnap- 
ping. There were two families living in the home from which Suzanne Degnan 
vanished, and yet no one living there reportedly saw or heard a thing. After she 
was reported missing, the house immediately filled with police. A note was found 
that no one had previously noticed, purportedly because it was mistaken for a dis- 
carded tissue. Outside the home, a seven-foot ladder was found that, naturally, 
was just tall enough to reach to the girl’s bedroom window. 

The alleged kidnapper demanded $20,000 from the Degnan family for 
Suzanne’s return, but no amount of ransom money was going to bring her back; 
she had already been skillfully chopped up (by a trained butcher, authorities ini- 
tially suspected) and then scattered in the city’s sewers. 

Initially arrested for the murder was the sixty- five-year-old janitor of a nearby 
apartment building named Hector Verburgh. Police confidently announced to 

David McGowan • 301 

the press that they had their man. They then spent the next two days tirelessly 
torturing their suspect — before quietly admitting that they had the wrong man. 
Verburgh was paid $20,000 (a not insignificant amount of money in the 1940s) 
to settle his claim against the city. 

Heirens was arrested on June 26, 1946, nearly six months after the last mur- 
der, on burglary charges. The arrest, which followed a botched break-in, was facil- 
itated by an off-duty officer who just happened to be on-hand to smash a few 
large flowerpots over Heirens’ head. Bill was not in custody long before his cap- 
tors began accusing him of the murder of Suzanne Degnan. However, he was not 
initially accused of either the Ross or Brown homicides, which had no known 
connection to the Degnan kidnapping and murder. He was though accused of 
another homicide, which was also unrelated to the Degnan case. Police eventually 
realized that they were not going to be able to make that murder charge stick, 
since Heirens had been in school in Indiana at the time. 

Shortly before Heirens had been arrested, a man named Richard Thomas con- 
fessed to the murder of Suzanne Degnan. Thomas had been in Chicago at the 
time of the Degnan slaying, working near the Degnan home. At the time of his 
confession, he was awaiting sentencing in Phoenix, Arizona for the crime of 
molesting one of his own children. He had previously been convicted of 
attempted extortion in a case involving a ransom note that threatened the kid- 
napping of a young girl. A handwriting expert in Phoenix determined that 
Thomas’ writing was a close match for the writing on the Degnan ransom note. 

Chicago police were duly dispatched to Phoenix to interview the suspect, but 
their mission was quickly preempted when Illinois State’s Attorney William 
Tuohy publicly announced that William Heirens was the party responsible for 
the girl’s death, even though no evidence existed at that time to support that 
charge and Heirens was steadfastly denying the allegations. 

To elicit a confession from young William, who was not yet an adult, his cap- 
tors subjected him to what can only be described as severe torture. He was beaten 
repeatedly for the first few days of his incarceration, and deprived of food, water 
and sleep. Then he was injected with sodium pentathol, a hypnotic truth’ drug, 
and moved to solitary confinement. On his fifth day of custody, he was adminis- 
tered a spinal tap — an exceedingly painful surgical procedure for which there was 
no medical justification. He was given no anesthesia. Just fifteen minutes after 
the procedure was completed, he was yanked from his bed and taken, quite liter- 
ally, for a rough ride on cobblestone roads. Then he was administered a lie-detec- 
tor test. At no time during his ordeal was he allowed access to counsel. 

Heirens, nevertheless, remained a remarkably uncooperative patsy. He ulti- 
mately took the fall only, as he later explained, because he had reason to fear for 
his life. 


Programmed to Kill 

It was claimed that Heirens confessed to the crimes while under the influence 
of a hypnotic drug. He purportedly spoke of an alter-identity named George 
whom he blamed for the murders. In all the decades that have passed since the 
confession was allegedly obtained, however, no transcript of the interview has 
ever been produced. Prosecutor Tuohy initially claimed that the transcript was 
not yet ready for release, but he then later denied that an interview had ever been 
conducted with the aid of drugs. A number of witnesses recalled that Tuohy had 
personally attended that interview. One man who had attended, a Dr. Grinker, 
admitted in 1952 that, despite the allusions to an evil alter ego, Heirens never 
directly implicated himself in any crimes during the interview. 

As for the lie-detector test, Tuohy claimed they it was “inconclusive.” The 
inventors of the particular test that was administered to Heirens, however, pub- 
lished their analysis of the results in a 1953 textbook: “[Heirens’] response on the 
card test clearly establishes him as an innocent person.” 

A renowned handwriting expert by the name of George Schwartz was sum- 
moned to attempt to match Heirens’ handwriting to that on the ransom note and 
on a message that had been scrawled in lipstick at one of the crime scenes. 
Schwartz concluded that the “individual characteristics in the two writings do 
not compare in any respect.” Undeterred, the state brought in another expert: 
Herbert J. Walter, who had aided the state in manufacturing a case against Bruno 
Richard Hauptmann for the kidnapping of the Lindbergh baby. Walter con- 
cluded that Heirens was the author of both the note and the lipstick message, 
contradicting the opinion that he himself had expressed before being brought 
onto the case. Many experts have subsequently rejected Walter’s conclusions. 

At one point in the Heirens investigation, police enlisted the services of Frank 
San Hamel, a Chicago Daily News artist, to ‘enhance’ the writing on the ransom 
note. San Hamel claimed that he discovered what he dubbed “hidden indenta- 
tion writing,” and that that purportedly hidden writing conclusively linked 
Heirens to the note. No one ever bothered to explain what ‘hidden indentation 
writing’ actually was or how it linked Heirens to the crime. 

Fingerprint evidence allegedly irrefutably established Heirens’ guilt, but that 
evidence was dubious at best. A print supposedly recovered from the ransom note 
was reported to be a match for Heirens, but the print actually matched on only 
nine points while the FBI’s fingerprint manual specifically required twelve points 
for a positive identification. More troubling is that the print seems to have sur- 
faced out of thin air. Chicago police initially announced that no prints were pres- 
ent on the note. Analysts at the FBI lab, however, uncovered two prints, but 
neither of them had been left by Heirens. It was not until years later that the print 
linking Heirens to the crime was allegedly found on the back of the note. To this 
day it remains a mystery exactly when that print was found, and by whom. 

David McGowan • 303 

The fingerprint that was purportedly left prominently displayed at the Brown 
home was also announced to be a match for William Heirens, despite the fact 
that Police Captain Emmett Evans had previously announced that the print did 
not match Eleirens’ prints. More troubling was that the print had full left and 
right margins, which is possible only if the finger has been carefully rolled on the 
surface, as occurs when someone is being fingerprinted, but generally not when a 
print is inadvertently left at a crime scene. 

No blood evidence was ever produced in the case. Nor was any hair or fiber 
evidence. And no witnesses, initially at least, could link Eleirens to the victims or 
the crime scenes. George E. Subgrunski, a soldier on furlough, had witnessed a 
man leaving the Degnan residence. Ele had described the suspect as a 35-year-old 
man. Ele was unable to identify Eleirens from photos, but he did manage to do so 
as a spectator in the courtroom. According to the Center for Wrongful 
Convictions, Subgrunski “proved to be a publicity-seeking fraud.” 

The state’s case was, needless to say, far too shaky to present in a public trial. 
Prosecutors Tuohy and Wilbert Crowley met behind closed doors with Eleirens’ 
defense attorneys and offered their client a single life prison term in exchange for 
guilty pleas to all three counts of murder. No details of the deal were released to 
the press. The defense team did not bother to conduct any semblance of an inde- 
pendent investigation of the state’s evidence before agreeing to the deal. 

Eleirens, however, was still resisting the state’s efforts to extract a confession 
and guilty pleas. But then a most remarkable thing happened: a reporter for the 
Chicago Tribune named George Wright drafted a completely bogus confession, 
which he attributed to anonymous “unimpeachable sources.” The Tribune ran the 
fraudulent story on the front page of their July 1 6 edition, touting it as an actual 
confession from William Eleirens. All of the newspaper’s competitors promptly 
did likewise. Shortly after that, Heirens was compelled to author a confession, 
using Wright’s fabricated confession as a script. In other words, he retroactively legit- 
imized what had been an entirely fictional account of the crimes. 

A date was then set for Heirens to publicly confess to his alleged crimes and 
enter his plea. There was a very large turnout for the much-anticipated event; 
public officials and the press came out in droves to see the show. But the star had 
not yet been sufficiently coerced to play his part in the charade and he pointedly 
refused to confess and enter a guilty plea. Both the state’s attorneys and Heirens’ 
own defense lawyers were livid. The prosecutors’ offer was immediately revoked 
and a new one proffered: three life terms in exchange for the guilty pleas. A new 
date was set and September brought Heirens his second chance for a public con- 
fession. Mary Jane Blanchard, the daughter of victim Josephine Ross, was there 
for that second public spectacle. She told the press that she thought Heirens had 
been framed. 

304 • Programmed to Kill 

After an excruciating pause, Heirens reluctantly entered his guilty pleas. 
Audible sighs of relief could be heard from the bench and throughout the court- 
room. He was duly sentenced to serve three life sentences. Nearly sixty years later, 
he is still serving those sentences, and he is still steadfastly proclaiming his inno- 
cence. He now has the rather dubious honor of being the longest-serving inmate 
in the history of the state of Illinois. He has never been given parole considera- 
tion, despite the fact that his attorneys told him that he would be afforded such 
consideration as part of the plea-bargain deal. During his lifetime behind bars, 
Heirens has distinguished himself by becoming the first inmate in the state’s his- 
tory to graduate college, and he has become an accomplished painter, a skilled 
tailor, and a talented jailhouse lawyer. 

In April 2002, the UK’s Guardian revealed that a “man who has spent 56 years 
in jail in what his lawyers describe as ‘one of the grossest miscarriages of justice in 
the history of the US’ could finally be freed.” The report continued: 

A new investigation into the case of the man known as the Lipstick 
Killer indicates that the evidence against him was fabricated by detec- 
tives... His case has been taken up by the Northwestern University 
Centre on Wrongful Convictions which has a high success rate in hav- 
ing suspect verdicts overturned. . .The new investigation indicates that 
neither the ransom note nor the lipstick confession were written by 
Heirens. A fingerprint found in Brown’s apartment is alleged to have 
been placed there by police. 

The investigation referred to in the Guardian article was conducted by a team 
led by Chicago attorney Jed Stone. Stone’s team discovered that the entire case 
against Heirens was a product of outright fraudulence. Among the conclusions 
reached by the team, based on a thorough examination of the evidence, were all 
of the following: 

• The ‘hidden indentation’ writing allegedly uncovered by Chicago Daily News 
artist Frank San Hamel was a fraud and a hoax. 

• The handwriting on the Degnan ransom note was not Heirens. In fact, sev- 
eral independent experts say it was Richard Thomas’s. 

• The much-publicized lipstick message on the Brown wall was not in Heirens’ 
writing and was not written by the same person who wrote the Degnan note. 

• The purported Heirens fingerprint originally said to have been on the ‘face’ 
of the Degnan note later was said to have been on the back, and its existence 
is not confirmable. 

David McGowan • 305 

• The so-called ‘bloody fingerprint’ found on a doorjamb in the Brown apart- 
ment appears to have been a ‘rolled’ fingerprint like those seen on fingerprint 
cards in police stations — and unlike those most often found at crime scenes. 

• Analysis of the confessions revealed 29 inconsistencies between the confes- 
sions and the known facts of the crimes — a signature element in false confes- 
sions. Heirens was wrong about basic facts about the crimes, including 
locations, times, and related events. 

And so it goes as, decades later, police, courts, attorneys and the media con- 
tinue to work in lockstep to manufacture cases against designated patsies. 

As for Ressler, he formally began his law enforcement career in 1962, when he 
served as an agent supervisor for the U.S. Army’s Criminal Investigations 
Division. He claims that he was first approached by the FBI, by a man who later 
became the assistant director at Quantico, while he was attending graduate school 
at Michigan State University. After spending nearly three decades of his life pur- 
portedly working to bring violent criminals to justice, one of his first actions after 
his retirement was to go to work on the Dahmer case — on the side of the defense. 

Chapter 19 


“It’s hard for me to believe that a human being could have done 
what I’ve done, but I know that I did it. ” 

— Jeffrey Dahmer 

w ith the possible exception of school and workplace shootings, nothing better 
serves to facilitate the promotion of a ‘law-and-order’ agenda than the palpable 
fear aroused by the sociopathic killer — a fear that propels the population into an 
every-man-for-himself mentality. Anyone, after all, could be a serial killer, hiding 
behind a mask of civility: a co-worker, a friend, a neighbor. . .even a family mem- 

The Phoenix Program has been referenced a number of times in past chapters, 
and its relevance to this discussion cannot be overstated. Phoenix was, by design, 
a psychological warfare operation. Its goal was, quite literally, to scare the hell out 
of the Vietnamese people — to such an extent that their will would be broken and 
they would accede to the demands of their would-be oppressors. The techniques 
employed were barbaric. Victims of the program were not merely assassinated; 
they were frequently raped, tortured, mutilated, dismembered and left posed in 
grotesque displays for their fellow villagers and family members to find. The 
crime scenes of the Phoenix Program were, in other words, indistinguishable 
from the crime scenes of Americas serial killers. 

In What Uncle Sam Really Wants, Noam Chomsky described the type of train- 
ing given to U.S. -backed Salvadoran death squads, which were modeled after the 
Phoenix Program’s death squads (which in turn were modeled after the Nazi 
Einsatzgruppen death squads active during World War II): 

...draftees were made to kill dogs and vultures by biting their 
throats and twisting off their heads, and had to watch as soldiers tor- 
tured and killed suspected dissidents — tearing out their fingernails, 


David McGowan • 307 

cutting off their heads, chopping their bodies to pieces and playing 
with the dismembered arms for fun. 

Chomsky also quotes Jesuit Priest Daniel Santiago, who described the tragic 
results of such training: 

People are not just killed by death squads in El Salvador — they are 
decapitated and then their heads are placed on pikes and used to dot 
the landscape. Men are not just disemboweled by the Salvadoran 
Treasury Police; their severed genitalia are stuffed into their mouths. 
Salvadoran women are not just raped by the National Guard; their 
wombs are cut from their bodies and used to cover their faces. It is not 
enough to kill children; they are dragged over barbed wire until their 
flesh falls from their bones, while parents are forced to watch. 

Chomsky described one particularly macabre scene staged by the U.S. -trained 
Salvadoran National Guard. A peasant woman returned home to “find her three 
children, her mother and her sister sitting around a table, each with its own 
decapitated head placed carefully on the table in front of the body, the hands 
arranged on top ‘as if each body was stroking its own head.’” Finding it hard to 
keep the head of the woman’s youngest child in place, the assassins had taken the 
1 8-month-old baby’s decapitated head and “nailed the hands onto it. A large plas- 
tic bowl filled with blood was tastefully displayed in the center of the table.” 

The goals of psychological warfare are no different here at home than they 
were in Southeast Asia or Central America: to scare the people, in this case the 
American people, into willingly surrendering their rights and accepting ever- 
increasing levels of repression; and to desensitize the people to horrendous levels 
of interpersonal violence. The ultimate goal, and one that we are rapidly 
approaching, is the destruction of all social bonds and the obliteration of any 
remaining sense of community — the complete atomization of society. 

Famed ‘conspiracy’ researcher Mae Brussell made a telling observation nearly 
three decades ago, in 1974: “What we are now experiencing is the importation of 
the dreaded ‘Operation Phoenix’ program into the United States. . .Through var- 
ious created and manipulated acts of violence, the only ‘solution’ to ‘chaos, anar- 
chy, and senseless violent acts’ will be a police state. . .We can expect the planned 
terrorization of the U.S. population to escalate rapidly.” 

That terrorization has indeed escalated rapidly since the early 1970s. ‘Serial 
killers’ are now an accepted, and frequently glorified, part of American pop cul- 
ture. They have spawned a number of successful Flollywood movie franchises and 


Programmed to Kill 

their biographies crowd the shelves of Americas bookstores. Sensational work- 
place shootings have become so cliche that the media now move effortlessly from 
one to the next. And the police state, needless to say, has advanced markedly in 
the last few decades. 

Since we began this saga in the state ofTexas, and since we have revisited that 
state repeatedly, it seems only fitting that we should end there as well, especially 
since the current laws of that state, which are by far the harshest of any in the 
country, are due directly to the state’s use of a ‘serial killer’ to manipulate public 
opinion. The man’s name was Kenneth McDuff, and his story begins on August 
6, 1966, when he and an eighteen-year-old accomplice abducted and murdered 
three high school kids, one of whom was brutally raped and tortured. The triple 
murder was committed, strangely enough, just five days after Charles Whitman’s 
rampage in nearby Austin, Texas. In November of that same year, McDuff was 
convicted and sentenced to die in the state’s electric chair. 

Over the next six years, McDuff won a few stays of his scheduled execution, 
and then had his death sentence commuted to a life term in 1972 when the 
Supreme Court called a halt to all judicial executions. 40 In 1987, legal action 
brought against the Texas prison system forced the state’s courts to set limits on 
prison populations, to ease the outrageously overcrowded and grossly inhumane 
conditions. State authorities responded by seeking a massive infusion of funds to 
simply build more prisons. Those efforts were stymied by voters. As a result, the 
state was forced to grant early parole to a substantial number of inmates. 

In a ridiculously unlikely scenario, one of those inmates was former “dead 
man walking” Kenneth McDuff, who walked away a free man on October 1 1 , 
1989. State officials apparently failed to notice the literally tens of thousands of 
nonviolent drug offenders who were clogging up the prison system when they 
claimed that they had run out of prisoners who could be offered parole. 

McDuff returned to Rosebud, Texas, not far from Waco, where it did not take 
him long to become the most reviled man in the Lone Star State. 

Just nine months after his release, he was arrested for pulling a knife and phys- 
ically threatening a group of young black kids. That offense should have earned 
him a ticket back to prison for the remainder of his life sentence. Instead, the for- 
mer death row inmate was released yet again just a few months later. Following 
his re-release, he repeatedly violated his parole by, among other things, consorting 
with prostitutes and buying, selling and using drugs. McDuff’s parole officer 

40 A number of the other killers profiled here were the beneficiaries of that Supreme 
Court decision as well. In California, those beneficiaries included Sirhan Sirhan, John 
Lindley Frazier, and Charlie and his girls. 

David McGowan • 309 

inexplicably chose to let him operate without any meaningful supervision, even 
though the parolee was obviously someone who needed to be closely monitored. 

In October 1991, McDuff, working with an accomplice, committed the first 
of a series of brutal torture murders of girls in the Waco/Austin area. The first two 
victims were prostitutes, both of whom were seen with McDuff by witnesses 
shortly before their disappearances. One of the victims was reportedly in his vehi- 
cle when he ran a police roadblock. Nevertheless, police opted not to burden 
McDuff with any serious questions about the girls’ disappearances. 

Unhindered by either the police or his parole officer, McDuff killed at least 
three more girls before he was apprehended in May 1992 following one of the 
largest manhunts in the state’s history. He was brought to trial in February 1993 
and once again convicted of capital crimes. The conviction was assured when 
McDuff opted to take the stand in his own defense, thus allowing his prior con- 
victions and death sentence into evidence. For his efforts, he received a new death 
sentence (capital punishment had been reinstated in Texas just two years after its 
use was discontinued). The next year he received another. 

Kenneth McDuff’s luck had run out. Just after 6:00 PM on November 17, 
1998, he became one of the 152 inmates executed during the tenure of Governor 
George W. Bush. By that time, the condemned man had been credited with per- 
manently changing the Texas criminal justice system. 

The public was understandably outraged that a condemned man had been set 
free to kill again. And they were encouraged to place the blame for that outrage 
on the well-intentioned prison reforms. In other words, the people of Texas had 
been sent a very clear message: any attempt to adopt humanitarian reforms in the 
Texas penal system will result in more Kenneth McDuffs being put back on the 
streets. That was the scenario that was successfully sold to the voting public. The 
result was an overhaul of the justice system that proved to be the most sweeping 
and reactionary in the state’s history. To effect what was billed as ‘The Texas 
Solution,’ legislators rammed through a flurry of bills dubbed the ‘McDuff Laws’ 
that mandated tougher sentencing, exceedingly harsh parole guidelines, and an 
expenditure of an astounding $2 billion for the construction of new prisons. 

Those new prisons, along with the older ones, were soon bursting at the 
seams. The state of Texas is now the proud owner of what has been described as 
the largest prison system in the history of the free world. Texas incarcerates its cit- 
izens at double the rate of the rest of the nation, which is quite a startling statistic 
when one considers that the country as a whole has the second highest incarcera- 
tion rate of any nation, and in absolute numbers, the United States has the 
world’s largest prison population. Texas also hosts far more executions than any 
other state — nearly as many, in fact, as all the other states combined. 


Programmed to Kill 

Such is the legacy of a ‘serial killer.’ 

The ‘profile’ of ‘serial killers’ that has been presented in this book is obviously 
one that is quite different from the one that has become a part of our collective 
conscience. Rather than the profile of a lone predator, driven by his own internal 
demons, we find instead a profile of controlled assassins and controlled patsies, 
conditioned and programmed by a variety of intelligence fronts, including mili- 
tary entities, psychiatric institutions, and Satanic cults. 

There is a very real possibility that an underground network of Satanic cults 
has largely replaced the Mafia’s “Murder Incorporated” as America’s premier mur- 
der-for-hire organization. Researcher and author Michael Newton has drawn that 
conclusion; in Raising Hell, he charges that the ‘Black Cross,’ a faction of the 
Process-spawned Four-P cult, functions specifically as a “Satanic Murder, Inc.” 

Consider the case of Thomas Creech, a member of a nationwide biker gang 
that was heavily involved in drug trafficking and cult rituals. In 1975, Creech 
admitted to forty-two contract killings committed on behalf of the gang. Many 
of the murders had been performed, he said, as ritual human sacrifices. According 
to Creech’s account, his forty-two ‘hits’ only qualified him for eighth place 
among the gang’s contract killers. Consider also the case of Bernard Hunwick of 
Dade County, Florida. Following his arrest in 1981 for a series of murders, he 
confessed to police that he was the leader of a “hit squad” that had committed at 
least 100 additional contract killings. 

Are these merely deranged men suffering from delusions of grandeur? Or are 
they men who have given anyone willing to listen to their stories a peek into a 
world that few dare to imagine exists in modern-day America? The question is a 
disturbing one, but one that nonetheless begs for an answer. 

Although the serial killer stories told herein vary considerably from the 
accounts usually told about these men, the vast majority of the information pre- 
sented herein was derived from mainstream media sources, including newspaper 
and magazine articles, television documentaries, books released by ‘reputable’ 
publishers, and ‘true crime’ web sites. The primary difference between this book 
and others in the genre is that the anomalous facts that invariably accompany the 
stories of serial killers have not been downplayed and explained away, but rather 
have been emphasized to illustrate that what are almost universally presented as 
trivial irregularities are, in fact, patterns that weave their way through the stories 
of America’s most feared criminals. While it is relatively easy to ignore or dismiss 

David McGowan • 311 

such oddities in the cases of individual serial killers, it is much more difficult to 
do so when those oddities form connecting threads. 

The vast majority of serial killer chroniclers are, at best, misguided. Some are 
undoubtedly peddling deliberate disinformation. Some writers, like some law 
enforcement officials, seem to have devoted their entire careers to misrepresent- 
ing the true nature of serial murder, mass murder, assassination, and other high- 
profile crimes. 

Seeming to fit that profile is author Gerald Posner, who recently penned a 
grossly disinformational piece on the Boston Strangler case for Talk magazine. 
Posner’s article came directly on the heels of a joint press conference held by the 
relatives of both Albert DeSalvo and his last purported victim, Mary Sullivan The 
families were demanding that the investigation be reopened and the long-sup- 
pressed police files released. Posner’s article reads very much like an effort at dam- 
age control. His quick entry into the fray signals that the true nature of the 
Strangler case will continue to be covered up. Posner’s past accomplishments 
include writing ‘exposes’ of the JFK assassination (Oswald did it), the Martin 
Luther King assassination (James Earl Ray did it), and Nazi doctor and Project 
Paperclip-recruit Joseph Mengele. 

The most prolific of serial killer chroniclers is undoubtedly Ann Rule, the for- 
mer employee of the Seattle Police Department. Rule is best known for her first 
book, an account of the alleged crimes of Ted Bundy entitled The Stranger Beside 
Me. The veteran crime writer had a unique perspective on the Bundy case, given 
that she was not writing about some enigmatic figure, but rather someone whom 
she had “cared for for ten years”... someone she referred to as “my friend, Ted 

Perhaps it is just a bizarre coincidence that the investigative journalist working 
on the biggest story of her career happened to be a friend and sometime co- 
worker of the man who would ultimately be held responsible for the six-year 
string of killings that she was researching. Even Rule though has acknowledged 
the long-shot odds of such a coincidence occurring: “Logically, statistically, 
demographically, the chance that Ted Bundy and I should meet and become fast 
friends is almost too obscure to contemplate.” Equally bizarre is that the two 
lived strangely parallel lives. Rule acknowledges that, even before the time that 
she claims they first met, she and Ted had “lived in the same states at the same 
time — not once but many times.” 

When they did allegedly meet — in 1971, a few years before the killings 
began — it was while both were working as counselors at the Seattle Crisis Clinic. 
Interestingly, a number of cult defectors/survivors have claimed that such services 
are frequently infiltrated by cult members, so that they may be used as cult 
recruitment tools. Not surprisingly, those contemplating suicide are particularly 


Programmed to Kill 

vulnerable to recruitment by cults, given that they have essentially given up hope 
on all other possible solutions to their problems. What then are we to conclude 
from the fact that Rule had almost as many connections to the victims as Bundy 

“[ Wjhatever supernatural force guides our destinies, it has 
brought us together in some mind- expanding situations. I must 
believe this invisible hand will pour more chilled Chablis for us 
in less treacherous, more tranquil times to come. Love, ted. ” 

— Ted Bundy, writing to Ann Rule 



“If they do their job and investigate what needs to be investigated, 
the rest of the pieces will fall into place, and nobody is going to like 
what they find out. ” 

— Therapist Mary Bienkowski 

“They don’t want this pedophile door opened even one crack. . .It is 
better to be accused of being a murderer than to have other things 
come out. ” 

— Author Stephen Singular 

Chapter 20 


“Evil on this scale is impossible to comprehend. To know who 
murdered JonBenet Ramsey is to know what world we live in. ” 

— James R. Gaines, Time , January 20, 1997 

In death, she looked more like the six-year-old child that she was than she had in 
many of the photos taken of her when she was alive. Her lifeless body was found 
lying on a cold basement floor, wrapped in a blanket. A strip of duct tape pur- 
portedly covered her mouth. Her right wrist, raised above her head, was loosely 
bound with a length of cord. The same type cord was wrapped around her neck, 
with a broken paintbrush handle taken from her mother’s art supplies fashioned 
into a makeshift garrote. 

To some investigators, her bindings looked staged. 

She was dressed in a sweatshirt that covered a long-sleeved undershirt. White 
pajama bottoms covered her white panties, which an autopsy report later revealed 
were stained with blood. Inspection with a blacklight indicated that there was 
semen on both of her thighs, but the medial examiner would make no mention of 
that in his report. 

To some investigators, it looked as though she had been ‘re-dressed’ after her 

She had been sexually abused, severely beaten about the head — causing a mas- 
sive skull fracture — and then strangled to death. Rigor mortis had fully set in and 
police on the scene reported the smell of decomposition. She had undigested 
food in her stomach and small intestine, identified as pieces of pineapple. On the 
palm of her left hand was drawn a small red heart. Around her neck was a chain 
bearing a crucifix. On her wrist was a bracelet; engraved on one side was her 


316 • Programmed to Kill 

name, JonBenet Ramsey, and on the other, the probable date of her death: 
December 25, 1996. 

The previous evening, JonBenet had attended a party at the home of family 
friends with her parents, John and Patsy, 41 and her brother Burke. The Ramsey 
family had returned home at 9:30 PM, by which time JonBenet had fallen asleep. 
She was carried inside and put to bed, allegedly last seen alive at around 1 0:00 PM. 
Patsy Ramsey claims that she woke up the next morning sometime after 5:00 AM 
and headed down the back stairs, which were generally used only by those who 
were familiar with the house. There she found a ransom note that she quickly read 
before entering her daughter’s room to find that the child was missing. 42 At 5:52 
AM, she placed a frantic 911 call. It was later realized that Burke Ramseys voice 
could be heard on the recording of that call, although John and Patsy steadfastly 
maintain that Burke was not yet up from bed when the call was placed. 

Boulder police arrived at the Ramsey home seven minutes later to find Patsy 
hysterical, and John collected, but pacing. This was the second time in just three 
days that a 9 1 1 call had been placed from the Ramsey home. The first was on the 
night of December 23, during a party attended by an estimated 100 guests drawn 

41 John Ramsey is the son of a WWII pilot who later served as the director of the 
Michigan Aeronautics Commission, where he was known, certainly not affection- 
ately, as “Czar” Ramsey. John himself served as a Naval officer and pilot in the 
Philippines in the late 1960s. He later formed a company that he named Access 
Graphics. That company later became a subsidiary of Lockheed-Martin, one of the 
nation’s largest military/intelligence contractors. After the buyout, John served as 
the company’s president and CEO. His vice-president of operations was Donald 
Paugh, his father-in-law and a former Union Carbide engineer. Patsy, a former 
beauty queen, was the oldest of Paugh’s three daughters. A Miss A?nerica pageant 
judge once described her as “a little automaton.” In his book on the Ramsey case, 
Cyril Wecht described the Paugh family as “insular, like a closed society unto itself. 
Nedra [Patsy’s mother] appeared to exert extraordinary influence over her adult 
daughters.” John Ramsey also exerted considerable influence over one of her adult 

42 That is the version of events that Patsy Ramsey has long held to. By her initial 
account, however, she discovered the disappearance before finding the note. 

Da vid McGo wan • 317 

from the elite of Boulder society. The guest list for that party has never been made 
public, nor has the reason for the first 911 call. 43 

The first officers to arrive at the Ramsey home were presented with the pur- 
ported ransom note: two-and-a-half hand-written pages of bizarre ramblings that 
were withheld from the press and the public for nine months. The note’s authors 
demanded a ransom of exactly $118,000 in cash, which happened to be the 
amount of the Christmas bonus that John had just received. They claimed, rather 
preposterously, that they represented a “small foreign faction.” They warned that 
if their demands were not met, JonBenet would be decapitated. The Ramseys 
were instructed to expect a telephone call that very morning between 8:00 and 
10:00 AM, but that call, of course, never came. 

For reasons that have never been adequately explained, the investigation was 
compromised from the very beginning. Officers inexplicably failed to secure the 
crime scene, allowing the family’s pastor and a number of friends to freely come 
and go from the home. No effort was made to prevent contamination of any 
potential evidence. Detectives did not arrive on the scene until 8:10 AM, over 
two hours after the first patrol officers arrived. It took another twelve hours for 
the coroner to arrive (and once there, he reportedly spent just ten minutes exam- 
ining the body and the crime scene). At around 10:00 AM, detectives allowed 
John Ramsey to leave the house unescorted for over an hour. He was purportedly 
on a mission to pick up the mail, although it is unclear why such a trivial errand 
had such a sense of urgency at a time of family crisis. It is also unclear why it took 
John so long to complete the errand and why he chose to go alone when several 
family friends were available to accompany him. 

43 One man who is known to have attended is Bill McReynolds, who played Santa Claus 
for the event. On December 26, 1974, exactly twenty- two years before the murder of 
JonBenet, Bill’s own daughter had purportedly been abducted, along with a friend, 
from the McReynolds’ home not far from Boulder. The girl was released unharmed, 
after being forced to witness an assault on her friend. There were no arrests made and 
no charges were ever filed. Not long after that, Bill’s wife Janet wrote a screenplay, 
entitled Hey Rube, that concerned the abduction, torture and murder of a young girl 
whose battered body is discovered lying on a cold basement floor. When Bill 
McReynolds was extended an invitation to speak at JonBenet’s memorial service, he 
used the opportunity to share memories of not just the slain beauty queen but of a few 
other kids with whom, bizarrely, he had been close before their untimely deaths. The 
Ramseys considered McReynolds one of their prime suspects — along with 160+ other 
people whose names appeared on their self-serving suspect list. 


Programmed to Kill 

One of the most grievous, and baffling, errors committed by detectives was 
their failure to separate the Ramseys for questioning. Even though detectives had 
Patsy alone for over an hour, while John was running his errand, no one purport- 
edly thought to question her. Just as baffling is the fact that there was no initial 
search of the house, by either the family or police. When a detective on the scene 
finally suggested, at 1:00 PM, that it might be a good idea to conduct a search, it 
had been nearly eight hours since the family had first discovered the disappear- 
ance, seven hours since police had arrived on the scene, and five hours since detec- 
tives had arrived, and yet no one had thought to search the home. Are we really to 
believe that after finding the ‘ransom’ note, the family immediately accepted that 
their beloved daughter had been taken from the home? What parent would not 
first conduct a room-by-room search of the house before accepting that eventual- 
ity? Indeed, what parent would not search the house repeatedly, in the desperate 
hope that, somehow, something had been overlooked during an earlier search? 

Amazingly enough, when it finally occurred to police that it might be a good 
idea to search the crime scene, they assigned that task to the prime suspect, John 
Ramsey. Joining John was good friend Fleet White, an oil company executive 
who had hosted the party the Ramseys attended the previous evening, and who 
the Ramseys placed a call to immediately after placing the 911 call. Ramsey and 
White quickly headed to the basement, where they almost immediately found 
JonBenet’s body, demonstrating in doing so that no effort had previously been 
made to look for the missing girl (although White later claimed that he had 
checked the basement earlier and saw nothing out of the ordinary). 

John Ramsey promptly picked up his lifeless daughter and removed the tape 
from her mouth (strangely though, the autopsy report later made no mention of 
tape residue around JonBenet’s mouth). He then carried her upstairs and laid her 
on the floor. Patsy Ramsey immediately collapsed on the body of her child. A 
detective then moved the corpse and covered it with a blanket. In the space of just 
a few minutes, some of the most crucial evidence in the case had been hopelessly 

Ann Louise Bardach, writing for Vanity Fair, quoted one officer’s recollections 
of John and Patsy’s reactions to the discovery of the body: “What was interesting 
was when [John] Ramsey brought the body upstairs he never cried. But when he 
laid her down, he started to moan, while peering around to see who was looking.” 
Patsy, he said, “peer[ed] at him through splayed fingers” while making sobbing 
sounds. The officer described being haunted by the manner in which Patsy kept 
staring at him. He also noted that he never saw either of the Ramseys attempt to 
comfort or console the other. 

The glaring incongruity of finding both a ransom note and the body of the pur- 
ported kidnapping victim, coupled with what was viewed by many as inappropriate 

Da vid McGo wan • 319 

behavior by the Ramseys, seemed to indicate that the crime was something other 
than a botched kidnapping. The preponderance of the evidence did not support the 
idea that an intruder was to blame. No footprints were observed outside of the 
home, even though snow covered much (but not all) of the ground. There were no 
signs of forced entry. The ransom note most likely originated from within the 
house. The pages appeared to have been torn from the Ramseys’ own legal pad, and 
a pen found in a cup in the kitchen was likely the writing instrument. According to 
some reports, the first page in the legal pad, which was still attached, contained 
what appeared to be a false start at writing the ransom note. 

The unlikely scenario that we are asked to believe is that an intruder entered 
an occupied home seeking a victim to abduct, but he then inadvertently killed his 
intended victim, at which time he decided to hide the body in the basement, 
assuming that it wouldn’t be found. He then searched the house for pen and 
paper before composing both an unfinished draft and a final ransom note, the 
latter of which rambled on at some length. 

The room where the body was found was in an out-of-the-way area of the spa- 
cious home’s basement. Only a family member would have likely known of its 
existence. John Ramsey acknowledged that fact in a CNN interview: “the room 
that we found her in is kind of a remote part of the basement.” “A casual guest 
would not know where that room is,” Patsy added. “It’s, you know, kind of out- 
of-the-way.” Despite that early acknowledgement by the Ramseys themselves, the 
Ramsey spin team later vociferously denied that the room would have been diffi- 
cult to locate for someone other than a family member. 

Steve Thomas, the lead detective on the case, concluded that Patsy Ramsey wrote 
the ransom note. He contends that of the 74 suspects whose handwriting samples 
were reviewed by investigators, Patsy was the only one that could not be excluded as 
a suspect. He has also accused her of deliberately changing some elements of her 
writing style after the murder, in order to disguise her authorship of the note. 

Several days after the discovery of JonBenet’s body, the Ramsey family flew her 
remains to Atlanta, their former home, for burial. Services were held on New Years 
Eve, after which JonBenet was laid to rest next to her half-sister Elizabeth, another 
of John Ramsey’s daughters. The following day, John and Patsy made their infa- 
mous appearance on CNN, even while steadfastly claiming to be too grief-stricken 
to talk to the police. Patsy was heavily sedated, and had been since the day of the 
murder. She later claimed that she was unable to remember anything that occurred 
during the weeks immediately following the discovery of the body. Burke Ramsey 
was reportedly kept heavily drugged after his sister’s death as well. 

Allegations of prior abuse of the victim soon began to circulate in the media. 
Video footage of JonBenet’s pageant appearances was aired endlessly. The footage 
offered no proof of the abuse allegations, but it did clearly demonstrate that the 


Programmed to Kill 

Ramseys had unconscionably marketed their offspring as some kind of hyper-sex- 
ualized woman-child. 

There was, however, certainly nothing unusual about that on the kiddy pageant 
circuit, as author Stephen Singular discovered when he ventured into that milieu. 
What he discovered is a world that few outside of the pageant circuit are familiar 
with: a world where extraordinarily young girls have had their hair dyed, their 
teeth capped, their young faces sculpted by plastic surgeons, their chests bunched- 
up with tape to form the appearance of cleavage, and their eye color enhanced 
with contact lenses. Singular also discovered that photographing these pre-pubes- 
cent beauty queens in risque poses is a routine business undertaken by some of the 
most highly regarded child photographers in the country. JonBenet Ramsey was 
just one of an estimated 250,000 girls who are a part of this billion-dollar-a-year 
business that, by ail appearances, caters primarily to the pedophilic tendencies of 
the adults who gravitate around the 3,000 child beauty pageants held every year. 

While JonBenet’s longtime involvement in the child pageant business raises a 
number of questions, it does not directly answer the question of whether she had 
been molested either on the night of her death or before that time. The autopsy 
report, which was released in a severely redacted form on February 14 and in full 
on August 13, made mention of chronic genital inflammation, foreign matter in 
the vagina, and “epithelial erosion.” A detective working the case swore in an affi- 
davit that the coroner, John Meyer, told her that someone had definitely had sex- 
ual contact with the child. Meyer drew no such conclusions in his report. 

Independent experts who have examined the evidence have been far less cir- 
cumspect. Dr. Robert Kirschner of the University of Chicago’s pathology depart- 
ment noted that JonBenet’s vaginal opening was twice what is normal for a girl 
her age. Fie also stated that the “genital injuries indicate penetration, but proba- 
bly not by a penis, and are evidence of molestation that night as well as previous 
molestation.” Dr. Cyril Wecht, one of the most respected forensic pathologists in 
the country, told an interviewer: “This to me is evidence of sexual abuse. I think 
any forensic gynecologist and forensic pathologist would agree with that. . .If she 
had been taken to a hospital emergency room, and doctors had seen the genital 
evidence, her father would have been arrested.” 

There was one doctor who had numerous opportunities to observe that evi- 
dence. As was widely reported, JonBenet had been taken to her pediatrician no 
fewer than twenty-seven times in the previous three to four years. The doctor 
claimed, rather disingenuously, that that was a normal rate of visitation for a child 
her age. Fie also claimed that he had never seen, during any of those visits, any 
evidence of abuse. That claim, however, was contradicted by the forensic evi- 
dence, which indicated chronic abuse. 

David McGowan 


Cellmark Diagnostics in Germantown, Maryland, the CLA-linked forensic lab 
that was thrust into the national limelight during the OJ Simpson trial, was 
unable to return any conclusive findings from any of the biological materials it 
received on the case. A number of other OJ players surfaced in Buffalo as well. 
Criminologist Henry Lee was hired on as a forensics adviser to District Attorney 
Alex Hunter.44 DNA wunderkinds Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld joined the 
party as well. Oddly enough, with all the DNA all-stars on board, no DNA evi- 
dence has ever been produced in the case. 

From the beginning, when a gag order was placed on the officers working the 
case, there have been concerted efforts made to control the flow of information 
that the public has received about the murder of JonBenet Ramsey. Largely 
responsible for shaping public perception of the case has been the law firm 
retained almost immediately by the Ramseys: Haddon, Morgan, Mueller, 
George, Mackey & Foreman. 45 The tentacles of Hal Haddon’s firm seemed to 
reach into every nook and cranny of the Ramsey case. 

44 Alex Hunter, the man primarily responsible for prosecuting the JonBenet Ramsey 
murder case, had been Boulder’s District Attorney since 1972. During his tenure, he 
developed a reputation for extremely lenient enforcement of drug laws, making the 
city a particularly friendly place for narcotics traffickers. Since 1969, Hunter had been 
a limited partner in a business enterprise with a lawyer named William Gray, who just 
happened to be John Ramsey’s civil attorney. 

45 The powerful firm has, as Cyril Wecht noted, “deep connections to the Democratic 
power structure that control [s] state politics” in Colorado. Hal Haddon was the man- 
ager of Gary Hart’s successful U.S. Senate campaigns as well as his unsuccessful presi- 
dential bid. Haddon also has close ties to District Attorney Alex Hunter and former 
Governors Roy Romer and Richard Lamm. A Los Angeles Times report from August 
2003 describes his firm as having “a long history of handling high profile cases and 
getting charges either dismissed outright or dramatically reduced. In cases where 
clients have been found guilty, they have often been able to get sentences drastically 
cut.” The Times cites as an example the case of Rockwell International Corporation’s 
Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant, which was raided by federal agents who discov- 
ered “widespread and egregious environmental contamination. Radioactive waste was 
being illegally dumped into rivers, fields and released into the atmosphere.” Despite 
the fact that the evidence against the company was overwhelming, no company offi- 
cials were ever charged in the case, which was settled with Rockwell paying a nominal 
fine. In 1990, Haddon represented ‘gonzo’ journalist Hunter S. Thompson, who was 
facing sexual assault charges. The charges against Thompson were dropped. 
Curiously, Thompson has been accused by witnesses in the Franklin case of being a 
producer of child snuff films. He now pens a column entitled Hey Rube. 


Programmed to Kill 

Patsy Ramsey was represented by Haddon partners Patrick Furman and 
Patrick Burke. Burke was perhaps best known for having won acquittal for the 
white supremacist accused of killing Denver radio personality Alan Berg. 
Throughout the Ramsey investigation, he was frequently seen in the doorway of 
what was dubbed the ‘JonBenet War Room,’ often chatting with Peter Ho 1st tom, 
an assistant to District Attorney blunter, and Tripp DeMuth, one Hunter’s prose- 
cutors on the case. John Ramsey was represented by partners Bryan Morgan and 
Lee Foreman. Morgan, who had once been nominated to serve as a justice on the 
Colorado Supreme Court, was regularly seen holding breakfast meetings with his 
old friend, Peter Hofstrom. Burke Ramsey was represented by yet another mem- 
ber of the Haddon team. 

The Boulder Police Department, led by Chief Tom Koby, 46 took the unusual 
step of retaining its own representatives, in the form of a trio of private practice 
attorneys. One of the three, Robert Miller, had recently teamed with Haddon on 
a civil suit. Another of the trio, Daniel Hoffman, had previously been defended 
in a malpractice suit by Haddon partner Lee Foreman. 

In addition to the legal firepower, the Ramseys also hired a professional 
spokesman. Filling that post was Washington spin-meister Patrick Korten, who 
had served in the Reagan Administration as the consultant for the Office of 
Personnel Management at the time that striking air traffic controllers were fired, 
and as the chief spokesman for the outrageously corrupt Ed Meese-run Justice 
Department. Also on Korten’s resume were stints serving as mouthpieces for 
Iran/Contra conspirator Oliver North and for the Pharmaceutical Research 
Manufacturers of America. 

Another addition to the Ramsey spin team was premier FBI profiler John 
Douglas. One of his former colleagues, Gregg McCrary, was also approached to 
join the team, but he declined the offer — after offering the opinion that the mur- 
der looked to him like a “staged domestic homicide.” Also on the Ramsey team 
were two private investigation firms whose gumshoes reportedly interviewed 
nearly every witness approached by Boulder police. Rounding out the team was a 
retired homicide investigator named Lou Smit, whose claim to fame was having 

46 Before coming to Boulder, Chief Koby had served as a deputy chief, and then as assis- 
tant chief, of the Houston Police Department. His chief and mentor in Houston had 
been Lee P. Brown, who later became the chief of the NYPD and then served in 
Washington as the federal ‘drug czar.’ Before relocating to Houston, Brown had 
served as Police Commissioner for the city of Atlanta, at the very time that the so- 
called ‘child murders’ rocked that city (see next chapter). 

David McGowan • 323 

purportedly solved the murder of Karen Grammar, the sister of actor and accused 
pedophile Kelsey Grammar. 

Smit was brought out of retirement by District Attorney Hunter, ostensibly to 
assist in gathering evidence against the Ramseys. Strangely enough though, he 
resigned a year-and-a-half later and went to work for the Ramseys. When he 
switched sides, he brought with him a full accounting of all the state’s evidence in 
the case, which, truth be told, the Ramseys had access to all along anyway. 
Boulder police loudly complained that Hunter repeatedly shared information 
with the Ramseys, even going so far as to supply the couple, before their being 
questioned by police, with copies of police reports and of their initial statements 
to investigators. John and Patsy were, therefore, able to insure that their stories 
remained consistent with both the known facts and with their prior alibis. 

To their credit, it appears that at least some of the officers on Boulder’s police 
force (which had a healthy distrust of Hunter and his sidekick Smit) attempted to 
honestly investigate the case. Their efforts were impeded, however, by not only 
the District Attorney’s office, but by the Denver Police Department and the FBI. 
Local officials resisted, unsuccessfully, the involvement of both agencies. In April 
1 997, Boulder police abruptly stopped sharing information with Hunter’s office. 
Shortly after that, the computer containing the Ramsey case files in the afore- 
mentioned War Room’ was hacked into by persons unknown. That same month, 
John and Patsy Ramsey submitted to their first formal police interviews, four full 
months after JonBenet had been laid to rest. The date of the interviews was, 
appropriately enough, April 30, 1997: Walpurgisnacht. 

On that very same day, a man named James Michael Thompson, who worked 
for a private company that specialized in transporting corpses, stole two pages 
from the morgue book at Boulder Community Hospital. Those two pages had 
recorded the arrival of JonBenet’s body four months earlier. On May 21, 
Thompson was charged with the theft of the pages. He was also charged with 
abuse of corpses, those charges arising from his macabre habit of grotesquely pos- 
ing the corpses in his charge. On June 18, the very same James Michael 
Thompson attempted to burn down the Ramsey home. Patsy had reportedly 
expressed a desire that the house be destroyed, and had vowed that she would 
never return there. Officials predictably announced that Thompson’s actions had 
no connection to the murder of JonBenet. 

June also marked the beginning of the crumbling of the local political struc- 
ture in Boulder, Colorado. City Manager Tim Honey was the first casualty. 
Before long, a third of the city’s council members had left office, the mayor had 
decided to move on, the head of the Chamber of Commerce had left office, and 
Police Chief Tom Koby and Police Commander John Eller had both opted to 
step down. In his book on the case, Stephen Singular states, without elaboration: 

324 • Programmed to Kill 

“Numerous powerful people had been in the Ramsey’s home and had been 
exposed to JonBenet.” Many of those powerful people were in the Ramsey home 
just two days before JonBenet’s death, on the night that the first 911 call was 
placed. It is very unlikely that any of those people will ever be named, but it is 
quite possible that some of them were public officials who opted to step away 
from the limelight. 

What really happened to JonBenet Ramsey on that fateful day in 1996? And 
why did the case become such a cause celebret After all, the killing of a child in this 
country is certainly not an uncommon occurrence, nor is it normally an event 
deemed worthy of national media attention. As the Village Voice reported in 
1997, the United States has, per capita, the highest rate of child homicide in the 
world. None of the world’s people slaughter their children more frequently, or 
more cavalierly, than do Americans. 47 With the notable exceptions of the occa- 
sional Polly Klaas or Adam Walsh, few of these murder victims are deemed wor- 
thy of anything approaching a full-scale media circus. 

What then are we to make of the JonBenet Ramsey case? The family would 
like you believe that it was nothing more than a badly botched kidnapping plot. 
That hardly seems likely, however. The kidnapping scenario was most likely con- 
ceived after the fact, to cover up the accidental or intentional death of the child. 
The plan probably called for the body to be disposed of and the disappearance 
blamed on an unknown abductor. For whatever reason though, the body could 
not be disposed of. When it became apparent that a search would quickly yield 
the girl’s remains, John Ramsey made sure that he was the one to make the dis- 
covery, thereby compromising the crime scene and nullifying any forensic evi- 
dence linking him to the body. None of that, of course, answers the question of 
why JonBenet Ramsey was killed. 

One theory holds that Patsy Ramsey killed JonBenet in a fit of rage resulting 
from a bedwetting incident. While that scenario is not necessarily “absurd,” as the 
Ramseys have labeled it, it does seem to fall short of adequately explaining the 
crime. Another theory holds that John Ramsey killed JonBenet accidentally when 

47 America’s closest ally, the United Kingdom, seems to have its sights set on catching 
up. In January 2002, the Independent reported that a “record number of children 
[were] murdered in Britain last year.” The rate of child homicides had risen 40% in 
just one year. England’s child homicide rate is now “thought to be the highest in 

David McGowan • 325 

his ongoing abuse got out of hand. While that is probably closer to the truth, it 
still appears to fall short of providing a full explanation. Stephan Singular has put 
forth a more disturbing theory: he believes that JonBenet was killed because of 
her involvement in a child pornography and prostitution ring. Singular theorizes 
that one of the parents was involved, essentially acting as a pimp in selling the 
young girl to the ring. The cover-up of her death took place, according to 
Singular, when the guilty party had to conceal that fact from the other parent, 
who was not involved. 

While Singular is on the right track, his analysis still probably falls a little short 
of the mark. The truth likely is that both of the Ramseys were involved in pimp- 
ing their daughter out to other pedophiles. The massive cover-up that has 
shrouded the investigation from day one is indicative of the type of systemic cor- 
ruption that leads to these types of cases being routinely covered up. Such a far- 
reaching effort certainly could not have been orchestrated by one parent working 
to fool the other. 

Rumors of child pornography have surrounded the case from the earliest days 
of the investigation. Police records indicate that warrants were sought to search 
the Ramsey home for pornographic materials. The San Jose Mercury News 
reported that police investigators “had a strong initial suspicion that someone in 
the family had an interest in child pornography. . .three days after the girl’s bludg- 
eoned body was discovered in the basement of her family’s upscale home, 
Boulder, Colo, police seized computers, computer disks, CD-ROMs, and video 
and still photography equipment, according to the search warrants.” At least 150 
videotapes were seized from the home. It was also alleged that John Ramsey had 
been seen frequenting a seedy Denver porno shop. In the tabloid press, it was 
reported that the computers at Access Graphics were loaded with child pornogra- 
phy. While the credibility of that story may be in dispute, 48 it is interesting to 
note that after the murder, Access Graphics added guards and greatly increased 
security at its headquarters. 

A California woman recently presented to Boulder police — through her ther- 
apist — information that she claimed to have about the case. The therapist, Mary 
Bienkowski, spoke of a pedophile ring operating in the Boulder area. She identi- 
fied her client of ten years as a past victim of the ring, which she said had direct 
links to the Ramsey family. She also said that her client had provided police with 

48 There is a possibility that the story was dumped in the tabloid press for the express 
purpose of discrediting it. Konformist editor Robert Sterling and others have noted 
that the tabloid press is frequently used to taint stories that are threatening to break in 
more respectable avenues of the media. 

326 • Programmed to Kill 

the names of several people who had witnessed the murder of JonBenet. 
Bienkowski also claimed that the witness had provided evidence of the ongoing 
abuse of other children. The unidentified witness was interviewed by agents of 
the FBI. Shortly after that, she went into hiding, afraid for her life. The Boulder 
Sheriff’s office portrayed the woman as a crank, claiming that she had a history of 
making false reports. The woman, however, maintained that while she had 
indeed made previous reports, they were not false reports, but rather uninvesti- 
gated reports. There is no indication that the leads she supplied on the Ramsey 
case were ever investigated. 

Could such a ring have existed in Boulder? And if so, could that have provided 
the hidden subtext of the JonBenet Ramsey murder? Conclusive evidence is hard 
to come by, but a few tantalizing bits and pieces have surfaced. 

Randy Simons was considered the best, and the most expensive, child photog- 
rapher in the Boulder area. At least one pageant mother reported to author 
Singular that Simons had approached her about shooting nudes of her daughter. 
She declined the offer. Flow many pageant mothers consented to such offers is 
unknown. In June 1996, just months before JonBenet’s death, Simons took what 
were described as ‘cover-girl’ shots of the oft-photographed beauty queen (who 
on several occasions had been photographed with Daphne White, her best friend 
and the daughter of Fleet White). 

Just after JonBenet’s death, Simons abruptly left his wife and daughter in 
Denver and moved to a remote area of eastern Colorado. No one seemed to know 
why he had done so. He was said to be extremely distraught over the murder. He 
reportedly placed several frantic calls to friends, during which he expressed a pro- 
found fear for his life. He wrote an article for Stagelines, a pageant newsletter, in 
which he claimed that he was being pursued by “paramilitary types.” He also 
expressed concern to the newsletter’s publisher about the possibility of someone 
releasing “inappropriate” photos of JonBenet. 

When the Wonderland raids swept through a number of American cities, one 
of those arrested was Richard Bruce Thomas, a computer consultant living in Ft. 
Collins, Colorado, about an hour’s drive from the Ramsey home. Thomas was 
found shot to death in his home on September 5, 1998. His death was ruled, as 
always, a suicide. When a man named James Partin was arrested on charges of 
distributing child pornography on the Internet, his Columbus, Ohio home was 
found to contain a photograph of JonBenet Ramsey. Partin was a prime suspect 
in the 1983 disappearance of a fourteen-year-old girl from Idaho Springs, 

Stephan Singular took some of these scraps of evidence that he had collected 
and presented them to District Attorney Alex Hunter, and then to Detective 
Sergeant Tom Wickman of the Boulder Police Department, and then to Ellis 

David McGowan • 327 

Armistead, one of the Ramseys’ private investigators. All three took his informa- 
tion but offered nothing in return, and all three chose not to investigate the leads 
that he provided. 

What could prove to be a key piece of evidence in the case has been largely 
ignored by the media and by various theories of the crime: the undigested food in 
JonBenet’s stomach and small intestine, which indicated that the girl had eaten in 
fairly close proximity to her death. 

According to the Ramseys’ version of events, JonBenet had eaten earlier in the 
evening, while at the White’s party, but she had not eaten at home before being 
put to bed, since she was, according to the Ramseys, already asleep. The existence 
of the largely undigested food matter has, therefore, never been satisfactorily 
explained. In fact, it has been almost entirely ignored by most theorists, although 
some have tried to explain it away with the theory that JonBenet’s would-be 
abductor(s) fed her before killing her. Such theories require belief in the dubious 
notion that although the mysterious intruder(s) forgot to bring materials to write 
a ransom note (or an already prepared ransom note), they did remember to pack 
a snack for their abductee. 

A more reasonable explanation for the undigested food is that JonBenet was 
killed shortly after she was known to have last eaten. She was, to be more specific, 
killed before the Ramsey family returned home from the party they had been 
attending. Such a scenario would help to explain some of the other facts and per- 
sistent rumors that have surrounded the case. For example, it was mentioned pre- 
viously that JonBenet’s body, despite being in the cold confines of the basement 
of the Ramsey home, had decomposed to the point of emitting a noticeable odor. 
It is unlikely that decomposition would have advanced to that stage had JonBenet 
been killed between 10:00 PM (when she was allegedly put to bed) and 5:00 AM 
(when her disappearance was allegedly discovered). 

Some investigators believe that JonBenet’s clothing was changed after her 
death. The Ramseys have acknowledged that she was in fact changed before being 
put to bed, after the family had returned home from the party. If she was already 
dead at that time, then she was indeed re-dressed after her murder. It is interest- 
ing to note here that in the Ramseys’ own telling of the story, the limp figure of 
JonBenet was carried into the house upon the family’s return home. 

Some investigators also believe that some elements of the crime scene, partic- 
ularly the ligatures, were staged. That is also consistent with the child having 
been killed elsewhere and then deposited in the basement. It is possible that the 


Programmed to Kill 

ligatures were added after the fact, when it became apparent that it was not 
going to be possible to dispose of the body. It is also possible that the ligatures 
were an artifact of the party, necessarily loosened when the body was re-dressed, 
and then retied. 

The claim by the California woman that there were numerous witnesses to the 
murder is also consistent with JonBenet having been killed at the party. One of 
those witnesses would have been sibling Burke, who some suspect witnessed or 
was involved to some degree in the killing. That would explain the Ramsey fam- 
ily’s concerted efforts to shield the boy from the media and from inquisitive 
police (the Ramseys claim that the extraordinary security afforded Burke is 
intended to protect him from the still-at-large killer). 

As a final note on the Ramsey case, John and Patsy have on occasion publi- 
cized the fact that a stun-gun was possibly used to incapacitate JonBenet prior to 
her death. That fact is supposed to bolster the intruder theory, since the Ramseys 
claim that they have never owned a stun-gun. One of the videotapes seized from 
their home, however, included instructions on how to use, of all things, a stun- 

Chapter 2 1 


“I have never believed Wayne Williams killed not only Yussef - — / 
don’t believe Wayne Williams killed anybody. ” 

— Camille Bell, the mother of victim Yussef Bell 

“I don’t believe he did it any more than I’d go out there and 
shoot somebody myself.” 

— Willie May Mathis, the mother 
of victim Jefiferey Mathis 

“Wayne Williams ain’t doing no time for killing my child. He 
ain’t doing no time for killing nary a child. ” 

— Eunice Jones, the mother of victim Clifford Jones 

f\s the cases of Marc Dutroux and many others have amply illustrated, there can 
be a very fine line between organized pedophilia and serial murder. Perhaps 
nowhere was that point more clearly made than in what was at the time Americas 
murder capitol: Atlanta, Georgia, during the killings commonly referred to as the 
Atlanta Child Murders. 

By this time, it should not come as any great surprise that the Atlanta killings 
did not follow the patterns suggested by serial killer ‘profiles.’ First of all, the vic- 
tims of the ‘child’ murders were not all children; six of them were in their twen- 
ties, and there were many more in that age bracket who should have made the 
victims’ list. “The List,” as the official tally of victims was dubbed, was one of the 
more controversial aspects of the investigation, and one that needs to be 
addressed in order to put the remainder of this discussion in context. 

A number of researchers have charged that The List was subject to constantly 
shifting parameters, which resulted in a number of victims whose cases appeared 



Programmed to Kill 

to be connected being excluded from the official victim count. Chet Dettlinger — 
a former Public Safety Commissioner and assistant to the chief of the Atlanta 
Police Department, and the co-author of The List — maintains that sixty-three 
“pattern” victims were arbitrarily left off the official tally, more than twice as 
many as actually did make it. He also argues that twenty-five of those victims 
were killed after the arrest of Wayne Williams, the purported Atlanta child mur- 
derer. The county’s chief medical examiner at the time of the killings, Joseph 
Burton, has said much the same thing: “by no means did the deaths of young 
black children and young black men stop with the arrest and conviction of 
Wayne Williams.” 

Among the names that were arbitrarily omitted were a number of adult vic- 
tims. Before March 1981, nearly two years after the killings had begun, adults 
were not deemed to fit the ‘profile’ and were therefore excluded from The List. 
After the parameters were changed to allow the first adult victim to be included, 
five more victims in their twenties were added in rapid succession over the next 
eight weeks, but none of those killed in the prior twenty months who otherwise 
fit the pattern were retroactively added. Similarly, many female victims were 
excluded, even though two of the earliest list victims were young girls. A number 
of young boys were excluded as well, for reasons that appear to have been entirely 
arbitrary. There is a considerable amount of uncertainty, therefore, as to how 
many victims there actually were, and when the killings began and ended. This 
discussion will be limited to the twenty-nine officially recognized victims, though 
it is quite apparent that at least as many more were deliberately omitted from The 
List. As Public Safety Commissioner Dick Hand has acknowledged, “The list 
that was created by the Task Force, in my own personal opinion, was an artificial 

According to the artificial — but government sanctioned — list, the victims of 
the Atlanta ‘child’ murders ranged in age from seven-year-old LaTonya Wilson to 
twenty-eight-year-old John Porter. Males and females were both represented, 
though a large majority were male. All of the victims, significantly, were African- 
American. The was no consistent pattern to the killings, as medical examiner 
Burton acknowledged: “there was no signature that said this case and this case 
and this case are people that have been murdered or killed by the same individ- 
ual.” The first victim, fourteen-year-old Ed Smith, was shot. All the rest were 
killed with weapons of opportunity. The most common cause of death was 
asphyxiation, with strangulation a close second. Two victims had their heads 
bludgeoned with blunt objects, two others were stabbed to death, another was 
drowned, and young Aaron Wyche broke his neck after being pushed or dropped 
from a bridge. One victim’s body was never recovered and several others were too 
badly decomposed by the time of their discovery to determine the cause of death. 

David McGowan • 331 

There was no discernable pattern to the cases that were added to the list, 
beyond the fact that all the victims were young African-Americans who met with 
violent deaths. As Los Angeles Times reporter and The List co-author Jeff Prugh 
put it, “There was no pattern, per se, that I could really see, other than that they 
were all dead.” But while there was no pattern connecting the manner of the 
abductions and killings, there were a number of troubling connections between 
the victims, most of whom lived in the same four ‘inner city’ neighborhoods. 
Those connections were consistently, and seemingly deliberately, ignored by the 

The first two victims, young teens Ed Smith and Alfred Evans, were friends 
who spent a good deal of time together. They disappeared just four days apart, 
strongly suggesting that the victims were known to the killer(s) and were defi- 
nitely not randomly selected. That would become all the more apparent as the 
body count mounted. 

More than one witness reported seeing the fourth victim, Yussef Bell, getting 
into a car with his mother’s former husband. The man was considered a suspect in 
the boy’s disappearance for more than a year, but was ultimately cleared of any 
involvement. Ele would not be the only close friend or family member to become 
a prime suspect. 

The body of the next victim, Angel Lenair, showed clear signs of sexual abuse, 
although that evidence was notably downplayed and deemed insignificant by 
authorities. As the story continued to unfold, however, it became increasingly 
apparent that sexual abuse of the child victims was indeed of considerable signif- 

Like Yussef Bell, Jefferey Mathis was also last seen getting into a car, described 
as blue by witnesses. According to another witness, Jefferey was again in a blue 
car, and still very much alive, a couple days later. This was just the first of many 
bizarre episodes that suggested that at least some of the victims were not killed 
immediately, but were kept alive for an indeterminate period of time following 
their abductions. That were other indications as well that at least some of the vic- 
tims were not killed right away: some of them were found wearing different 
clothing than what they had been wearing when they disappeared, and some had 
undigested food in their stomachs that was not consistent with the meals they 
were known to have eaten before their abductions. 

Shortly after Jefferey’s disappearance, other boys at his school reported men in 
a car attempting to lure them away from the school grounds. They described it as 
a blue car. While that certainly did not amount to a positive identification, it did 
represent a potential break in the case. The boys reported the incident, and even 
memorized the car’s license plate number to give to police — who nevertheless 
declined to investigate the lead. 


Programmed to Kill 

The next victim, Eric Middlebrooks, received a phone call at 10:30 on a 
Sunday night and, upon hanging up the phone, immediately grabbed his tools 
and raced out the door, claiming that he suddenly had to repair his bike. He was 
never seen alive again. The questions of who could have called the boy and what 
they could have said to him to lead him so eagerly to his death are ones that have 
never been answered. 

The next victim who later became a name on the list added a rather peculiar 
twist to the case, yet again reminiscent of the notorious Lindbergh abduction. 
Seven-year-old LaTonya Wilson was allegedly kidnapped from her occupied 
home, but an eyewitness account of the abduction painted a scenario that could 
not possibly have occurred. Perhaps significantly, the disappearance occurred on 
June 22, the summer solstice. A friend of the young girl’s family was initially con- 
sidered a prime suspect in the abduction and murder — a reasonable suspicion 
considering the bizarre and implausible circumstances of her kidnapping. The 
targeting of the man by police, however, provoked outrage in Atlanta’s black com- 
munity, as had the police targeting of Camille Bell’s former husband. 

The death of the next victim, Aaron Wyche, was initially deemed accidental, 
until it became obvious that the official finding that the boy had ‘fallen’ was, to 
say the least, extremely unlikely. Anthony Carter reportedly disappeared while 
playing hide-and-seek outside his home around 1:00 AM, though one wonders 
who allows a nine-year-old to play hide-and-seek outside in the middle of the 
night. Some police investigators apparently pondered that very question, con- 
cluding that the story told by the boy’s mother seemed rather unlikely. She was 
subsequently arrested, then released and thereafter tailed and questioned for sev- 
eral months, eventually leading her to move out of the area. Those actions by the 
police further enraged the citizens of Atlanta. 

In mid-July 1980, an activist group formed by the parents of victims finally 
pressured the police into linking the killings and launching a serious investiga- 
tion, or at least the appearance of one. The disappearances and murders had 
begun at least a year earlier and at least eleven lives had already been taken. Police 
reluctantly announced the formation of a special task force on July 17. Before the 
end of the month, another victim, Earl Terrell, disappeared. His aunt promptly 
received a call from an unidentified person who delivered the following cryptic 
message: “I’ve got Earl. Don’t call the police.” Shortly thereafter, she received a 
second call: “I’ve got Earl. He’s in Alabama. It will cost you $200 to get him back. 
I will call back on Friday.” 

There is no indication that Earl was in fact taken to Alabama. There is also no 
evidence that anyone is actually stupid enough to kidnap a child and transport 
him out of the state for the purpose of raising a couple hundred dollars in ransom 
money. Those bizarre phone calls though served a very important purpose: they 

David McGowan • 333 

immediately made the case a federal matter. The task force was barely on its feet 
when the FBI rode into town to take over the investigation, with some 200 FBI 
agents descending on the city of Atlanta. Suddenly, everyone wanted to be 
involved in investigating what police had previously considered to be a batch of 
unrelated violent deaths. The nation’s top ‘big city’ detectives were flown into 
town and hailed as ‘supercops’ come to save the day. The FBI sent in ‘profilers’ in 
what was billed as the first real test of the ‘science’ of profiling. The Bureau’s self- 
styled experts predicted, not surprisingly, that a black serial killer was responsible 
for the murders. 

Before the investigation was wrapped up, no less an authority than Vice- 
President George Bush even came to town, ostensibly to coordinate federal and 
local efforts and to make sure the investigation stayed on track. Citizens, mean- 
while, began organizing themselves into ‘bat patrols’ — vigilante groups who 
patrolled the streets of their neighborhoods wielding baseball bats. The police 
quickly saw fit to break these groups up. 

In the ensuing months, community leaders organized search teams, eventually 
numbering thousands of volunteers. Often working alongside these mostly 
African-American search teams were groups of unidentified white ‘volunteers,’ 
attired in flak jackets and carrying rifles, walkie-talkies, and various other pieces 
of paramilitary equipment. No explanation has been offered for the presence of 
these curiously equipped men. 

In addition to federalizing the investigation, Earl Terrell’s disappearance was 
significant for another reason: it exposed the dark underbelly of the Atlanta 
killings. Earl disappeared after leaving a public swimming pool that was directly 
across from a house that was known to be the hub of a child pornography ring. 
The owner of the house, John David Wilcoxen, was ultimately convicted for his 
complicity in the ring. Ele was never, however, seriously considered as a suspect in 
Terrell’s disappearance, despite a witness placing Earl at Wilcoxen’s house on sev- 
eral occasions, and despite the fact that literally thousands of child pornography 
photos were seized from Wilcoxen’s home. 

The next victim, Clifford Jones, was found dead alongside a dumpster behind a 
laundromat in late August 1980. No fewer than three young witnesses reported 
seeing the laundromat manager, James Brooks, go into the backroom accompa- 
nied by a black male youth. One of them even saw the boy beaten, anally raped 
and strangled to death by Brooks and another man, Calvin Smith. Other witnesses 
saw Brooks, wearing a hooded ceremonial robe, carry a large object out to the 
trash where the body was later discovered. Brooks candidly admitted to police that 
the boy had been in the laundromat around the time of his death, but he stead- 
fastly denied any involvement in the murder. Notably though, he failed two poly- 
graph examinations. The police nevertheless cleared him as a suspect, claiming 

334 • Programmed to Kill 

that the eyewitness to the killing was “retarded.” They did not bother to explain all 
the other witness accounts or the failed polygraphs. 

At around the time of Jones’ death, the task force finally began to assemble the 
infamous ‘list.’ Darron Glass was the next name added to it. Shortly after his dis- 
appearance, his mother received an emergency breakthrough call from someone 
claiming to be her son, but when she picked up the line to speak to him, it had 
gone dead. Around that same time, an explosion at a daycare center in one of 
Atlanta’s black neighborhoods took the lives of four more kids. Investigators 
quickly concluded that the explosion was accidental — the result of a boiler mal- 
function. Many in the neighborhood though, and in other neighborhoods where 
children were under siege, remained unconvinced. 

Charles Stephens was the next victim to disappear. When his remains were dis- 
covered shortly thereafter, the crime scene was quickly contaminated by an officer 
who opted to toss a blanket over the body (the contamination of crime scenes 
was, alas, a fairly common occurrence throughout the investigation). Shortly after 
Charles’ disappearance, a drug dealer and police informant told investigators that 
he had seen the body of a black youth in the backseat of a customer’s car. He also 
reported that he knew the man to be a pedophile who had on occasion offered 
him cash to procure young male prostitutes. Needless to say, this lead was not fol- 
lowed up on by police. 

Next to disappear was Aaron Jackson, a friend of both earlier victim Aaron 
Wyche and future victim Patrick Rogers, who disappeared just nine days later. 
Rogers was the oldest victim to date at fifteen. He was connected to at least a 
dozen other victims on and off ‘The List.’ 

Lubie Geter disappeared next. Like Earl Terrell, Geter was connected to child 
pornographer Wilcoxen, as well as to another adult pedophile who was later con- 
nected to William Barrett, one of the last names to be put on the list. Three weeks 
after Geter’s disappearance, his friend Terry Pue disappeared as well. Pue’s body 
yielded some of the best forensic evidence of any of the killings: fingerprints. The 
prints were not left by Wayne Williams, a fact that neither side would mention at 

The next victim, Patrick Baltazar, called the task force shortly before his disap- 
pearance and expressed fear for his life. His teacher received a call not long after 
he vanished from a loudly sobbing boy who did not identify himself, though the 
teacher suspected that the boy was Patrick. The next addition to the list was 
Curtis Walker. An uncle with whom Walker lived was murdered as well, but he 
did not make the list. Next was Joseph Bell, who knew several other victims on 
the list. Shortly after he was reported missing, a co-worker reported receiving a 
call from the boy during which Joseph begged for help and stated that he was 
“almost dead.” Days later, Bell’s mother received a call from a woman who 

David McGowan • 335 

claimed to be holding the boy. The woman called again later and managed to talk 
to Bell’s two siblings. The mother reported both calls to the task force, but never 
got a call back. 

Ten days after Bell’s disappearance, his friend Timothy Hill disappeared as 
well. Hill was later connected to earlier victims Alfred Evans, Jefferey Mathis, 
Patrick Baltazar, and Anthony Carter. Hill was known to frequent a home owned 
by a known pedophile named Thomas Terrell. At least two witnesses, one a 
neighbor of Terrell, placed Hill at the house around the time of his disappearance. 
Terrell admitted to police that he knew the boy and had previously engaged in 
sexual acts with him. Although what he admitted to was a crime, he was not 
arrested nor was he ever seriously considered as a suspect. 

Larry Rogers and Eddie Duncan, who was connected to earlier victim Patrick 
Rogers, were the first adults to make the list. They were followed by Michael 
McIntosh, who knew both Joseph Bell and final victim Nathaniel Cater. 
McIntosh had been seen on numerous occasions at Thomas Terrell’s house. John 
Porter disappeared next, though he was not put on the list until much later, as 
part of an effort to build a dubious fiber evidence case against Williams. Jimmy 
Payne was next on the list, followed by William Barrett. Barrett was connected to 
the same unidentified white male pedophile who was connected to earlier victim 
Lubie Geter. Police records later revealed that Barrett had reported being in fear 
for his life after receiving threats from someone he described as a “hit man.” 

The final victim to make the list was Nathaniel Cater, an admitted drug dealer 
and homosexual prostitute. The discovery of Caters body on May 24, 1981 pro- 
vided the first ‘evidence’ throughout the two-year killing spree that allegedly 
linked Williams to the crimes: he had been observed on a bridge two days earlier 
at the time a splash allegedly occurred in the river below. Two days later, Caters 
body was discovered downstream from the bridge, which purportedly pointed to 
Williams’ guilt. Some investigators do not believe, however, that Williams ever 
stopped his car on that bridge or that there was a splash that night. It has been 
noted that the officer filing the report did not immediately report the splash, nor 
attempt to verify the source of the alleged splash, nor request equipment to drag 
the river and recover the alleged object. It is certainly possible that the entire inci- 
dent was fabricated to tenuously link Wayne Williams to the murders. 

Significantly, the medical examiner was initially unable to ascertain the time of 
Caters death, but he later accommodated police by placing it in accordance with 
the bridge story. No fewer than four eyewitnesses, however, came forward to 
report that they had seen Cater very much alive the day after the alleged bridge 
incident. That crucial exculpatory evidence was never introduced at trial. 
Williams’ attorneys later claimed that they were never informed of the existence 

336 • Programmed to Kill 

of the witnesses, but that claim is rather dubious considering their overall per- 
formance at trial. 

Williams was not immediately arrested following the infamous bridge inci- 
dent, but he was publicly identified as the new prime suspect, thus beginning a 
two-and-a-half-week press circus at the Williams’ family home and a trial by 
media that found Wayne guilty long before he ever set foot in a courtroom. This 
occurred despite the fact that there was a noticeable lack of evidence tying 
Williams to any of the murders. The local district attorney was keenly aware of 
that fact and was therefore not too eager to have Williams arrested. The FBI, 
however, along with federal and state officials, had no problem with pinning all 
of the murders on Williams. Local authorities were duly pressured into making 
the arrest. Completely ignored was the rather obvious fact that the suspect did 
not bear even a passing resemblance to any of the witness descriptions on file with 
the task force or to any of the composite sketches that had been created. 

Though publicly branded the ‘Atlanta Child Murderer,’ Wayne Williams was 
indicted and he faced trial for the murders of two adults: Nathaniel Cater and 
Jimmy Payne. He was never indicted for the murders of any of the children that 
were slain. Evidence of their murders was allowed into court, however. Despite 
the fact that there was never enough evidence to build a case against Williams for 
the crimes, the trial judge allowed testimony about ten other killings. As outraged 
Georgia Supreme Court Justice George Smith later noted, Williams assumed an 
“unenviable position as a defendant who, charged with two murders, was forced 
to defend himself as to 12 separate killings.” 

Besides that inflammatory testimony, which would have been disallowed in 
any legitimate courtroom, the state’s case was built almost entirely on highly sus- 
pect fiber evidence. That evidence, purportedly the strongest element of the pros- 
ecution’s presentation, had seemingly been planted to provide the state with some 
semblance of a case. It was claimed, for example, that fibers from Williams’ car 
were found on one victim who had disappeared before Williams had even pur- 
chased the car. It was also claimed that Clifford Jones’ body yielded fibers linking 
him to Williams, though all the other available evidence indicated that Jones had 
in fact been killed at a laundromat by James Brooks. 

Another rather curious fact about the trial is that one of the two men whom 
Williams was formally accused of killing, Jimmy Ray Payne, was not even initially 
considered a murder victim. The cause of death listed on his original death cer- 
tificate was ‘undetermined.’ Recognizing, however, that a homicide prosecution 
requires an actual homicide victim, the state later had the death certificate altered. 

The legitimacy of Williams’ defense attorneys was suspect before the trial even 
began on January 6, 1982. Despite the amazingly high profile of the case and the 
wholesale vilification of Williams by the local media, no request was made for a 

David McGowan • 337 

change of venue — an incomprehensible oversight for anyone truly motivated to 
protect the rights of the accused. Despite the best efforts of the state to railroad 
Williams with a largely fraudulent circumstantial case, he likely would have been 
acquitted if his defense team had not made another crucial ‘error’ by sending 
Wayne to the stand in his own defense. Williams performed well on the stand for 
the first two days, until his attorneys compounded their ‘error’ by urging their 
client to be combative. Jurors later described Williams as “his own worst enemy” 
for the performance that followed. 

On February 27, the promising young man who had once been installed as 
student council president by Andrew Young was found guilty of two counts of 
first-degree murder. He received two consecutive life sentences, as punishment 
for crimes that he clearly did not commit. There is reason to believe, however, 
that Williams was involved in the pedophile operations that formed the backdrop 
for the murders. 

By profession, Wayne Williams was a freelance photographer and a self-styled 
‘music promoter’ who spent much of his free time trolling for ‘talent’ among 
Atlanta’s black youth. He was also known to impersonate a police officer, a talent 
that had once gotten him arrested at the age of eighteen. According to reports 
that author/investigator Chet Dettlinger received from neighbors, Wayne and his 
father responded to the alleged bridge incident by performing “a major cleanup 
job around their house. They carried out boxes and carted them off in the station 
wagon. They burned negatives and photographic prints in the outdoor grill.” It 
does not require a great deal of imagination to figure out what sort of photo- 
graphs it was that Williams had been taking. 

Nevertheless, there is no evidence to suggest that Williams was responsible for 
the deaths of Nathaniel Cater or Jimmy Payne, let alone the other twenty-one 
victims whose murders were declared solved following his conviction. Even 
before the trial began, there were clear indications that the state considered all the 
killings solved. “Emergency Hot Line” posters had been taken down from phone 
booths, buses and schools; “Reward” signs had also been taken down, and extra 
police patrols had been withdrawn. The task force had been pared down to just 
six remaining members, and most of the media circus had left town. 

None of the pedophiles connected to the case were ever seriously considered as 
suspects, and certainly none were ever charged with any of the murders. There is 
little doubt though that many of the victims were involved in a large and well- 
protected child prostitution and child pornography ring. Unanswered though are 
the questions of why, and by whom, they were killed. 

Many have theorized that the Ku Klux Klan, as well as the CIA and the FBI, 
were involved in the killings. FBI documents purportedly reveal that a Klansman 
named Charles Sanders confessed to involvement in many of the killings as a way 


Programmed to Kill 

to incite a race war. While inflaming racial tensions may well have been a goal of 
the killings, however, it seems unlikely that that was the primary motivation. 
Another motive was identified by a witness named Shirley McGill, whose story 
was made public by Roy Innis, head of the Congress of Racial Equality, which 
had assisted in an independent investigation into the murders. McGill, a Miami 
cocktail waitress, claimed that the murders were perpetrated by a cult involved in 
drug trafficking, child pornography, and Satanism. 

The cult, she said, was composed of members in both Georgia and Florida. 
One of the leaders was her part-time lover, Vietnam veteran Parnell Traham. She 
claimed that she had witnessed both animal and human sacrifices and she spoke 
of “business murders” that the cult had committed. Wayne Williams was identi- 
fied as a member of the cult whom she had seen filming rituals, but not directly 
participating in the ritual homicides. McGill claimed to be a bookkeeper for the 
cult’s drug trafficking operations, which involved purchasing used cars in Miami, 
packing them with drugs, and then delivering them to Atlanta and Houston. She 
also said that the ring had police protection and that at least one funeral home 
was complicit in disposing of bodies. 

CORE’s Innis delivered this story to the press in April 1981 and he was, not 
surprisingly, greeted with skepticism and derision. With its witness under attack, 
CORE commissioned a battery of tests to gauge her veracity. McGill passed two 
polygraph examinations, repeated her story under hypnosis, and was declared 
sane by examining psychiatrists. She was also able to lead investigators to remote 
sites that had clearly been used for the performance of rituals. 

A few months before CORE’s attempt to publicize McGill’s story, police had 
received an anonymous call that led them to an abandoned home in southwest 
Atlanta. Neighbors that were questioned reported strange comings and goings at 
odd hours. Investigators reported being sickened by an odor “like decaying flesh,” 
though no bodies were found. Detectives did find children’s clothing, along with 
an ax, a hatchet, and two bibles nailed to the wall — both open to passages on 
human sacrifice. Professor Carl Raschke has written that, in the neighborhoods 
where the killings occurred, “a number of children have told police about satanic 
sex abuse in which, they insist, they were compelled to drink both animal and 
human blood.” Some months after McGill came forward, searchers stumbled 
upon a ritual site littered with the carcasses of slaughtered animals. Prominent 
features of the site included a stone altar stained with blood and a twelve-foot- 
high charred cross. 

It is not inconceivable that the killings were performed as human sacrifices. 
Some reports hold that several of the parents reported to independent investiga- 
tors that the bodies of their children had crosses carved into their foreheads and 

David McGowan • 339 

chests. It is also not inconceivable that the ritual killings were recorded as snuff 

There is another, even darker, scenario that merits brief mention here, even if 
it is almost entirely speculative. Atlanta is home to the Center for Disease Control 
(CDC), a prime suspect among conspiracy researchers as the origin of the AIDS 
virus. The Atlanta child killings began, strangely enough, just as the first cases of 
AIDS, yet to be identified, began surfacing in a few of America’s big cities. There 
is a possibility that some of the young victims, known to be involved in sexual 
activities with both adult pedophiles and other children, were deliberately 
infected with the virus to track the progress of the disease and determine its com- 
municability through sexual contact. 

Several of the unindicted pedophile suspects died from the disease in the years 
following the murders, including James Brooks in 1987, and some of the most 
suppressed details of the case hint at some type of medical testing of some of the 
victims. A law enforcement memo that surfaced during the investigation, for 
example, described the castration of some victims, and a mortician’s assistant 
reported finding the presence of syringe marks in the genitals of many of the vic- 
tims. Were these children used as human guinea pigs for the most far-reaching 
biological warfare project ever conceived by man? If so, then they would certainly 
have had to be eliminated after serving their purpose. After all, it would have 
been difficult to explain a number of black children dropping dead from an 
‘emerging’ virus thought at the time to be affecting only white gay males. 

It could be that the young victims were doomed even had they not met with 
violent deaths. And it could be that their deaths were just the opening salvo of a 
‘final solution’ that is now quietly killing millions. 

“I happen to believe that the numbers [of child prostitutes] are 
far greater than we can imagine... I don’t have a doubt in my 
mind that were we to adequately police this problem that we 
would find that it is far more pervasive than any of us ever have 
imagined. ” 

— Atlanta Mayor Bill Campbell, commenting on 
the prevalence of child exploitation in his city, 

NPR News Morning Edition, May 9, 2001 

Chapter 22 

Role Models 

“No habit is more easily acquired than mard-savoring; eat one, 
delicious, eat another, no two taste alike, but all are subtle and 
the effect is somewhat that of an olive. ” 

— Donatien Alphonse Francois, describing 
the joys of, quite literally, eating shit 

Long before Marc Dutroux, there was Donatien Alphonse Francois. 

Francois was born into an atmosphere of power and privilege; his mother was 
a relative of the ruling administration and his father served as an ambassador. 
When Donatien was just two years old, he was sent to live with his paternal 
grandmother and her five daughters in what has been described as a sexually 
promiscuous atmosphere. The women reportedly lavished attention on the boy, 
though it is debatable just what sort of attention it was. 

After two years there, Donatien was sent to live with his father’s brother, who 
was ostensibly a man of the cloth. Francois’ uncle was rather notorious for fre- 
quently engaging in decadent sex, with numerous male and female partners. He 
also had a considerable collection of pornographic literature. The young boy 
spent a considerable amount of time reading through his uncle’s collection. After 
six years there, he was uprooted once again and sent to live at a religious prep 
school. At the school, he was subjected to harsh and frequent punishment from 
his caretakers, including being frequently sodomized. The young man was also 
taught the importance of confessing his sins as the means to identify and elimi- 
nate personal weaknesses. 

Following his years at the prep school, Donatien was enrolled in a military 
academy, after which he entered into military service. Due to his family connec- 
tions, he entered as a lieutenant and was soon placed in an elite, Special Forces 
unit. He left the military after eight years holding the rank of captain, and at that 
time married a woman from a socially prominent family. She would serve as his 


David McGowan • 341 

accomplice in many of his subsequent crimes, and his new mother-in-law would 
actively work to free him from various legal entanglements. 

His first arrest came some ten days after a violent sexual assault on a woman. 
He is said to have raped her with a religious icon, and likely to have whipped her 
as well. For this, he served less than three weeks in jail. Shortly thereafter, he went 
to live in a secluded, fortified family estate that had at one time served as a jail. 
Within a year or two of his arrival, he had built a secret room. He also hosted fre- 
quent parties that were notable for featuring what were euphemistically dubbed 
‘orgies.’ These parties were attended by various members of the ruling elite and 
the clergy, including Donatien’s aforementioned uncle. 

Within a few years of taking up residence in the estate, Francois was once 
again arrested. Once again he had violently assaulted a young woman, on Easter 
Sunday, forcing her to strip and then binding her, sexually assaulting her and 
whipping her with a cat-o-nine-tails. He then left her locked up, but she was able 
to escape out a window. She was found running from the estate half-naked and 
covered in her own blood. For that assault, Francois served just four months 
before being once again released. 

Shortly thereafter, Donatien rejoined the military, elevated to the rank of 
colonel despite his criminal past. It was not long before he once again ran afoul of 
the law. Francois and a male accomplice reportedly engaged the services of four 
prostitutes, as well as the services of each other. There was, of course, the requisite 
whipping involved. Following the encounter, the women became violently ill and 
grew convinced that they had been poisoned. When police went to arrest 
Donatien and his accomplice, they found that someone had tipped them off to 
the impending arrest and the men had fled. By the end of the year, however, 
Donatien was in custody, and he once again served prison time. 

He ‘escaped,’ however, after less than five months, curiously leaving behind a 
note claiming full credit for engineering the escape and explicitly clearing his cap- 
tors of any culpability. Strangely enough, the escape occurred on, of all days, 
April 30: Walpurgisnacht. 

In short order, Francois was back at the family estate, with authorities making 
occasional raids on the compound in an alleged attempt to arrest the escaped 
convict. His activities, meanwhile, grew increasingly disturbing. Shortly after his 
return, he began staging what some accounts refer to euphemistically as extended 
‘orgies.’ That hardly seems a fair description of what occurred, however, since 
some of the ‘participants’ were young boys and girls being held at the estate, many 
of whom had been abducted. The victims were abused continuously for several 
weeks. Assisted by his wife and at least three other adults, Francois inflicted all 
manner of torture and sexual abuse on the victims. Whipping was a preferred 
means of torture, along with burning with heated implements. Donatien also had 

342 • Programmed to Kill 

a fondness for sodomizing his victims, and for forcing them to eat excrement, 
which he himself indulged in as well. 

Despite the gravity of his crimes, legal action was not immediately taken. It 
was several months before police finally raided the estate, in search of the escaped 
convict, kidnapper, torturer, rapist, and pedophile. Though the suspect was 
reportedly hiding in the estate, his pursuers failed to locate him. A little more 
than a year later, he was still free and was back at the property, accompanied by a 
number of young women and girls procured for him by a member of the clergy. 
A few months later, he was finally arrested and imprisoned, but he quickly 
escaped once again, only to be recaptured a month later. Following his recapture, 
he remained in prison for thirteen years, during which time he wrote prolifically 
of his fascination with torture, copraphilia, pedophilia, and various other deprav- 

Amazingly enough, just two years after his release he held political office. A 
decade later, he was confined to a mental institution, where he spent the last 
twelve years of his life once again writing of rape, torture and murder. After his 
death at the age of seventy-four, his oldest son burned most of his writings, 
though some survived. 

Donatien’s full regal title was Donatien Alphonse Francois, Comte de Sade, 
but he is better known as the Marquis de Sade. His crimes were committed over 
two hundred years ago, around the time that America was declaring its inde- 
pendence. Yet even as these words are being written, he is being revived and reha- 
bilitated on Americas movie screens. The Encyclopaedia Britannica provides the 
following assessment of the Marquis: “de Sade is to some an incarnation of 
absolute evil who advocates the unleashing of instincts even to the point of crime. 
Others have looked upon him as a champion of total liberation through the satis- 
faction of his desires in all forms.” 

Virtually those same words have been used to eulogize such other notorious 
figures as Aleister Crowley and Anton LaVey, both of whose later musings echoed 
the writings of the Marquis. 

Perhaps the most cogent analysis of those writings was provided by Alex 
Steiner, a contributor to the World Socialist Web Site. Steiner noted that the “clear- 
est formulation of de Sade’s philosophy appears in his Philosophy in the Bedroom 
[which] features a philosophical interlude.” Within that interlude lies a “philo- 
sophical defense, argued in the language of the Enlightenment, but not of course, 
in the spirit of the Enlightenment, that presents a justification for incest, rape, 
murder and cruelty.” That interlude is said to have been published separately in 
1848, under the title “Yet Another Effort, Frenchmen, If You Would Become 
Republicans.” It was intended for distribution as a political manifesto. Among 
other things, the tract contained a “defense of murder as a legitimate civil activity 

David McGowan • 343 

used to weed out the weaker members of society.” Steiner also noted that writer 
and film director Pier Paolo Pasolini 49 saw “in de Sade the antecedents of fas- 
cism.” One of the defining characteristics of de Sade’s philosophy was his “view of 
society as composed of atomistic individuals potentially engaged in a war of all 
against all,” which is, of course, precisely the direction in which Western society 
is being driven. 

Perhaps the most revealing passage in Steiner’s piece reads as follows: “De 
Sade’s state of nature is a veritable hell on earth. Perhaps de Sade’s alleged 
Satanism is an appropriate metaphor of his philosophy.” It could be reasonably 
argued that Satanism was more than just a metaphor of de Sade’s philosophy; it 
was his philosophy. As Steiner notes, “De Sade is unwilling to allow any restraints 
on his ability to exploit, mistreat and even destroy other human beings in the 
pursuit of pleasure.” That same notion is now the mantra of modern Satanists, 
expressed by Crowley and others as: “Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the 

“Sade. . . only had one occupation in his long life which really 
absorbed him — that of enumerating to the point of exhaustion 
the possibilities of destroying human life, of destroying them and 
of enjoying the thought of their death and suffering. ” 

— French writer Georges Bataille 

More than three centuries before the birth of de Sade, another Frenchman was 
providing a blueprint for the Marquis to later follow. Born in 1406 in the ‘Black 
Tower’ of his family’s castle at Champtoce, Gilles de Rais was the eldest son of 
one of the wealthiest men in all of France, Guy de Rais. Gilles’ mother was Marie 
d’Craon, the daughter of Jean d’Craon, who was also one of the wealthiest and 
most politically powerful men in the country. 

In 1415, Guy de Rais was reportedly gored to death by a boar while hunting. 
That same year, Gilles mother died as well, as did her brother, Amaury d’Craon, 

49 Strangely enough, Pasolini was killed in an apparent ritual murder in 1975. The slain 
leftist was discovered just two days after Flalloween with his head bludgeoned beyond 
recognition. UK author Janet Street-Porter noted that “only a few weeks before his 
death he had written a series of newspaper articles attacking his compatriots, saying 
they had become obsessed with crime and had abandoned genuine values for those of 
the bourgeois consumer society.” 

344 • Programmed to Kill 

who was slain in the legendary battle at Agincourt. As Amaury had been Jean 
d’Craon’s only son, the rapid succession of deaths left young Gilles de Rais as the 
sole heir to both the de Rais and the d’Craon family fortunes. In 1420, Gilles kid- 
napped and then married his cousin, Catherine de Thouars, whose family had 
vast land holdings adjacent to the properties owned by the de Rais and d’Craon 
families. At just sixteen years of age, Gilles de Rais stood poised to become the 
wealthiest man in France — by some accounts, possibly the richest man in ail of 

Following the death of his parents, Gilles was raised by his grandfather, Jean 
d’Craon, and was trained as a knight and a soldier. By 1429, he had been named 
the Marshal of France, making him the highest-ranking military figure in the 
country — roughly equivalent to the post today of Secretary of Defense. Serving 
alongside of him was someone who is now regarded as the patron saint of France: 
Joan of Arc. Joan was said to hear voices in her head, not unlike numerous others 
whose stories have filled the pages of this book. She also reportedly had ‘visions,’ 
which she apparently attributed to divine guidance. 

Traveling with a 10,000-man army and accompanied by her general and 
adviser, Gilles de Rais, Joan was credited with saving France by lifting the siege of 
Orleans, a crucial battle in the Hundred Years War between France and England. 
Shortly after that, Gilles was given the honor of personally crowning France’s new 
king, Charles VIE Joan of Arc sat at the new king’s side during the coronation. 
Joan’s fortunes turned quickly, however; she was captured by the Duke of 
Burgundy the next year and accused by the Brits of heresy and sorcery. She was 
burned at the stake on May 30, 1431. 5° The next year, de Rais ended his public 
career and retired, along with his entourage, to a family castle at Machecoul, 
which was just one of five lavish country estates that Gill